[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to
its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature.
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia 01/2015; 90(1):74-89. · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patch testing remains the gold standard method for the identification of the etiologic agent of allergic contact dermatitis. However, it is a subjective, time-consuming exam whose technique demands special care and which presents some contraindications, which hamper its use. In a recent study, we showed that the proliferation assay can suitably replace patch testing for the diagnosis of chromium allergy, which had been previously demonstrated only for nickel allergy. In this study, we try to refine the method by reducing the incubation period of cultures for lymphocyte proliferation assays in response to chromium.
Develop an alternative or complementary diagnostic test for chromium allergic contact dermatitis.
We compared the production of 9 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17 and RANTES) between 18 chromium-allergic patients and 19 controls.
Chromium increased the production of IFN-y, IL-5, IL-2 and IL-13 in allergic patients, but only IL-2 and especially IL-13 helped discriminate allergic patients from controls. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy found with IL-13 were about 80%.
IL-13 and IL-2 detection may be used to diagnose chromium allergy in 2-day cultures. However, in general, the 6-day cultures seem to be superior for this purpose.
Anais brasileiros de dermatologia 10/2013; 88(5):719-25.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porphyria cutanea tarda is the most common form of porphyria, characterized by the decreased activity of the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase enzyme. Several reports associated HFE gene mutations of hereditary hemochromatosis with porphyria cutanea tarda worldwide, although up to date only one study has been conducted in Brazil.
Investigation of porphyria cutanea tarda association with C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene. Identification of precipitating factors (hepatitis C, HIV, alcoholism and estrogen) and their link with HFE mutations.
An ambispective study of 60 patients with PCT was conducted during the period from 2003 to 2012. Serological tests for hepatitis C and HIV were performed and histories of alcohol abuse and estrogen intake were investigated. HFE mutations were identified with real-time PCR.
Porphyria cutanea tarda predominated in males and alcohol abuse was the main precipitating factor. Estrogen intake was the sole precipitating factor present in 25% of female patients. Hepatitis C was present in 41.7%. All HIV-positive patients (15.3%) had a history of alcohol abuse. Allele frequency for HFE mutations, i.e., C282Y (p = 0.0001) and H63D (p = 0.0004), were significantly higher in porphyria cutanea tarda patients, compared to control group. HFE mutations had no association with the other precipitating factors.
Alcohol abuse, hepatitis C and estrogen intake are prevalent precipitating factors in our porphyria cutanea tarda population; however, hemochromatosis in itself can also contribute to the outbreak of porphyria cutanea tarda, which makes the research for HFE mutations necessary in these patients.
Anais brasileiros de dermatologia 08/2013; 88(4):530-40.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The female flea Tunga penetrans is responsible for a cutaneous parasitosis known as Tungiasis. We report the clinical case of a 12 year-old Caucasian boy who sought treatment in a dermatological private office due to a painful lesion in the plantar area and whose dermoscopic examination, without skin contact, allowed the visualization of parasite's movement inside the skin. The diagnosis of tungiasis is clinical, but it can be aided by in vivo and ex vivo dermoscopic examination of the lesion.
Anais brasileiros de dermatologia 08/2013; 88(4):649-651.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes, under appropriated stimulus, may express tissue factor and therefore, activate the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. We performed a transversal and case-control study of patients with chronic urticaria and patients with psoriasis, in our outpatient clinic to evaluate the production of D-dimer.
To evaluate D-dimer serum levels in patients with chronic urticaria and its possible correlation with disease activity.
The study was conducted from October 2010 until March 2011. We selected 37 consecutive patients from our Allergy Unit and Psoriasis Unit, and divided them into three groups for statistical analysis: (i) 12 patients with active chronic urticaria (CU); (ii) 10 patients with chronic urticaria under remission and (iii) 15 patients with psoriasis (a disease with skin inflammatory infiltrate constituted by neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes). Another five patients with urticarial vasculitis were allocated in our study, but not included in statistical analysis. The serum levels of D-dimer were measured by Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA), and the result units were given in ng/ml FEU.
Patients with active chronic urticaria had the highest serum levels of D-dimer (p<0.01), when compared to patients with CU under remission and the control group (patients with psoriasis).
Patients with active chronic urticaria have higher serum levels of D-dimer, when compared to patients with chronic urticaria under remission and patients with psoriasis. We found elevated serum levels of D-dimer among patients with urticarial vasculitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent, often disabling disease caused by countless substances. Patch testing remains the gold standard test to identify the causative agent; however, it is subjective, time-consuming and not completely safe. Alternative methods were tried, but significant success has only been achieved with nickel. Objective Develop an alternative or complementary allergic contact dermatitis diagnostic test. Methods We compared the lymphocyte proliferative rate and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17 and RANTES) between 18 chromium allergic patients and 19 controls. Results The lymphocyte proliferation test and some of the cytokines tested (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-12 and IL-13) were able to discriminate allergic patients. However, striking results were only achieved using IL-13, leading to an accuracy of about 90%. Conclusions If further studies confirm the data found, IL-13 could be used as an alternative or complementary test to detect chromium contact allergy whereas lymphocyte proliferation test, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-12 detections may serve as additional diagnostic tests.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 10/2012; · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, can affect the skin and the peripheral nervous system and, depending on the level of involvement, it can lead to severe deformities. Leprosy is classified into two major groups: paucibacillary (up to five lesions) and multibacillary (more than five lesions). The deformities that appear during the progress of the disease can affect the quality of life.
To assess quality of life of patients with paucibacillary leprosy diagnosed and treated early in the outpatients' clinic.
The Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire and ShortForm36 were applied to 49 outpatients undergoing treatment at the Leprosy Multidisciplinary Group of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Faculdade de Medicina of the Universidade de São Paulo.
The majority of the patients (63%) did not show impairment of the quality of life, according to the results obtained by the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire. In the questionnaire Short Form-36, the scores assessed showed slight impairment of the quality of life.
On this study, we can conclude that this group of patients, with paucibacillary leprosy, did not show important impairment of the quality of life. Therefore we can conclude that the earlier the diagnosis and the treatment the lesser the influence on the quality of life.
Anais brasileiros de dermatologia 06/2012; 87(3):408-11.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic contact dermatitis is the consequence of an immune reaction mediated by T cells against low molecular weight chemicals known as haptens. It is a common condition that occurs in all races and age groups and affects the quality of life of those who present it. The immunological mechanism of this disease has been reviewed in recent decades with significant advance in its understanding. The metabolism and pathway of the haptens as well as the activation and mechanism of action of the cells responsible for both the immune reaction and its completion are discussed in this article.
Anais brasileiros de dermatologia 06/2011; 86(3):419-33.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sun Protection Factor (SPF) is the most important data to quantify the effectiveness of a sunscreen, being universally accepted. The method is based on determining the minimum erythematous dose (MED), defined as the smallest amount of energy required for triggering the erythema, in areas of protected and unprotected skin. The SPF value is then calculated as the ratio between the MED of protected and unprotected skin. The first publication of a method for determining the SPF was presented in 1978 by the U.S. FDA agency, followed by other publications of FDA and other international regulatory agencies. Although considered the reference method for quantification of sunscreen efficacy of topical products, there are controversies in literature about the method for determining the SPF and the implications of the real conditions of use in the protection achieved in practice by users.
Anais brasileiros de dermatologia 06/2011; 86(3):507-15.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dermatosis caused by plants is relatively common and may occur by various pathogenic mechanisms. Dermatitis due to physical trauma, pharmacological action, irritation, sensitization, mediated by IgE and induced by light are described. Pseudophytodermatosis caused by plant-delivered elements is also described in the introduction to this work.
Anais brasileiros de dermatologia 08/2010; 85(4):479-89.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate labeled sun protection factor (SPF) for sunscreen, the amount of product applied on volunteers, according to food and drug administration (FDA) and International protocols, is 2 mg/cm(2). However, different studies have shown that consumers actually apply much less product when exposed to the sun. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings in an attempt to correlate the amount applied in relation to SPF. The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of the quantity of sunscreen applied in the determination of SPF, according to the FDA methodology.
Forty volunteers were included in two groups (SPF 15 and 30). The selected sunscreen was then applied in four different quantities (2, 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5 mg/cm(2)). All areas were irradiated with a solar simulator. After 24 h, the minimal erythemal dose (MED) and SPF were determined.
In both groups, we observed that the SPF decreased when the amount of sunscreen applied was decreased. The differences between the 2 mg/cm(2) area and the others were significant in both groups (P<0.001). The correlation between specified SPF and applied amount grew exponentially.
The protection provided by sunscreen is related to the amount of product applied. It is essential to educate consumers to apply larger amounts of sunscreen for adequate photoprotection.
Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine 08/2009; 25(4):175-80. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphocyte proliferation testing (LPT) has some advantages over patch testing to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. It is harmless, objective and can be used in clinical situations where patch testing is not recommended. Unfortunately, significant success has only been achieved with nickel. There are few studies on chromium LPT and they were performed with different methods, leading to inconsistent results.
To determine the best parameters for chromium LPT, we tested 20 patients with allergic contact dermatitis to the metal and 20 controls, using various protocols.
The best sensitivity and specificity ratios were achieved with 6-day cultures stimulated with a range from 7.5 x 10(-4) to 5 x 10(-3) mol/L of nonfiltered chromium chloride solutions. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values found within this range were 65%, 95% and 80%, respectively.
Further investigation is necessary to achieve better sensitivity values.
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 08/2008; 33(4):472-7. · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dermatomyositis is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disorder that affects striated skeletal muscles, the skin, and other organs. Diagnostic criteria were established by Bohan & Peter and patients may be classified into five groups: juvenile dermatomyositis, primary dermatomyositis, amyopatic dermatomyositis, dermatomyositis associated with malignancies and dermatomyositis associated with other connective tissue disorders. Females are more affected and the mean age of diagnosis is 40 years. Skin manifestations are observed in all patients. Loss of proximal strength is the most common systemic alteration and lung involvement is most often manifested as interstitial pneumopathy. Neoplasms may be detected during the course of the disease specially in patients over 60. Lactic dehydrogenase serum levels are altered in the majority of cases and diagnosis can be established or the basis of skin and muscle biopsies and electroneuromiography. Corticosteroids are the first line drugs. The most common causes of death are malignant neoplasms, sepsis and pulmonary infection.
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia 06/2008; 83(3):247-259. · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FUNDAMENTO: O diagnóstico da alergia ao níquel é estabelecido com a realização do teste de contato. OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um método diagnóstico mais sensível e específico. CASUÍSTICAS E MÉTODOS: Dezenove pacientes com teste de contato positivo para o níquel e 25 controles foram submetidos ao teste da proliferação linfocitária. As células mononucleadas foram isoladas do sangue venoso periférico e cultivadas em triplicatas, em placas de cultura (2x105 células/orifício) com: meio de cultura apenas; sulfato de níquel (156,25; 78,13; 19,53; 9,77 e 2,44µM) e concentrações ideais do antígeno Candida albicans e dos mitógenos pokeweed, fito-hemaglutinina A e anticorpo anti-CD3 (OKT3). Timidina tritiada foi adicionada às placas, a radioatividade incorporada pelas células medida e os resultados expressos pelo índice de estimulação (IE). RESULTADOS: A resposta proliferativa dos linfócitos dos casos foi superior à dos controles em todas as concentrações de níquel testadas. Considerando teste positivo para níquel quando IE > 3, nenhum dos controles e 16 (84,21%) dos casos apresentaram teste positivo em pelo menos uma das cinco concentrações usadas. As respostas à Candida albicans e aos mitógenos foram semelhantes nos casos e controles, demonstrando a integridade da imunidade celular em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: O teste da proliferação linfocitária mostra-se útil no diagnóstico da alergia ao níquel.
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia 04/2005; 80(2):149-158. · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Discoid lupus erythematosus is much less frequent and studied in children. We undertook a retrospective study of 34 children less than 16 years of age with this disease, seen over a period of 9 years. A female predominance of 2:1 was found. An association between discoid lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus was observed in 23.5% of patients, a higher proportion compared to adult discoid lupus erythematosus. Disseminated lesions were much more frequent in patients with criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (87.5% vs 34%), suggesting that it could be associated with a worse prognosis. Histologic findings were similar to those observed in adult discoid lupus erythematosus.