Lars-Gunnar Kindblom

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (43)219.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMT) is a benign to low-grade malignant neoplasm most commonly occurring in the viscera and soft tissues of children and young adults. Involvement of the breast is very rare. This report presents the first case of IMT of the nipple and highlights the histologic features and differential diagnosis at this unusual anatomical site. The patient was a 31-years-old pregnant woman with a palpable mass at the upper half of the left nipple. The lesion appeared after breastfeeding of her first child and increased in size during her second pregnancy. A conservative, incomplete surgical excision was performed in the 24th week of the second pregnancy. The residual tumor subsequently underwent spontaneous regression. There was no evidence of disease 5 years after surgery. FISH and immunohistochemical analyses revealed rearrangement and overexpression of the ALK gene, a typical feature of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary IMT. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Breast Journal 03/2015; 21(3). DOI:10.1111/tbj.12404 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor of borderline malignancy characterized by recurrent WWTR1-CAMTA1 gene fusions in approximately 90 % of cases. In addition, a recurrent YAP1-TFE3 gene fusion has been identified in WWTR1-CAMTA1 negative epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas. This subset has been reported as having a distinct morphology with more obvious vasoformation, voluminous eosinophilic cytoplasm, and TFE3 positivity on immunohistochemistry. We report a case of a YAP1-TFE3 translocated epithelioid hemangioendothelioma arising in a groin lymph node in a 29-year-old male. Plump spindle cell morphology and absence of vasoformation made correct diagnosis particularly difficult. Immunohistochemistry showed nuclear positivity for both ERG and TFE3, fluorescence in situ hybridization showed break apart for TFE3 and RT-PCR identified a YAP1 exon1 to TFE3 exon 6 transcript, a previously unreported fusion variant. Awareness of this solid morphology and variant fusion will aid in identification of future cases of this rare vascular tumor.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 02/2015; 466(4). DOI:10.1007/s00428-015-1730-y · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is an extremely rare malignant tumour that most commonly originates in the bone, but is also present in extraskeletal sites. The tumour is morphologically characterized by a biphasic pattern of small round cells and islands of cartilage. Spinal mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are even rarer and, therefore, few investigations exist regarding the biological behaviour of the tumours. In the present study, we report a case of a 10-year-old female presenting with 9 months of back pain and radiographic findings of an intradural lesion measuring 1.5 cm at the level of Th4. The tumour was completely excised and subjected to pathological analyses. Following detection of the HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene, the tumour was morphologically and immunohistochemically defined as an intradural mesenchymal chondrosarcoma attached to the dura mater. In this study, we validate the recent identification of the fusion gene HEY1-NCOA2 in paediatric extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcomas. The relevant literature is reviewed and further discussed in relation to our findings.
    Oncology letters 10/2014; 8(4):1608-1612. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.2364 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BCOR-CCNB3 fusion transcripts resulting from an X-chromosomal paracentric inversion were recently identified in a series of unclassifiable soft tissue and bone sarcomas with Ewing sarcoma-like morphology. The morphologic and clinical features of these sarcomas are, as yet, not well characterized. Here we describe the clinicopathologic features of 10 cases of BCOR-CCNB3 sarcoma and compare their clinical course with typical Ewing sarcoma. Nine of 10 patients were male, and all were 11 to 18 years of age. Seven tumors were located in the bone and 3 in the deep soft tissues. The histomorphologic spectrum was quite wide, with 7 tumors predominately showing small primitive cell morphology with angulated nuclei simulating so-called atypical Ewing sarcoma and 3 predominately showing spindle cell morphology. Recurrent and metastatic lesions showed increased cellularity and marked pleomorphism. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of CCNB3 (100%), bcl2 (90%), CD99 (60%), and CD117 (60%). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for BCOR-CCNB3 fusion transcripts was positive in all 9 cases, which yielded sufficient extracted RNA. Five- and 10-year survival rates were 75% and 56%, respectively. BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas located in axial skeleton and soft tissues showed a significantly shorter survival. The Ewing sarcoma overall survival was not statistically different, although there was a trend for longer survival of patients with BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas in the extremities. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed description of the histologic spectrum, immunohistochemical features, and clinical characteristic of BCOR-CCNB3 sarcoma justifying distinction from Ewing sarcoma with its typical EWS/FUS-ETS translocations. Ideally immunohistochemistry is used in combination with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for definitive diagnosis.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 05/2014; DOI:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000223 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) are 2 distinct types of sarcoma, with a subset of cases showing overlapping morphologic and immunohistochemical features. LGFMS is characterized by expression of the MUC4 protein, and about 90% of cases display a distinctive FUS-CREB3L2 gene fusion. In addition, SEF is often MUC4 positive, but is genetically less well studied. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies have shown involvement of the FUS gene in the majority of so-called hybrid LGFMS/SEF and in 10% to 25% of sarcomas with pure SEF morphology. In this study, we investigated a series of 10 primary tumors showing pure SEF morphology, 4 cases of LGFMS that at local or distant relapse showed predominant SEF morphology, and 1 primary hybrid LGFMS/SEF. All but 1 case showed diffuse expression for MUC4. Using FISH, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and/or mRNA sequencing in selected cases, we found recurrent EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusion transcripts by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in 3/10 pure SEF cases and splits and deletions of the EWSR1 and/or CREB3L1 genes by FISH in 6 additional cases. All 5 cases of LGFMS with progression to SEF morphology or hybrid features had FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts. Our results indicate that EWSR1 and CREB3L1 rearrangements are predominant over FUS and CREB3L2 rearrangements in pure SEF, highlighting that SEF and LGFMS are different tumor types, with different impacts on patient outcome.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 01/2014; 38(6). DOI:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000158 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) is a rare soft tissue tumor of intermediate malignancy and uncertain cellular origin and lineage of differentiation. Although PHAT is still poorly characterized at the genetic level, there is a potential genetic overlap with two other soft tissue tumors: myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) and hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT); MIFS and HFLT share a characteristic t(1;10)(p22;q24) with breakpoints in the TGFBR3 locus on chromosome 1 and near the MGEA5 locus on chromosome 10. Recently, a PHAT with a similar t(1;10) was reported, suggesting a genetic link between MIFS/HFLT and PHAT. To ascertain whether PHAT is also associated with this translocation, two cases were subjected to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. Neither PHAT showed a t(1;10) or other types of rearrangement of the TGFBR3 or MGEA5 loci. Both tumors showed imbalances in the SNP array analysis, but none was shared. Thus, the results indicate that PHAT is genetically distinguishable from MIFS and HFLT, but further studies are needed to identify the salient genetic pathways involved in PHAT development.
    Cancer Genetics 11/2012; 205(12). DOI:10.1016/j.cancergen.2012.10.008 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumor that expresses the transcription factor T. We conducted an association study of 40 individuals with chordoma and 358 ancestry-matched controls, with replication in an independent cohort. Whole-exome and Sanger sequencing of T exons showed strong association of the common nonsynonymous SNP rs2305089 with chordoma risk (allelic odds ratio (OR) = 6.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.1-12.1; P = 4.4 × 10(-9)), a finding that is exceptional in cancers with a non-Mendelian mode of inheritance.
    Nature Genetics 10/2012; DOI:10.1038/ng.2419 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    André Fehr, Magnus C Hansson, Lars-Gunnar Kindblom, Göran Stenman
    The Journal of Pathology 08/2012; 227(4):e5-7. DOI:10.1002/path.4040 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary malignant tumour of bone occurring predominantly in children and young adults. Despite chemotherapy, relapse is common and mortality remains high. Non-transformed osteoblasts are highly sensitive to glucocorticoids, which reduce proliferation and induce apoptosis. Previously, we observed that OS cells, but not normal osteoblasts, express 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2). This enzyme inactivates cortisol (active) to cortisone (inactive) and expression of 11β-HSD2 renders OS cells resistant to glucocorticoids. By contrast, the related enzyme 11β-HSD1 converts cortisone to cortisol and reduces OS cell proliferation in vitro. Some synthetic glucocorticoids (e.g. dehydrodexamethasone (DHD), inactive counterpart of dexamethasone (DEX)) have been reported to be activated by 11β-HSD2. We therefore investigated expression and enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD isozymes in human OS tissue, determined whether 11β-HSD expression has prognostic value in the response to therapy, and evaluated the potential use of synthetic glucocorticoids to selectively target OS cells. OS samples expressed both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2. 11β-HSD1 expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens positively correlated with primary tumour size. Expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 in post-treatment biopsies were unrelated to the degree of tumour necrosis following chemotherapy. However, high 11β-HSD2 expression in post-treatment biopsies correlated with a poor response to therapy. OS cells that expressed 11β-HSD2 inactivated endogenous glucocorticoids; but these cells were also able to generate DEX from DHD. These results suggest that OS treatment response is related to 11β-HSD2 enzyme expression. Furthermore, OS cells expressing this enzyme could be targeted by treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids that are selectively reactivated by the enzyme.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 06/2012; 19(4):589-98. DOI:10.1530/ERC-12-0079 · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome are non-hereditary skeletal disorders characterized by multiple enchondromas (Ollier disease) combined with spindle cell hemangiomas (Maffucci syndrome). We report somatic heterozygous mutations in IDH1 (c.394C>T encoding an R132C substitution and c.395G>A encoding an R132H substitution) or IDH2 (c.516G>C encoding R172S) in 87% of enchondromas (benign cartilage tumors) and in 70% of spindle cell hemangiomas (benign vascular lesions). In total, 35 of 43 (81%) subjects with Ollier disease and 10 of 13 (77%) with Maffucci syndrome carried IDH1 (98%) or IDH2 (2%) mutations in their tumors. Fourteen of 16 subjects had identical mutations in separate lesions. Immunohistochemistry to detect mutant IDH1 R132H protein suggested intraneoplastic and somatic mosaicism. IDH1 mutations in cartilage tumors were associated with hypermethylation and downregulated expression of several genes. Mutations were also found in 40% of solitary central cartilaginous tumors and in four chondrosarcoma cell lines, which will enable functional studies to assess the role of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in tumor formation.
    Nature Genetics 11/2011; 43(12):1256-61. DOI:10.1038/ng.1004 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome are rare, nonhereditary skeletal disorders characterized by the presence of multiple enchondromas with (Maffucci) or without (Ollier) co-existing multiple hemangiomas of soft tissue. Enchondromas can progress toward central chondrosarcomas. PTH1R mutations are found in a small subset of Ollier patients. The genetic deficit in Maffucci syndrome is unknown. Here, we report the first genome-wide analysis using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array on Maffucci enchondromas (n = 4) and chondrosarcomas (n = 2) from four cases. Results were compared to a previously studied cohort of Ollier patients (n = 37). We found no loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or common copy number alterations shared by all enchondromas, with the exception of some copy number variations. As expected, chondrosarcomas were found to have multiple genomic imbalances. This is similar to conventional solitary and Ollier-related enchondromas and chondrosarcomas and supports the multistep genetic progression model. Expression profiling using Illumina BeadArray-v3 chip revealed that cartilaginous tumors in Maffucci patients are more similar to such tumors in Ollier patients than to sporadic cartilage tumors. Point mutations in a single gene or other copy number neutral genomic changes might play a role in enchondromagenesis.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 09/2011; 50(9):673-9. DOI:10.1002/gcc.20889 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), KIT exon 11 deletions are associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profiles of GISTs carrying KIT exon 11 deletions and to identify genes associated with poor prognosis. Expression profiling was performed on nine tumors with KIT exon 11 deletions and 7 without KIT exon 11 mutations using oligonucleotide microarrays. In addition, gene expression profiles for 35 GISTs were analyzed by meta-analysis. Expression of CD133 (prominin-1) protein was examined by tissue microarray (TMA) analysis of 204 GISTs from a population-based study in western Sweden. Survival analysis was performed on patients subjected to R0 resection (n=180) using the Cox proportional hazards model. Gene expression profiling, meta-analysis, and qPCR showed up regulation of CD133 in GISTs carrying KIT exon 11 deletions. Immunohistochemical analysis on TMA confirmed CD133 expression in 28% of all tumors. CD133 positivity was more frequent in gastric GISTs (48%) than in small intestinal GISTs (4%). CD133 positivity was also more frequent in GISTs with KIT exon 11 mutations (41%) than in tumors with mutations in KIT exon 9, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA), or wild-type tumors (0-17%). Univariate survival analysis showed a significant correlation between the presence of CD133 protein and shorter overall survival (hazard ratio=2.23, p=0.027). Multivariate analysis showed that CD133 provided additional information on patient survival compared to age, sex, National Institutes of Health (NIH) risk group and mutational status. CD133 is expressed in a subset of predominantly gastric GISTs with KIT exon 11 mutations and poor prognosis.
    International Journal of Cancer 09/2011; 129(5):1149-61. DOI:10.1002/ijc.25755 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare malignancy; diagnostic problems may occur when cases present as a metastasis or with unusual morphologic features. In this study, a series of 18 cases with follow-up information were analysed with regard to the ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts and immuno-detection of TFE3 using archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Novel primers to detect ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts, type 1 and 2, were designed. The patients, ten female and eight male, ranged in age from 3 to 46 years; 16 involved soft tissues of the extremities (nine, lower; seven, upper), one involved the uterine cervix and one was a primary bone tumour of the foot. Seven ASPS had unusual morphologic features lacking the typical alveolar pattern. Seven had lung metastases at the time of diagnosis, and three developed lung and brain metastases later. Four patients died of disease (after 1-5 years); four are alive with metastases (after 2-15 years), and ten are alive and well (after 1-10 years). Vascular invasion correlated with metastatic disease. All 18 ASPS, four granular cell tumours (one of which was malignant) and one adrenal cortical carcinoma showed TFE3 immuno-positivity. The 18/18 ASPS showed ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts (nine, type 1; nine, type 2), four of which had a balanced translocation. ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts were not detected in 25 controls. We conclude that immuno-detection of TFE3 and RT-PCR-based identification of ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues are powerful tools in the diagnosis of ASPS, particularly in cases with unusual morphologic features.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 03/2011; 458(3):291-300. DOI:10.1007/s00428-010-1039-9 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A variety of analyses, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative PCR (qPCR) and array CGH (aCGH), have been performed on a series of chordomas from 181 patients. Twelve of 181 (7%) tumours displayed amplification of the T locus and an additional two cases showed focal amplification; 70/181 (39%) tumours were polysomic for chromosome 6, and 8/181 (4.5%) primary tumours showed a minor allelic gain of T as assessed by FISH. No germline alteration of the T locus was identified in non-neoplastic tissue from 40 patients. Copy number gain of T was seen in a similar percentage of sacrococcygeal, mobile spine and base of skull tumours. Knockdown of T in the cell line, U-CH1, which showed polysomy of chromosome 6 involving 6q27, resulted in a marked decrease in cell proliferation and morphological features consistent with a senescence-like phenotype. The U-CH1 cell line was validated as representing chordoma by the generation of xenografts, which showed typical chordoma morphology and immunohistochemistry in the NOD/SCID/interleukin 2 receptor [IL2r]gammanull mouse model. In conclusion, chromosomal aberrations resulting in gain of the T locus are common in sporadic chordomas and expression of this gene is critical for proliferation of chordoma cells in vitro.
    The Journal of Pathology 02/2011; 223(3):327-35. DOI:10.1002/path.2816 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chordoma, the molecular hallmark of which is T (brachyury), is a rare malignant bone tumour with a high risk of local recurrence and a tumour from which metastatic disease is a common late event. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy for treating chordomas, although there is evidence that some patients respond to the empirical use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonists. The aim of this study was to determine the role of EGFR in the pathogenesis of chordoma. Paraffin-embedded material from 173 chordomas from 160 patients [sacro-coccygeal (n = 94), skull-based (n = 50), and mobile spine (n = 16)] was analysed by immunohistochemistry and revealed total EGFR expression in 69% of cases analysed. Of 147 informative chordomas analysed by FISH, 38% revealed high-level EGFR polysomy, 4% high-level polysomy with focal amplification, 18% low-level polysomy, and 39% disomy. Phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array membranes showed EGFR activation in the chordoma cell line U-CH1 and all of the three chordomas analysed. Direct sequencing of EGFR (exons 18-21), KRAS, NRAS, HRAS (exons 2, 3), and BRAF (exons 11, 15) using DNA from 62 chordomas failed to reveal mutations. PTEN expression was absent by immunohistochemistry in 19 of 147 (13%) analysed chordomas, only one of which revealed high-level polysomy of EGFR. The EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin (AG 1478) markedly inhibited proliferation of the chordoma cell line U-CH1 in vitro and diminished EGFR phosphorylation in a dose-dependant manner, a finding supported by inhibition of phosphorylated Erk1/2. p-Akt was suppressed to a much lesser degree in these experiments. There was no reduction of T as assessed by western blotting. These data implicate aberrant EGFR signalling in the pathogenesis of chordoma. This study provides a strategy for patient stratification for treatment with EGFR antagonists.
    The Journal of Pathology 02/2011; 223(3):336-46. DOI:10.1002/path.2818 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synovial sarcoma is a morphologically and genotypically distinctive soft tissue sarcoma with a strong predilection for young and middle aged adults and the deep soft tissues of the extremities. Rare cases of synovial sarcoma have been reported in a large variety of unusual sites, one of the least common being the female genital tract. We report 4 young women with synovial sarcoma involving the vulva (3 cases) and vagina (1 case). Two of the tumors were of the biphasic and 2 of the monophasic type; 3 of the tumors were poorly differentiated. The diagnosis in all the cases was supported by immunohistochemical findings and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing demonstration of SS18/SSX fusion transcripts. Two of the patients developed recurrent disease (1 dies of disease after 8 years) and 2 are currently disease-free.This study shows the importance of pathologists being aware of the rare occurrence of synovial sarcoma in the female genital tract, discusses the differential diagnosis with particular reference to this location, emphasizes the need for molecular genetic support in such cases, and reviews the sparse, earlier literature. Synovial sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a vulvovaginal mesenchymal lesion, especially in a young female.
    International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 01/2011; 30(1):84-91. DOI:10.1097/PGP.0b013e3181f0c510 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hibernomas are benign tumors with morphological features resembling brown fat. They consistently display cytogenetic rearrangements, typically translocations, involving chromosome band 11q13. Here we demonstrate that these aberrations are associated with concomitant deletions of AIP and MEN1, tumor suppressor genes that are located 3 Mb apart and that underlie the hereditary syndromes pituitary adenoma predisposition and multiple endocrine neoplasia type I. MEN1 and AIP displayed a low expression in hibernomas whereas the expression of genes up-regulated in brown fat--PPARA, PPARG, PPARGC1A, and UCP1--was high. Thus, loss of MEN1 and AIP is likely to be pathogenetically essential for hibernoma development. Simultaneous loss of two tumor suppressor genes has not previously been shown to result from a neoplasia-associated translocation. Furthermore, in contrast to the prevailing assumption that benign tumors harbor relatively few genetic aberrations, the present analyses demonstrate that a considerable number of chromosome breaks are involved in the pathogenesis of hibernoma.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2010; 107(49):21122-7. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1013512107 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The working group of the World Health Organization (WHO) updated its classification of soft tissue and bone tumors in 2002, and modifications were made primarily to the nomenclature for soft tissue neoplasms. This review presents the imaging features, patient demographics, and clinicopathological findings for benign and malignant skeletal and smooth muscle tumors using the current WHO classification system.
    Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology 06/2010; 14(2):245-56. DOI:10.1055/s-0030-1253165 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is a primary tumour of bone that may rarely, in the absence of malignant cytological features, produce metastatic lesions, most commonly in the lungs. Whether these lung nodules represent true neoplastic secondaries or implants derived from the primary tumour is not certain. In this study, we have analysed the morphological and immunophenotypic features of 19 conventional GCTBs and corresponding lung nodules for expression of macrophage, osteoclast, proliferation and tumour-associated markers. A striking morphological feature of all GCTBs that produced lung secondaries was the presence of large areas of haemorrhage and thrombus formation; mononuclear and multinucleated cells of GCTB were frequently found within these areas of haemorrhage and thrombus. A similar pattern of CD14, CD33, HLA-DR and CD51 expression was seen in macrophages and giant cells in primary and secondary tumours. Smooth muscle actin expression was frequently noted in primary GCTBs that recurred and metastasised. No difference was seen in the expression of p53, p63, Ki-67, cyclin D1 or Bcl-2 in primary and secondary tumours. Our findings suggest that most lung nodules associated with primary conventional GCTBs are implants derived from tumour emboli formed in areas of haemorrhage and thrombus formation within the primary tumour.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 12/2009; 456(1):97-103. DOI:10.1007/s00428-009-0863-2 · 2.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
219.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2015
    • University of Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust
      Reading, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2012
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      • Department of Cardiology
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 2006–2011
    • The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • University of Occupational and Environmental Health
      • Department of Pathology and Oncology
      Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2002–2003
    • University of Gothenburg
      • Department of Pathology
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden