Miriam Redrado

Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre, Spain

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Publications (15)67.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background:TMPRSS4 is a membrane-anchored protease involved in cell migration and invasion in different cancer types including lung cancer. TMPRSS4 expression is increased in NSCLC and its inhibition through shRNA reduces lung metastasis. However, molecular mechanisms leading to the protumorigenic regulation of TMPRSS4 in lung cancer are unknown.Methods:miR-205 was identified as an overexpressed gene upon TMPRSS4 downregulation through microarray analysis. Cell migration and invasion assays and in vivo lung primary tumour and metastasis models were used for functional analysis of miR-205 overexpression in H2170 and H441 cell lines. Luciferase assays were used to identify a new miR-205 direct target in NSCLC.Results:miR-205 overexpression promoted an epithelial phenotype with increased E-cadherin and reduced fibronectin. Furthermore, miR-205 expression caused a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibition of cell growth, migration, attachment to fibronectin, primary tumour growth and metastasis formation in vivo. Integrin α5 (a proinvasive protein) was identified as a new miR-205 direct target in NSCLC. Integrin α5 downregulation in lung cancer cells resulted in complete abrogation of cell migration, a decreased capacity to adhere to fibronectin and reduced in vivo tumour growth, compared with control cells. TMPRSS4 silencing resulted in a concomitant reduction of integrin α5 levels.Conclusion:We have demonstrated for the first time a new molecular pathway that connects TMPRSS4 and integrin α5 through miR-205 to regulate cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Our results will help designing new therapeutic strategies to inhibit this novel pathway in NSCLC.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 16 January 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.761 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 01/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Id-1 is a member of the helix-loop-helix family of proteins that regulates the activity of transcription factors to suppress cellular differentiation and to promote cell growth. Overexpression of Id-1 in tumor cells correlates with increased malignancy and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Id-1B is an isoform generated by alternative splicing that differs from the classical Id-1 in the 13-C-terminal amino acids, whose function is at present unknown. We have studied the role of Id-1B in cancer and its expression in healthy/malignant lung tissues. Overexpression of Id-1B in A549 lung and PC3 prostate cancer cells reduced anchorage-dependent and independent proliferation and clonogenic potential. Moreover, it increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and p27 levels, while reduced phospho-Erk and cyclin A levels. Through microarray analysis, we identified genes involved in cell growth and proliferation that are specifically deregulated as a consequence of Id-1B overexpression, including IGF2, BMP4, Id2, GATA3, EREG and AREG. Id-1B overexpressing cells that were treated with 4Gy irradiation dose were significantly less resistant to cell death. In vivo assays demonstrated that tumors with high Id-1B levels exhibited less growth (p<0.01), metabolic activity (glucose uptake) and angiogenesis (p<0.05) compared to tumors with low Id-1B expression; mice survival was significantly extended (p<0.05). Quantification by qRT-PCR revealed that expression of Id-1B was significantly lower (p<0.01) in human lung tumors compared to their matched non-malignant counterparts. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Id-1B decreases the malignancy of lung and prostate cancer cells, sensitizes them to radiotherapy-induced cell death, and counteracts the pro-tumorigenic role of the classical form of Id-1.
    Current Molecular Medicine 12/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New mouse models with specific drivers of genetic alterations are needed for preclinical studies. Herein, we created and characterized at the genetic level a new syngeneic model for lung cancer and metastasis in Balb-c mice. Tumor cell lines were obtained from a silica-mediated airway chronic inflammation that promotes tumorigenesis when combined with low doses of N-nitrosodimethylamine, a tobacco smoke carcinogen. Orthotopic transplantation of these cells induced lung adenocarcinomas, and their intracardiac injection led to prominent colonization of various organs (bone, lung, liver and brain). Driver gene alterations included a mutation in the codon 12 of KRAS (G-A transition), accompanied by a homozygous deletion of the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene. The mutant form of WWOX lacked exons 5-8 and displayed reduced protein expression level and activity. WWOX gene restoration decreased the in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity, confirming the tumor suppressor function of this gene in this particular model. Interestingly, we found that cells displayed remarkable sphere formation ability with expression of specific lung cancer stem cell markers. Study of non-small-cell lung cancer patient cohorts demonstrated a deletion of WWOX in 30% of cases, with significant reduction in protein levels as compared to normal tissues. Overall, our new syngeneic mouse model provides a most valuable tool to study lung cancer metastasis in balb-c mice background and highlights the importance of WWOX deletion in lung carcinogenesis.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the prostate-specific antigen era, potentially indolent prostate tumors are radically treated, causing overtreatment. Molecular prognostic factors might differentiate indolent from aggressive tumors, allowing avoidance of unnecessary treatment. Fifty-two prostate cancer patients (20 organ-confined and 32 metastatic) were selected. All formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded primary biopsies and matched metastases of 15 of them were evaluated for tumor and endothelial cell Id1 protein expression. Seventy-nine additional patients with organ-confined prostate cancer were selected for Id1 mRNA in silico analysis. Among metastatic cancer subjects, 48% of primary tumors and 38% of metastases showed Id1 tumor cell expression, and 79% of primary tumors and 81% of metastases showed endothelial immunoreactivity. In the organ-confined group none of them showed Id1 protein tumor cell expression and 50% displayed endothelial expression. In the metastatic patients group, lower levels of Id1 protein predicted a nonsignificant longer overall survival (13 months vs. 7 months; P = .79). In the in silico analysis, however, lower levels of Id1 mRNA predicted a longer disease-free survival (61 months vs. not-reached; P = .018) and the hazard ratio for progression was 0.451 (P = .022) in favor of patients showing lower levels. In our cohort, it seems to be a differential epithelial expression of Id1 protein according to the prognostic features (metastatic/poor prognosis vs. organ-confined/good prognosis). In localized tumors treated with radical prostatectomy, higher Id1 mRNA expression levels might predict a higher hazard ratio for progression and a shorter disease-free survival. Further validation of these results in larger prospective series is warranted.
    Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 10/2013; · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitor of Differentiation-1 (Id1) plays a role in cell proliferation, acquisition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) features and angiogenesis. Id1 was shown to be expressed in some tumor types, mainly in advanced dedifferentiated stages. However, recent studies using a validated and highly specific monoclonal antibody against Id1 have challenged many of the results obtained by immunohistochemistry. The goal of our work was to perform a thorough analysis of Id1 expression in mouse embryos and adult tissues, as well as healthy and malignant mouse and human samples using this validated antibody (Perk et al., 2006). Our results show that Id1 was highly expressed in the oropharyngeal cavity, lung, cartilage and skin of E14 and E15 mouse embryos, but expression was progressively reduced in more developed embryos. Immunostaining only remained in epithelial cells of the gut and uterus of adult mice. Mammary MMTV-Myc and MMTV-Myc/VEGF transgenic mouse tumors, and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung induced by N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) were highly positive for Id1, unlike their respective healthy counterparts. Id1 immunostaining in a human tissue microarray (TMA) revealed strong expression in cancers of the oral cavity, bladder and cervix. Some tumor specimens of esophagus, thyroid and breast were also strongly positive. Our results suggest that Id1 is an oncofetal protein highly expressed in particular tumor types that should be reanalyzed in future studies using large cohorts of patients to reassess its diagnostic/prognostic value. Moreover, MMTV-Myc- and NTCU-induced tumors could serve as appropriate mouse models to study Id1 functions in breast and lung cancer, respectively.
    Histology and histopathology 04/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation and recurrence after chemotherapy. Targeting CSCs and non-CSCs with specific compounds may be an effective approach to reduce lung cancer growth and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salinomycin, a selective inhibitor of CSCs, with or without combination with paclitaxel, in a metastatic model. To evaluate the effect of these drugs in metastasis and tumor microenvironment we took advantage of the immunocompetent and highly metastatic LLC mouse model. Aldefluor assays were used to analyze the ALDH+/- populations in murine LLC and human H460 and H1299 lung cancer cells. Salinomycin reduced the proportion of ALDH+ CSCs in LLC cells, whereas paclitaxel increased such population. The same effect was observed for the H460 and H1299 cell lines. Salinomycin reduced the tumorsphere formation capacity of LLC by more than 7-fold, but paclitaxel showed no effect. In in vivo experiments, paclitaxel reduced primary tumor volume but increased the number of metastatic nodules (p<0.05), whereas salinomycin had no effect on primary tumors but reduced lung metastasis (p<0.05). Combination of both drugs did not improve the effect of single therapies. ALDH1A1, SOX2, CXCR4 and SDF-1 mRNA levels were higher in metastatic lesions than in primary tumors, and were significantly elevated in both locations by paclitaxel treatment. On the contrary, such levels were reduced (or in some cases did not change) when mice were administered with salinomycin. The number of F4/80+ and CD11b+ cells was also reduced upon administration of both drugs, but particularly in metastasis. These results show that salinomycin targets ALDH+ lung CSCs, which has important therapeutic effects in vivo by reducing metastatic lesions. In contrast, paclitaxel (although reducing primary tumor growth) promotes the selection of ALDH+ cells that likely modify the lung microenvironment to foster metastasis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e79798. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) frequently metastasizes to the liver, a phenomenon that involves the participation of Transforming-Growth-Factor-β(1) (TGFβ(1)). Blockade of the protumorigenic effects elicited by TGFβ(1) in advanced CRC could attenuate liver metastasis. We aimed in the present study to assess the antimetastatic effect of TGFβ(1)-blocking peptides P17 and P144, and to study mechanisms responsible for this activity in a mouse model. Colon adenocarcinoma cells expressing luciferase were pretreated with TGFβ(1) (Mc38-luc(TGF)β(1) cells), injected into the spleen of mice and monitored for tumor development. TGFβ(1) increased primary tumor growth and liver metastasis, whereas systemic treatment of mice with either P17 or P144 significantly blocked tumor burden (p<0.01). In metastatic nodules, mitotic/apoptotic ratio, mesenchymal traits and angiogenesis (evaluated by CD-31, as well as circulating endothelial and progenitor cells) induced by TGFβ(1) were consistently reduced following injection of peptides. In vitro experiments revealed a direct effect of TGFβ(1) in Mc38 cells, which resulted in activation of p-Smad2, p-Smad3 and p-Smad1/5/8, and increased invasion and transendothelial migration, whereas blockade of TGFβ(1)-signaling reverted these features. Because TGFβ(1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been suggested to induce a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype, we analyzed the ability of this cytokine to induce tumorsphere formation and to induce expression of CSC markers. In TGFβ(1)-treated cells, tumorspheres were enriched in CD44 and SOX2, which were diminished in the presence of P17. Our data provide a preclinical rationale to evaluate P17 and P144 as potential therapeutic options for the treatment of metastatic CRC.
    Experimental Cell Research 11/2012; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common solid tumor and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Currently available chemotherapeutic options are not curative due in part to tumor resistance to conventional therapies. We generated orthotopic HCC mouse models in immunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL2rγ null mice by injection of human alpha-feto protein (hAFP)- and/or luciferase-expressing HCC cell lines and primary cells from patients, where tumor growth and spread can be accurately monitored in a non-invasive way. In this model, low-dose metronomic administration of cyclophosphamide (LDM-CTX) caused complete regression of the tumor mass. A significant increase in survival (P<0.0001), reduced aberrant angiogenesis and hyperproliferation, and decrease in the number of circulating tumor cells were found in LDM-CTX-treated animals, in comparison with untreated mice. Co-administration of LDM-CTX with anti-VEGF therapy further improved the therapeutic efficacy. However, the presence of residual circulating hAFP levels suggested that some tumor cells were still present in livers of treated mice. Immunohistochemistry revealed that those cells had a hAFP+/CD13+/PCNA- phenotype, suggesting that they were dormant cancer stem cells (CSC). Indeed, discontinuation of therapy resulted in tumor regrowth. Moreover, in-vitro LDM-CTX treatment reduced hepatosphere formation in both number and size, and the resulting spheres were enriched in CD13+ cells indicating that these cells were particularly resistant to therapy. Co-treatment of the CD13-targeting drug, bestatin, with LDM-CTX leads to slower tumor growth and a decreased tumor volume. Therefore, combining a CD13 inhibitor, which targets the CSC-like population, with LDM-CTX chemotherapy may be used to eradicate minimal residual disease and improve the treatment of liver cancer.
    Laboratory Investigation 04/2012; 92(7):952-66. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methylimidoselenocarbamates have previously proven to display potent antitumor activities. In the present study we show that these compounds act as multikinase inhibitors. We found that the most effective compound, quinoline imidoselenocarbamate EI201, inhibits the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, which is persistently activated and contributes to malignant progression in various cancers. EI201 blocked the phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR and several of its downstream regulators (p70S6K and 4E-BP1) and ERK1/2 in PC-3, HT-29 and MCF-7 cells in vitro, inducing both autophagy and apoptosis. EI201 also contributes to the loss of maintenance of the selfrenewal and tumorigenic capacity of cancer stem cells (CSCs). 0.1 μmol/L EI201 triggered a reduction in size and number of tumorspheres in PC-3, HT-29 and MCF-7 cells and 4 μmol/L induced the elimination of almost all the tumorspheres in the three studied cell lines. In addition, EI201 suppressed almost 80% prostate tumor growth in vivo (p < 0.01) compared to controls at a relatively low dose (10 mg/kg) in a mouse xenograft model. There was a significant decrease in the subcutaneous primary tumor [18F]-FDG uptake (76.5% reduction, p < 0.05) and in the total tumor burden (76.8% reduction, p < 0.05) after EI201 treatment compared to vehicle control, without causing toxicity in mice. Taken together, our results support further development of EI201 as a novel multi-kinase inhibitor that may be useful against cancers with aberrant upregulation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 03/2012; 19(18):3031-43. · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-four patients with metastatic cancer received two cycles of four daily immunizations with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). DC were incubated with preheated autologous tumor lysate and subsequently with IFN-α, TNF-α, and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid to attain type 1 maturation. One DC dose was delivered intranodally, under ultrasound control, and the rest intradermally in the opposite thigh. Cyclophosphamide (day -7), GM-CSF (days 1-4), and pegIFN alpha-2a (days 1 and 8) completed each treatment cycle. Pretreatment with cyclophosphamide decreased regulatory T cells to levels observed in healthy subjects both in terms of percentage and in absolute counts in peripheral blood. Treatment induced sustained elevations of IL-12 in serum that correlated with the output of IL-12p70 from cultured DC from each individual. NK activity in peripheral blood was increased and also correlated with the serum concentration of IL-12p70 in each patient. Circulating endothelial cells decreased in 17 of 18 patients, and circulating tumor cells markedly dropped in 6 of 19 cases. IFN-γ-ELISPOT responses to DC plus tumor lysate were observed in 4 of 11 evaluated cases. Tracing DC migration with [(111)In] scintigraphy showed that intranodal injections reached deeper lymphatic chains in 61% of patients, whereas with intradermal injections a small fraction of injected DC was almost constantly shown to reach draining inguinal lymph nodes. Five patients experienced disease stabilization, but no objective responses were documented. This combinatorial immunotherapy strategy is safe and feasible, and its immunobiological effects suggest potential activity in patients with minimal residual disease. A randomized trial exploring this hypothesis is currently ongoing.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2011; 187(11):6130-42. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blastic natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma/blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BNKL) is a rare and aggressive neoplasia characterized by infiltration of blast CD4(+)/CD56(+) cells in the skin, the bone marrow, and peripheral blood. Currently, more efforts are required to better define molecular and biological mechanisms associated with this pathology. To the best of our knowledge, no mouse model recapitulated human BNKL so far. Primary bone marrow cells from a BNKL patient were injected in nonobese diabetes/severe combined immunodeficient interleukin (IL) 2rγ(-/-) mice with the intent to generate the first BNKL orthotopic mouse model. Moreover, because of the lack of efficient treatments for BNKL, we treated mice with lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic drug. We generated in mice a fatal disease resembling human BNKL. After lenalidomide treatment, we observed a significant reduction in the number of peripheral blood, bone marrow, and spleen BNKL cells. Tumor reduction parallels with a significant decrease in the number of circulating endothelial and progenitor cells and CD31(+) murine endothelial cells. In mice treated with lenalidomide, BNKL levels of active caspase-3 were significantly augmented, thus showing proapoptotic and cytotoxic effects of this drug in vivo. An opposite result was found for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a proliferation marker. Our BNKL model might better define the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this disease, and lenalidomide might be considered for the future therapy of BNKL patients.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2011; 17(19):6163-73. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id1) levels have been found in some tumor types. We aimed to study Id1 levels and their prognostic impact in a large series of stages I to IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Experiments in cell lines and cells derived from malignant pleural effusions (MPE) were also carried out. A total of 346 NSCLC samples (three different cohorts), including 65 matched nonmalignant tissues, were evaluated for Id1 expression by using immunohistochemistry. Additional data from a fourth cohort including 111 patients were obtained for Id1 mRNA expression analysis by using publicly available microarrays. In vitro proliferation assays were conducted to characterize the impact of Id1 on growth and treatment sensitivity. Significantly higher Id1 protein levels were found in tumors compared with normal tissues (P < 0.001) and in squamous carcinomas compared with adenocarcinomas (P < 0.001). In radically treated stages I to III patients and stage IV patients treated with chemotherapy, higher Id1 levels were associated with a shorter disease-free survival and overall survival in adenocarcinoma patients in a log-rank test. A Cox model confirmed the independent prognostic value of Id1 levels for both stages I to III and stage IV patients. In silico analysis confirmed a correlation between higher Id1 mRNA levels and poor prognosis for adenocarcinoma subjects. In vitro Id1 silencing in radio/chemotherapy-resistant adenocarcinoma cells from MPEs restored sensitivity to both therapies. In our series, Id1 levels showed an independent prognostic value in patients with adenocarcinoma, regardless of the stage. Id1 silencing may sensitize adenocarcinoma cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2011; 17(12):4155-66. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a role in prostate cancer (PrCa) initiation and development. Selenoprotein-P (SepP; a protein involved in antioxidant defence) mRNA levels are down-regulated in PrCa. The main goal of our study was to assess whether SepP protects prostate cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) in prostate carcinogenesis. Modification of SepP levels and ROS conditions in C3(1)/Tag-derived cell lines representing prostate epithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions (Pr-111, with high SepP expression); and invasive tumors (Pr-14, with very low SepP expression). Both Pr-111 and Pr-14 cells express ApoER2 (SepP receptor), which suggests that they may uptake SepP. Pr-14 cells had much higher ROS levels than Pr-111 cells and were highly sensitive to H(2)O(2)-mediated cytotoxicity. When SepP mRNA levels were knocked down with siRNAs in Pr-111 cells, a significant increase in ROS and cell growth inhibition upon H(2)O(2) exposure was found. Subsequent administration of purified SepP in the culture medium of these cells was able to rescue the original phenotype. Similarly, administration of SepP to Pr-14 cells was able to reduce ROS concentrations. Administration of flutamide decreased SepP mRNA levels whereas dihydrotestosterone or synthetic androgens induced SepP expression, indicating the importance of androgens for SepP expression. Immunohistochemical analysis using a PrCa tissue microarray further revealed that SepP protein was reduced in 60.8% prostate tumors compared to benign prostates. Levels of SepP in prostate cells determine basal ROS levels and sensitivity to H(2)O(2)-induced cytotoxicity. Deregulation of SepP during prostate carcinogenesis may increase free radicals, thus promoting tumor development and de-differentiation.
    The Prostate 06/2011; 71(8):824-34. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is strong evidence demonstrating that activation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) leads to tumor growth, progression, invasion and metastasis. Erlotinib and gefitinib, two EGFR-targeted agents, have been shown to be relevant drugs for lung cancer treatment. Recent studies demonstrate that lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of EGFR and HER-2 receptors, is clinically effective against HER-2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. In this report, we investigated the activity of lapatinib against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We selected the lung cancer cell line A549, which harbors genomic amplification of EGFR and HER-2. Proliferation, cell cycle analysis, clonogenic assays, and signaling cascade analyses (by western blot) were performed in vitro. In vivo experiments with A549 cells xenotransplanted into nude mice treated with lapatinib (with or without radiotherapy) were also carried out. Lapatinib dramatically reduced cell proliferation (P < 0.0001), DNA synthesis (P < 0.006), and colony formation capacity (P < 0.0001) in A549 cells in vitro. Furthermore, lapatinib induced G1 cell cycle arrest (P < 0.0001) and apoptotic cell death (P < 0.0006) and reduced cyclin A and B1 levels, which are regulators of S and G2/M cell cycle stages, respectively. Stimulation of apoptosis in lapatinib-treated A549 cells was correlated with increased cleaved PARP, active caspase-3, and proapoptotic Bak-1 levels, and reduction in the antiapoptotic IAP-2 and Bcl-xL protein levels. We also demonstrate that lapatinib altered EGFR/HER-2 signaling pathways reducing p-EGFR, p-HER-2, p-ERK1/2, p-AKT, c-Myc and PCNA levels. In vivo experiments revealed that A549 tumor-bearing mice treated with lapatinib had significantly less active tumors (as assessed by PET analysis) (P < 0.04) and smaller in size than controls. In addition, tumors from lapatinib-treated mice showed a dramatic reduction in angiogenesis (P < 0.0001). Overall, these data suggest that lapatinib may be a clinically useful agent for the treatment of lung cancer.
    BMC Cancer 01/2010; 10:188. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy (RT) is a common treatment for localised prostate cancer, but can cause important side effects. The therapeutic efficacy of RT can be enhanced by pharmacological compounds that target specific pathways involved in cell survival. This would elicit a similar therapeutic response using lower doses of RT and, in turn, reducing side effects. This study describes the antitumour activity of the novel Akt inhibitor 8-(1-Hydroxy-ethyl)-2-methoxy-3-(4-methoxy-benzyloxy)-benzo[c]chromen-6-one (Palomid 529 or P529) as well as its ability to decrease radiation-activated phospho-Akt (p-Akt) signalling in a prostate cancer model. P529 showed a potent antiproliferative activity in the NCI-60 cell lines panel, with growth inhibitory 50 (GI50) <35 microM. In addition, P529 significantly enhanced the antiproliferative effect of radiation in prostate cancer cells (PC-3). Analysis of signalling pathways targeted by P529 exhibited a decrease in p-Akt, VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-9, and Id-1 levels after radiation treatment. Moreover, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was also reduced. Treatment of PC-3 tumour-bearing mice with 20 mg kg(-1) P529 or 6 Gy radiation dose decreased tumour size by 42.9 and 53%, respectively. Combination of both treatments resulted in 77.4% tumour shrinkage. Decreased tumour growth was due to reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis (as assessed by PCNA and caspase-3 immunostaining). Our results show the antitumour efficacy of P529 alone, and as a radiosensitiser, and suggest that this compound could be used in the future to treat human prostate cancer.
    British Journal of Cancer 03/2009; 100(6):932-40. · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

88 Citations
67.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2013
    • Universidad de Navarra
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Department of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry
      Pamplona, Navarre, Spain
  • 2012
    • IEO - Istituto Europeo di Oncologia
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy