Kuang-Fei Lin

East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (19)28.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A moderately halophilic bacterial enrichment was able to degrade 120 mg/L of phenol in the presence of 1–2 M of NaCl within 3 d or 2.5–3 M of NaCl within 6 d. The optimal degradation was achieved at 1.5 M of NaCl and 350 mg/L of phenol. PCR-DGGE profile of the enrichment showed that the Acidobacterium sp. and Chloroflexus sp. dominated the community. The phenol-biodegradation pathways consisted of an initial oxidative attack by phenol hydroxylase, and subsequent ring fission by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy profiles showed that ectoine and hydroxyectoine were the main compatible solutes to adjust the bacterial osmotic pressure. This study provides further information on the understanding of phenol-degradation over a wide range of salinity and remediation of phenol as a pollutant in the environment.
    International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 10/2014; 94:115–120. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Trichloroethylene (TCE) and phenol were often found together as cocontaminants in the groundwater of industrial contaminated sites. An effective method to remove TCE was aerobic biodegradation by co-metabolism using phenol as growth substrates. However, the aerobic biodegradation process was easily limited by low concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater, and DO was difficultly improved by air blast technique. This study enriched a bacterial community using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the sole oxygen source to aerobically degrade TCE by co-metabolism with phenol in groundwater. The enriched cultures were acclimatized to 2-8 mM H2O2 which induced catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) to decompose H2O2 to release O2 and reduce the toxicity. The bacterial community could degrade 120 mg/L TCE within 12 d by using 8 mM H2O2 as the optimum concentration, and the TCE degradation efficiency reached up to 80.6%. 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing showed that Bordetella, Stenotrophomonas sp., Sinorhizobium sp., Variovorax sp. and Sphingobium sp. were the dominant species in the enrichments, which were clustered in three phyla: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction detection proved that phenol hydroxylase (Lph) gene was involved in the co-metabolic degradation of phenol and TCE, which indicated that hydroxylase might catalyzed the epoxidation of TCE to forming the unstable molecule TCE-epoxide. The findings are significant for understanding the mechanism of biodegradation TCE and phenol cocontamination and helpful for the potential applications of an aerobic bioremediation in situ the contaminated sites.
    Environmental technology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were used to degrade phenol compounds efficiently; however, most investigations on such reactors have focused on fresh rather than saline wastewaters, even though saline effluents containing phenolic compounds are generated by many industries. This study assessed the performance of the aerobic SBR process in the removal of phenol as the sole substrate under conditions of high salinity. A flexible concentration of phenol could be completely degraded in SBR process, varied from 400 mg l−1 to 1200 mg l−1 at the existing of 80 g l−1 NaCl. The value of specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) suggested that the exiting bacteria could adapt to the phenol and salt conditions well at each stage. Cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA showed that the acclimated active sludge included two dominant genera: Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes. PCR detection of the functional genes suggested that phenol hydroxylase (Lph), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) were active in the phenol-degradation process. Real-time PCR showed that the phenol-degrading bacteria comprised 63.3% of the total bacterial community.
    International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 09/2014; 93:138–144. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The concentration and distribution of PBDEs in liver, heart, brain, egg and muscle tissues of market farmed fish and wild river fish (crucian carp) from Taizhou, which is a large e-waste recycling site in China, were quantitatively measured using gas chromatography -negative chemical ion tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS). The dietary intake of PBDEs via the consumption of fish by the population of this region was also estimated. The results showed that the concentrations of PBDEs in the muscle of river fish samples near the e-waste recycling site were significantly higher than those in the market farmed fish without obviously polluted sources of PBDEs. The distribution of PBDEs in various tissues was not even, and the highest and lowest mean concentrations of total PBDEs ( sigma PBDEs) were 18.82 ng x g(-1) and 1.97 ng x g(-1) (wet weight), in heart and egg tissues, respectively. A similar PBDE congener profiles in different tissues of farmed fish were found. Among PBDE congeners, BDE-47 was predominant in various tissues accounting for above 50% of the total PBDEs, and followed by BDE-183 (about 20%), BDE-99 and BDE-153. While different profiles of PBDEs in muscle tissues between wild fish in river and market farmed fish were observed, that BDE-47, -153 and -99 were dominant for the former type. These facts suggested primitive e-waste recycling behavior to be a pollution source of high levels of PBDEs in wild fish. The average estimated daily intake of PBDEs via river fish consumption by local residents near the e-waste recycling site in Taizhou was approximately 29.0 ng, slightly higher than that in other regions.
    08/2014; 35(8):3175-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorinated hydrocarbons are the most common organic pollutants in groundwater systems worldwide. In this study, we developed bio-beads with immobilized anaerobic bacteria, zero-valent iron (ZVI), and activated carbon (AC) powder and evaluated their efficacy in removing 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) from groundwater. Bio-beads were produced by polyvinyl alcohol, alginate, and AC powder. We found that the concentration of AC powder used significantly affected the mechanical properties of immobilized bio-beads and that 1.0 % (w/v) was the optimal concentration. The bio-beads effectively degraded TCA (160 mg L(-1)) in the anaerobic medium and could be reused up to six times. The TCA degradation rate of bio-beads was 1.5 and 2.3 times greater, respectively, than ZVI + AC treatment or microbes + AC treatment. Measuring FeS produced by microbial reactions indicated that TCA removal occurred via FeS-catalyzed dechlorination. Analysis of clonal libraries derived from bio-beads demonstrated that the dominant species in the community were Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, which may contribute to the long-term stability of ZVI reactivity during TCA dechlorination. This study shows that the combined use of immobilized anaerobic bacteria, ZVI, and AC in bio-beads is effective and practical for TCA dechlorination and suggests they may be applicable towards developing a groundwater treatment system for the removal of TCA.
    Environmental science and pollution research international. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sorption and desorption play an important role in the transport and the fate of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in soil. In order to examine influences of different soil compositions on PCE sorption-desorption, equilibrium batch experiments were carried out using four sorbents (natural soil with 2.23% total organic carbon (TOC), H2O2-treated soil, 375 degrees C-treated soil and 600 degrees C-treated soil) with different initial PCE liquid concentrations (c0). The effects of main parameters (TOC, soft carbon, hard carbon, minerals, c0) on PCE sorption-desorption were investigated. At 16 degrees C, when c0 was increased from 5 to 80 mg x L(-1), the results showed that sorption and desorption isotherms of PCE on four sorbents can be best described by the Freundlich model (r2 > 0.96). The sorption contribution rate of SOM was higher than 60% in natural soil, and hard carbon was the main influencing factor,while the desorption contribution rate of SOM was close to that of minerals in natural soil, and soft carbon accounted for more than 80% in the total desorption contribution rate of SOM. In addition, the higher the c0, the higher the sorption contribution rate of PCE in hard carbon and desorption contribution rate of PCE in soft carbon and minerals were. Moreover, desorption of PCE from four sorbents exhibited hysteresis, and hard carbon played a remarkable role in the hysteresis of natural soil.
    Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 12/2013; 34(12):4635-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Greater exposure to Pb(II) increases the likelihood of harmful effects in the environment. In this study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella protothecoides (C. protothecoides) and Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were chosen to assess the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb(II) exposure. Results of the observations show dose-response relationships could be clearly observed between Pb(II) concentration and percentage inhibition (PI). Exposure to Pb(II) increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content by up to 4.22 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. ANOVA analysis shows that Pb(II) decreased chlorophyll (chl) content, indicating marked concentration-dependent relationships, and the lowest levels of chl a, chl b, and total-chl were 14.53, 18.80, and 17.95% of the controls, respectively. A real-time PCR assay suggests the changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic-related genes. After 120 h exposure Pb(II) reduced the transcript abundance of rbcL, psaB, and psbC, and the relative abundances of the three genes of C. protothecoides and C. vulgaris in response to Pb(II) were 54.66-98.59, 51.68-95.59, 37.89-95.48, 36.04-94.94, 41.19-91.20, and 58.75-96.80% of those of the controls, respectively. As for 28 d treatments, the three genes displayed similar inhibitory trend. This research provides a basic understanding of Pb(II) toxicity to aquatic organisms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.
    Environmental Toxicology 04/2013; · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of PCE and 2-CP co-contamination on growth of microbial community in terms of enzymatic activity and microbial diversity in activated sludge. Results showed that the activities of three key enzymes (dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease) decreased significantly when PCE (in the range of 5-150mg/L) was mixed with 2-CP (in the range of 25-150mg/L). Especially, activity of dehydrogenase decreased by more than 93% as the concentration of PCE and 2-CP both reached 150mg/L. PCR-DGGE revealed that short-term exposure with PCE and 2-CP did not lead to shift in the microbial community structure, while clone library demonstrated a significant change in the microbial diversity after long-term exposure. As the population of Alphaproteobacteria and Gamaproteobacteria decreased, with Actinobacteria eventually disappeared, species including Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes became dominating groups. This study demonstrated that co-contamination with PCE and 2-CP affected the performance of activated sludge in a significant way.
    Bioresource Technology 02/2013; 137C:286-293. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The scarcity of information on polybrominated diphenyl ethers' (PBDEs) flow in landfill restricts the life cycle analysis of PBDEs. In this study, eight PBDE congeners (BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209) in topsoil, vegetation leaves, leachate, and municipal aged refuse collected from Shanghai Laogang Municipal Landfill (SLML) were investigated. The present study revealed elevated PBDE concentrations in topsoil and proved PBDE leakage from SLML and vegetation uptake. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, and this could be due to massive usage of deca-BDE mixture in Shanghai. ΣPBDE concentrations in leachates treated by reed wetland and A(2)/O process fell in the low end of the worldwide range. ΣPBDE concentrations in aged refuse samples rose from under 50 ng/g dw in 1989 to the range of 5,150-5,718 ng/g dw in 2002. PBDE concentrations increase in aged refuse samples throughout the 1990s into the 2000s paralleled municipal solid waste output from 1991 to 2002 in Shanghai. Exponential increase in BDE-209 concentration in aged refuse suggested the increasing market demands for deca-BDE mixture after 1990 in China. Notably, the inventory of PBDEs in SLML was 28.7 MT, and the doubling time of BDE-209 in aged refuse was calculated to be 1.6 year. SLML can be considered as a source of PBDE and one main recipient of PBDE as well, receiving inputs predominantly from the PBDE-containing waste. Priority should be given to formulate regulation on PBDEs and sorting work before landfill disposal.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 02/2013; · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Wei ZHANG, Kuang-Fei LIN, Sha-Sha YANG, Meng ZHANG
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a popular additive of the chemical industry; its effect on activities of important soil enzymes is not well understood. A laboratory incubation experiment was carried out to analyze the PFOA-induced changes in soil urease, catalase, and phosphatase activities. During the entire incubation period, the activities of the three soil enzymes generally declined with increasing PFOA concentration, following certain dose-response relationships. The values of EC10, the contaminant concentration at which the biological activity is inhibited by 10%, of PFOA for the soil enzyme activity calculated from the modeling equation of the respective dose-response curve suggested a sensitivity order of phosphatase > catalase > urease. The effect of PFOA on soil enzyme activities provided a basic understanding of the eco-toxicological effect of PFOA in the environment. Results of this study supported using soil phosphatase as a convenient biomarker for ecological risk assessment of PFOA-polluted soils.
    Pedosphere 02/2013; 23(1):120–127. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adsorption plays an important role in the transport and the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in soil. Six types of soil, including two types of natural soil with different organic carbon content and four types of soil with the low aggregation of "soft carbon" pre-treated by hydrogen peroxide or with all organic carbon removed by high temperature ignition from the original soil, were adopted as adsorbents. The effects of parameters (organic carbon content and composition, minerals, the initial TCE concentration, solution pH, moisture content and ionic strength) on TCE adsorption capacity were examined. The results showed that the soil adsorption isotherm was non-linear within the experimental range. The TCE adsorption capacity was increased and the contribution rate of the minerals to the sorption was reduced with the increase of the organic carbon content. The adsorption of TCE in the soil was the result of the combined action of both organic carbon and minerals, in which organic carbon played a major part, whereas the role of minerals could not be neglected. As the initial TCE concentration increased, the contribution rate of the minerals to the sorption went down. The adsorption isotherm of "soft carbon" was linear, while the "hard carbon" was non-linear. Moreover, the adsorption capacity was increased by increasing the ionic strength. In contrast, neither pH nor moisture content had any influence on TCE adsorption.
    Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 11/2012; 33(11):3976-82.
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    ABSTRACT: This study focused on acclimating a microbial enrichment to biodegrade benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) in a wide range of salinity. The enrichment degraded 120mg/L toluene within 5d in the presence of 2M NaCl or 150mg/L toluene within 7d in the presence of 1-1.5M NaCl. PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis) profiles demonstrated the dominant species in the enrichments distributed between five main phyla: Gammaproteobacteria, Sphingobacteriia, Prolixibacter, Flavobacteriia and Firmicutes. The Marinobacter, Prolixibacter, Balneola, Zunongwangia, Halobacillus were the dominant genus. PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial BETX degradation revealed that the degradation pathways contained all the known initial oxidative attack of BTEX by monooxygenase and dioxygenase. And the subsequent ring fission was catalysed by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy profiles showed that the bacterial consortium adjusted the osmotic pressure by ectoine and hydroxyectoine as compatible solutes to acclimate the different salinity conditions.
    Bioresource Technology 08/2012; 124:129-36. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The acute and chronic toxic effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) and Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) were not well understood. The indoor experiments were carried out to observe and analyze the BPA-induced changes. Results of the observations showed that in acute tests BPA could significantly inhibit the growth of both algae, whereas chronic exposure hardly displayed similar trend. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities of both algae were promoted in all the treatments. Chlorophyll a synthesis of the two algae exhibited similar inhibitory trend in short-term treatments, and in chronic tests C. pyrenoidosa hardly resulted in visible influence, whereas in contrast, dose-dependent inhibitory effects of S. obliquus could be clearly observed. The experimental results indicated that the growth and Chlorophyll a syntheses of S.obliquus were more sensitive in response to BPA than that of C. pyrenoidosa, whereas for SOD andCAT activities, C. pyrenoidosa was more susceptible. This research provides a basic understanding of BPA toxicity to aquatic organisms. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.
    Environmental Toxicology 08/2012; · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quantum dots (QDs) have strong adsorption capacity; therefore, their potential toxicity to aquatic organisms from the facilitated transport of other trace toxic pollutants when they coexist has received increasing interest. However, the impact of cadmium selenium (CdSe) QDs and copper ion (Cu(2+)) joint exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo and larvae remains almost unknown. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the developmental toxicities to zebrafish exposed to combined pollution with CdSe QDs (500 µg/L) and Cu(2+) (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 µg/L CuC1(2)) compared with single exposure. Our findings for the first time revealed that: (1) QDs facilitated the accumulation of Cu(2+) in zebrafish; (2) QDs caused higher mortality, lower hatch rate, and more malformations of the exposed zebrafish; (3) junction, bifurcation, crossing, particles, and aggregation of the exposed FLI-1 transgenic zebrafish larvae can be observed; (4) embryo cell apoptosis appeared in the head and tail region; and (5) synergistic effects played an important role during joint exposure. These observations provide a basic understanding of CdSe QDs and Cu(2+) joint toxicity to aquatic organisms and suggest the need for additional research to identify the toxicological mechanism.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 06/2012; 31(9):2117-23. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A laboratory simulation experiment was conducted to study the release of sediment phosphorous and nitrogen under the effects of coating the sediment with plastic, clinoptilolite, calcite, quartz sand, and calcium nitrate, aimed to provide scientific basis and technical support to control the sediment nutrient release under the background of water environment pollution by different concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The control efficacy of test coating materials for sediment total phosphorous release was in the order of plastic > calcium nitrate > clinoptilolite > calcite > quartz sand, and that for sediment total nitrogen release was in the order of clinoptilolite > plastic > calcite > quartz sand > calcium nitrate. As for the release of sediment NO(3-)-N, the control efficacy of test coating materials was calcium nitrate > quartz sand > clinoptilolite > calcite > plastic coating; whereas for the release of sediment NH(4+)-N, the sequence was calcium nitrate > plastic coating > clinoptilolite > calcite > quartz sand. Water temperature had definite relativity to the sediment nutrient release. With the increase of water temperature, the concentrations of water total phosphorous and nitrogen and NO(3-)-N increased, while the concentration of water NH(4+)-N presented a declining trend.
    Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban 06/2012; 23(6):1677-81.
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    ABSTRACT: 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA), a major organic and groundwater contaminant, has very strong toxic effects on humans, plants and microorganisms. Effects of TCA on enzymatic activity and microbial diversity were investigated in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) under methanogenic, nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing and benzene/toluene degrading conditions. The activities of three enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, phosphatase and protease) were significantly decreased in the presence of 5 mg/L TCA. Within these three affected enzymes, phosphatase activity may serve as a noteworthy marker of bacterial toxicity. The activity of phosphatase was 0.2 U/L in methanogenic conditions with 5 mg/L TCA, which was 99% lower than the controls, and the enzyme activity was 18.6 U/L in methanogenic conditions with 1 mg/L TCA, which was 7% lower than the controls. DGGE profiles showed that TCA altered the bacterial community distribution and diversity obviously during the 21 day of TCA exposure. The enzyme activities decreased second lowest but TCA degrading strains Clostridium sp. DhR-2/LM-G01, Bacterial clone DCE25 and Bacterial clone DPHB06 were enriched in the methanogenic ASBR amended TCA.
    Ecotoxicology 04/2012; 21(5):1426-35. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concerns regarding the potential environmental impact of quantum dots (QDs) are raised for its extensive use. Understanding the influences of QDs on original environmental pollutants induced toxicity and obtaining information about the mechanism is crucial to evaluate potential ecological hazards posed by QDs. The effects of QDs on Cu2+ induced Hepatic L02 cells toxicity and the mechanisms were investigated. IC10 value of 2 microg/mL QDs and IC10-IC50 value of 2.5-20 microg/mL of CU2+ was used in this study. Firstly Luminescence emission spectrum of QDs showed 10 nm red shifts with addition of Cu2+ provide the interaction possibility of QDs and Cu2+, the further X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) analysis indicated binding of Cu2+ on QDs surface. Then the intracellular Cu2+ concentrations showed increase with addition of QDs, which is accompanied by loss of cell viability and morphology changes. The mechanism was therefore assumed as interaction of QDs-Cu2+ improved the intracellular Cu2+ level then cytotoxicity. QDs seemed to serve as Trojan-horse taking much more Cu2+ into cells via cheating cell membrane recognition, which imply the possible interactions with heavy metal ions will pose a significant influence on environment and human body.
    Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 09/2010; 31(9):2196-201.
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    ABSTRACT: The degradation dynamics of phenanthrene in soil was studied. The half-life of phenanthrene in the non-sterilized contaminated soil was only 5.1 d, much shorter than the same in the sterilized soil. The dominant strain of phenanthrene microbial degradation was isolated and identified by 16S rDNA as Alcaligenes sp.; its growth and degradative capability were highest at 25°C and pH of 7.0. Inoculation of the dominant strain to soil enhanced phenanthrene degradation, and faster degradation rates were observed with larger doses of the strain inoculated.
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The experiments were carried out indoors to observe and analyze the variations of urease, catalase, and phosphatase activities in soil samples with presence of PFOA. The results showed that during the incubation period, the urease activity could be significantly inhibited over a selected range of PFOA concentrations. As for the catalase and the phosphatase activities, they were first stimulated and then decreased with increasing PFOA concentration.
    01/2010;