[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orange contains phytochemicals effective in the prevention/treatment of chronic diseases. Although many orange peel phytochemicals have been identified, information on their distribution in flavedo and albedo is incomplete limiting the development of applications for orange byproducts including comminuted orange obtained by grinding peel/juice and used in beverage formulations. Phytochemical concentration, antioxidant activity (AOA) and their relationship were determined for comminuted orange, juice and peel fractions. The highest vitamin C (74.7–98.2 mg ascorbic acid/100 g), flavones (235.9–265.0 mg hesperidin/100 g) and carotenoid (1.04–6.21 mg β-carotene/100 g) contents were found in flavedo. Albedo was the main source of phenolics (553.1–730.0 mg gallic acid/100 g), flavanones (1450.0–2084.5 mg hesperidin/100 g), and AOA (11953.2–15484.0 μmol trolox/100 g). AOA linearly correlated with phenolic, hesperidin, and flavonoid concentrations. Orange peel increased the phenolics, flavonoids and AOA of comminuted orange by 111%, 783% and 304%, respectively, when compared with juice, showing its potential to formulate functional foods.
Journal of Functional Foods 01/2013; · 4.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The food-processing industry has made large investments in processing facilities relying mostly on conventional thermal processing
technologies with well-established reliability and efficacy. Replacing them with one of the novel alternatives recently developed
is a decision that must be carefully approached. Among them, high-pressure processing (HPP), at room or refrigerated temperature,
is now a well-established option experiencing worldwide commercial growth. Surveys have shown an excellent consumer acceptance
of HPP technology. For financial feasibility reasons, HPP treatments must be kept short, a challenge that can be met by some
of the alternatives here reviewed such as the use of the hurdle technology concept. Although HPP technology is limited to
pasteurization treatments, the combination of high pressure and high temperature used in pressure-assisted thermal processing
(PATP) can be used to sterilize foods. An analysis of alternatives to achieve the inactivation of bacterial spores at the
lowest temperature possible highlights the need for additional research on the use of germinants. Because of incomplete research,
PATP presents several implementation challenges, including the modeling of food temperature, the determination of inactivation
kinetics particularly for bacterial spores, and the prediction of chemical changes including the potential formation of toxic
KeywordsHigh-pressure processing (HPP)–Pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP)–Pressure-induced pH sh
Food and Bioprocess Technology 08/2011; 4(6):969-985. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consumers demand, in addition to excellent eating quality, high standards of safety and nutrition in ready-to-eat food. This
requires a continuous improvement in conventional processing technologies and the development of new alternatives. Prevailing
technologies such as thermal processing can cause extensive and undesirable chemical changes in food composition while minimal
processing strategies cannot eliminate all microbial pathogens. This review focuses on pressure-assisted thermal processing,
a new alternative for shelf-stable foods. Its implementation requires an analysis of reaction kinetics at high pressure and
elevated temperature. Acceleration of the inactivation of bacterial spores by the synergistic effect of pressure and temperature
is expected to allow processing at lower temperature, shorter process time, or a combination of both. Therefore, thermal degradation
of quality is expected to be lower than that of conventional thermal processes. However, few studies have focused on the effect
of the conditions required for the inactivation of bacterial spores on the kinetics of chemical reactions degrading food quality,
particularly at the high temperatures required for the processing of low-acid foods.
KeywordsPressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP)–Reaction kinetics–Novel foods laws–Activation energy–Activation volume
Food and Bioprocess Technology 08/2010; 4(6):986-995. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mass transfer between whole red cherry pepper and pickling solution, as well as firmness and stability indicators of the pickled product, were studied. Experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure with an initial vacuum pulse (50 cm Hg for 3 min) (PV) or without a vacuum pulse (PA), in sodium chloride (10–15 g/100 g) and acetic acid (2.3–3.5 g/100 g) solutions, during 0.3–30 days. Statistically significant equations were obtained (p ⩽ 0.05) to describe the pickling and firmness parameters of cherry pepper, and stability indicators. PA treatments mainly caused pepper dehydration, but PV promoted water and solutes gain. Firmness values were slightly lower in PV than in PA treatments. Vacuum pulse pickling allowed achieving lower pH and aw values (pH = 2.97, aw = 0.964) than pickling without the initial vacuum pulse (pH = 3.33, aw = 0.972). PV treatments resulted in weight gain of cherry peppers and succeeded in reducing pH and aw to levels that would enhance pepper stability.
Journal of Food Engineering 12/2009; 95(4):648-655. · 2.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The firmness of green prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica) impregnated with a sucrose isotonic solution (IS) was evaluated. Whole fresh-peeled prickly pears were processed under different combinations of vacuum pressure (pv), vacuum application time (tv) and relaxation time (tr). Puncture test was applied to impregnated and fresh whole prickly pears. The maximum force (Fmax), average force (Fav) and the work (Wp) required to puncture 3 cm in the fruits were measured. Second order models provided good fits to the experimental data of Fmax (R2 = 0.754), Fav (R2 = 0.788) and Wp (R2 = 0.792). Impregnation factors pv, tr, tv–tr significantly affected firmness parameters (P ≤ 0.05). Firmness parameters of fresh-peeled prickly pear were Fmax = 10.934 ± 1.571 N, Fav = 2.152 ± 0.270 N and Wp = 5.930 × 10−2 ± 0.0054 Nm. Firmness reduction of impregnated fruits was linked to the IS impregnation levels and deformation-relaxation phenomena.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSThe aim of this study was to assess the influence of impregnation conditions on firmness of whole peeled prickly pear, as excessive softening is the main factor limiting consumer acceptability. This study helps to identify the better impregnation conditions for maintaining firmness. This information could be useful for the application of vacuum impregnation in the development of fruits and vegetables products, in which the impregnating solution is used as a carrier of active agents. To date, very limited studies have been conducted in whole fruits involving only peeling and impregnation operations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Confectionery products constitute a very important branch in the food industry. There are several confectionery products:
chewing gum, candy, and chocolate among others. Beside chocolate, chewing gum is one of the most consumed products in the
world. Chewing gum is a product made with natural or man-made gums, polymers, and copolymers, added with other ingredients
and food additives.
Traditionally, chewing gum was made of natural gums, although for reasons of economy and quality, many modern chewing gums
use synthetic gums. These have proven beneficial in providing high consistency of chewing quality. To obtain acceptable products,
gum properties must be maintained during manufacture of chewing gum. Most chewing gums are manufactured according to the following
steps: The gum base is melted; other ingredients are added and mixed. The blended gum passes onto cooling belts and is bathed
in currents of cool air to reduce its temperature; after this, the gum is extruded and flattened into thinner and thinner
sheets. The gum passes into the scoring machine. The scored sheets are conditioned (“set” in an air-conditioned room) and
then, candy-coated. Finally, the chewing gum is wrapped.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Puffed wheat, traditionally consumed as a ready-to-eat breakfast cereal, is normally covered with sweet coatings. To make it more appealing to different tastes and consumers, the coating may also have colored ingredients added. Due to the rugged surface of puffed wheat, colored coats do not totally cover the particulate, causing problems of appearance that may affect overall quality. There is a need to develop uniform coats in order to improve physical properties, such as color and texture. Puffed wheat was coated with sweetened chocolate syrups by tumbling and a fluidized bed. Different proportions of sugar, cocoa, and starch were used to develop the cover and obtain an optimum formulation. The coated wheat was characterized by instrumental techniques. The developed product using the fluidized bed technique presented a firmer consistency and a more uniform color than the tumbling-coated and the commercial wheat.
Particulate Science And Technology 11/2007; 25(6):549-554. · 0.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization of the pickling process of whole jalapeño pepper, using a vacuum pulse. The pickling variables were the brine to pepper mass ratio (R = 1–10, w/w), sodium chloride concentration in the pickling brine ([NaCl]brine = 10–15%), and processing time (t2 = 10–30 d). The main response variables were solutes gain to water loss ratio (SG/WL), weight reduction (WR), concentration of sodium chloride ([NaCl]pepper), acetic acid ([CH3COOH]pepper) in the pepper tissue, and water activity of treated pepper and pickling solution. The polynomial models developed by RSM were highly significant to describe the relationships between the studied factors and the responses (p < 0.0001). Analytical optimization gave water activity values near equilibrium, the highest SG/WL ratio (2.1), and up to 6% of [NaCl]pepper and 2% of [CH3COOH]pepper, when using a [NaCl]brine = 12%, R = 4.6 and t2 = 22 d.
Journal of Food Engineering 04/2007; 79(4):1261-1268. · 2.58 Impact Factor