[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As part of a new heavy ion preinjector that will supply beams for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory, construction of a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) is now being completed. This source, based on the successful prototype Brookhaven National Laboratory Test EBIS, is designed to produce milliampere level currents of all ion species, with q/m=(1/6)-(1/2). Among the major components of this source are a 5 T, 2-m-long, 204 mm diameter warm bore superconducting solenoid, an electron gun designed to operate at a nominal current of 10 A, and an electron collector designed to dissipate approximately 300 kW of peak power. Careful attention has been paid to the design of the vacuum system, since a pressure of 10(-10) Torr is required in the trap region. The source includes several differential pumping stages, the trap can be baked to 400 C, and there are non-evaporable getter strips in the trap region. Power supplies include a 15 A, 15 kV electron collector power supply, and fast switchable power supplies for most of the 16 electrodes used for varying the trap potential distribution for ion injection, confinement, and extraction. The EBIS source and all EBIS power supplies sit on an isolated platform, which is pulsed up to a maximum of 100 kV during ion extraction. The EBIS is now fully assembled, and operation will be beginning following final vacuum and power supply tests. Details of the EBIS components are presented.
The Review of scientific instruments 02/2010; 81(2):02A509. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gas fluorescence beam profile monitor has been implemented at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) using the polarized atomic hydrogen gas jet, which is part of the polarized proton polarimeter. RHIC proton beam profiles in the vertical plane of the accelerator are obtained as well as measurements of the width of the gas jet in the beam direction. For gold ion beams, the fluorescence cross section is sufficiently large so that profiles can be obtained from the residual gas alone, albeit with long light integration times. We estimate the fluorescence cross sections that were not known in this ultrarelativistic regime and calculate the beam emittance to provide an independent measurement of the RHIC beam. This optical beam diagnostic technique, utilizing the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas, offers a noninvasive particle beam characterization and provides visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams.
The Review of scientific instruments 11/2008; 79(10):105103. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hydrogen jet polarimeter was developed for the RHIC accelerator to improve the process of measuring polarization. Particle beams intersecting with gas molecules can produce light by the process known as luminescence. This light can then be focused, collected, and processed giving important information such as size, position, emittance, motion, and other parameters. The RHIC hydrogen jet polarimeter was modified in 2005 with specialized optics, vacuum windows, light transport, and a new camera system making it possible to monitor the luminescence produced by polarized protons intersecting the hydrogen beam. This paper describes the configuration and preliminary measurements taken using the RHIC hydrogen jet polarimeter as a luminescence monitor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Errors in delivering a uniformly distributed radiation dose to biological and material samples exposed to charged particle beams are a significant problem for experimenters. In this paper, we discuss data collected on the uniform beam distributions produced for NASA's Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), using a method that was conceived theoretically and tested experimentally at BNL. This method [N. Tsoupas , Nucl. Sci. Eng. 126, 71 (1997)NSENAO0029-5639] of generating uniform beam distributions on a plane normal to the beam's direction relies only on magnetically focusing the transported beam; no collimation of the beam is required or any other type of interaction of the beam with materials other than the target material. The method compares favorably with alternative methods of producing such distributions, and it can be applied to the entire energy spectrum of charged particle beams that are delivered to the NSRL's experiments by the Booster for the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at BNL.
Review of Modern Physics 01/2007; 10(2). · 44.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new ion pre-injector line is currently under design at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Collectively, this new line is referred to as the EBIS project. This pre-injector is based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a linear accelerator. The new EBIS will be able to produce a wide range of heavy ion species as well as rapidly switching between species. To aid in operation of the pre-injector line, a suite of diagnostics is currently proposed which includes faraday cups, current transformers, profile monitors, and a pepperpot emittance measurement device.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Brookhaven 200MeV linac is a multipurpose machine used to inject low intensity polarized protons for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), as well as to inject high intensity protons to BLIP (Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer), a medical isotope production facility. If high intensity protons were injected to RHIC by mistake, administrative radiation limits could be exceeded or sensitive electronics could be damaged. In the past, the changeover from polarized proton to high intensity proton operation has been a lengthy process, thereby never allowing the two programs to run simultaneously. To remedy this situation and allow concurrent operation of RHIC and BLIP, an active interlock system has been designed to monitor current levels in the AGS using two current transformers with fail safe circuitry and associated electronics to inhibit beam to RHIC if high intensity currents are detected.
Particle Accelerator Conference, 2005. PAC 2005. Proceedings of the; 06/2005
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brookhaven's AGS Booster has been modified to deliver slow extracted beam to a new beam line, the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). This facility was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The design of the resonant extraction system has been described. A more detailed description, which includes predictions of the slow extracted beam time structure has been described. In this report we present results of the system commissioning and performance.
Particle Accelerator Conference, 2003. PAC 2003. Proceedings of the; 06/2003
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At Brookhaven National Laboratory there is an R&D program to
design an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) for use in a compact ion
injector to be developed for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).
The BNL effort is directed at developing an EBIS with intensities of
3×10<sup>9</sup> particles/pulse of ions such as Au<sup>35+</sup>
and U<sup>45+</sup>, and requires an electron beam on the order of 10 A.
The construction of a test stand (EBTS) with the full electron beam
power and 1/3 the length of the EBIS for RHIC is nearing completion.
Initial commissioning of the EBTS was made with pulsed electron beams of
duration <1 ms and current up to 13 A. Details of the EBTS
construction, results of the pulse tests, and preparations for DC
electron beam tests are presented
Particle Accelerator Conference, 1999. Proceedings of the 1999; 02/1999
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams are subject to Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS) that causes an emittance growth in all three-phase space planes. The only way to increase integrated luminosity is to counteract IBS with cooling during RHIC stores. A stochastic cooling system for this purpose has been developed, it includes moveable pick-ups and kickers in the collider that require precise motion control mechanics, drives and controllers. Since these moving parts can limit the beam path aperture, accuracy and reliability is important. Servo, stepper, and DC motors are used to provide actuation solutions for position control. The choice of motion stage, drive motor type, and controls are based on needs defined by the variety of mechanical specifications, the unique performance requirements, and the special needs required for remote operations in an accelerator environment. In this report we will describe the remote motion control related beam line hardware, position transducers, rack electronics, and software developed for the RHIC stochastic cooling pick-ups and kickers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The EBIS Project at Brookhaven National Laboratory will replace the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators with an Electron Beam Ion Source, an RFQ, and short linac, as the heavy ion preinjector for RHIC. This project, jointly funded by DOE and NASA, will provide a modern preinjector which will have increased flexibility in providing beams to the various programs running simultaneously, will be capable of providing beams not presently available for RHIC and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, and will be simpler and less costly to operate. Presently in the first year of the four- year project, the detailed design is nearly complete, and some major procurements have been placed. The overall status of the project is presented, as well as some unique features in the design, and discussion of the R&D using the prototype EBIS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new experimental facility being at built at BNL will take advantage of heavy-ion beams from the AGS Booster for radiation effects studies of importance for the Space Program. A large dynamic range response is necessary to accommodate a wide variety of species (protons to gold) and energies (100 MeV/amu to 1.3 GeV/amu). The instrumentation proposed for extraction control and transport diagnostics will include phosphor screens with video cameras, segmented wire ionization chambers, ion chambers, and scintillators. Design and development of these systems will be presented.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new luminescence beam profile monitor is realized in the polarized hydrogen gas jet target at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. In addition to the spin polarization of the proton beam being routinely measured by the hydrogen gas jet, the luminescence produced by beam-hydrogen excitation leads to a strong Balmer series lines emission. A selected hydrogen Balmer line is spectrally filtered and imaged to produce the transverse RHIC proton beam shape with unprecedented details on the RHIC beam profile. Alternatively, when the passage of the high energy RHIC gold ion beam excited only the residual gas molecules in the beam path, sufficient ion beam induced luminescence is produced and the transverse gold ion beam profile is obtained. The measured transverse beam sizes and the calculated emittances provide an independent confirmation of the RHIC beam characteristics and to verify the emittance conservation along the RHIC accelerator. This optical beam diagnostic technique by making use of the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas offers a truly noninvasive particle beam characterization, and provides a visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams. Combined with a longitudinal bunch measurement system, a 3-dimensional spatial particle beam profile can be reconstructed tomographically.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new heavy ion preinjector is presently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This preinjector uses an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), and an WQ and IH Linac, both operating at 100.625 MHz, to produce 2 MeV/u ions of any species for use, after further acceleration, at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Among the increased capabilities provided by this preinjector are the ability to produce ions of any species, and the ability to switch between multiple species in 1 second, to simultaneously meet the needs of both physics programs. Fabrication of all major components for this preinjector is in process, with testing of the EBIS and WQ starting this year. The status of this construction is presented.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new heavy ion preinjector, consisting of an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), an RFQ, and IH linac, is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This preinjector will provide ions of any species at an energy of 2 MeV/u, resulting in increased capabilities for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory programs. The RFQ has been commissioned with beam, and most of the remaining elements are either installed or being assembled.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY (NSRL) has been constructed and started operations at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2003. The NSRL facility will be used by NASA to perform radiation effect studies on materials and biological samples for the space program. The facility utilizes proton and heavy-ion beams of energies from 50 to 3000 MeVln which are accelerated by the AGS Booster synchrotron accelerator. To date, ¹H, ¹²C, Fe, Ti, and ¹Au ion beams of various magnetic rigidities have been extracted from the Booster, and transported by the NSRL beam transport line to the sample location which is located 100 m from the extraction point. The NSRL beam transport line has been designed to employ octupole magnetic elements which transform the normal (Gaussian) beam distribution at the location of the sample into a beam with rectangular cross section, and uniformly distributed over the sample. When using the octupole magnetic elements to obtain the uniform beam distribution on the sample, no beam-collimation is applied at any location along the NSRL beam transport line and the beam focusing on the sample is purely magnetic. The main subject of this paper will be the performance of the octupoles (third order optics) in obtaining uniform beam distributions at the target of the NSRL beam transport line.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polarized hydrogen Jet target at RHIC continues its mission to provide absolute calibration for the polarized proton beam polarimeters at RHIC. Data were collected at incoming beam momenta of 100, 24, and 32 GeV/c respectively. The statistical and systematic accuracy of the jet data at 100 GeV/c achieved its goal of statistical accuracy of measuring the beam polarization to 3% in Run 5. Attempts at reducing the jet systematic uncertainty due to molecular hydrogen are also described.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At Brookhaven National Laboratory, a high current Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has been developed as part of a new preinjector that is under construction to replace the Tandem Van de Graaffs as the heavy ion preinjector for the RHIC and NASA experimental programs. This preinjector will produce milliampere-level currents of essentially any ion species, with q/A 1/6, in short pulses, for injection into the Booster synchrotron. In order to produce the required intensities, this EBIS uses a 10A electron gun, and an electron collector designed to handle 300 kW of pulsed electron beam power. The EBIS trap region is 1.5 m long, inside a 5T, 2m long, 8-inch bore superconducting solenoid. The source is designed to switch ion species on a pulse-to-pulse basis, at a 5 Hz repetition rate. Singly-charged ions of the appropriate species, produced external to the EBIS, are injected into the trap and confined until the desired charge state is reached via stepwise ionization by the electron beam. Ions are then extracted and matched into an RFQ, followed by a short IH Linac, for acceleration to 2 MeV/A, prior to injection into the Booster synchrotron. An overview of the preinjector is presented, along with experimental results from the prototype EBIS, where all essential requirements have already been demonstrated. Design features and status of construction of the final high intensity EBIS is also be presented.