Martin Olesen

Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Skåne, Sweden

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Publications (14)84.98 Total impact

  • Gut 04/2015; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308956 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This 1-year study aimed to assess low-dose budesonide therapy for maintenance of clinical remission in patients with collagenous colitis. A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study beginning with an 8-week open-label induction phase in which patients with histologically confirmed active collagenous colitis received budesonide (Budenofalk, 9 mg/day initially, tapered to 4.5 mg/day), after which 92 patients in clinical remission were randomised to budesonide (mean dose 4.5 mg/day; Budenofalk 3 mg capsules, two or one capsule on alternate days) or placebo in a 12-month double-blind phase with 6 months treatment-free follow-up. Primary endpoint was clinical remission throughout the double-blind phase. Clinical remission during open-label treatment was achieved by 84.5% (93/110 patients). The median time to remission was 10.5 days (95% CI (9.0 to 14.0 days)). The maintenance of clinical remission at 1 year was achieved by 61.4% (27/44 patients) in the budesonide group versus 16.7% (8/48 patients) receiving placebo (treatment difference 44.5% in favour of budesonide; 95% CI (26.9% to 62.7%), p<0.001). Health-related quality of life was maintained during the 12-month double-blind phase in budesonide-treated patients. During treatment-free follow-up, 82.1% (23/28 patients) formerly receiving budesonide relapsed after study drug discontinuation. Low-dose budesonide over 1 year resulted in few suspected adverse drug reactions (7/44 patients), all non-serious. Budesonide at a mean dose of 4.5 mg/day maintained clinical remission for at least 1 year in the majority of patients with collagenous colitis and preserved health-related quality of life without safety concerns. Treatment extension with low-dose budesonide beyond 1 year may be beneficial given the high relapse rate after budesonide discontinuation. (NCT01278082) and (EudraCT: 2007-001315-31). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Gut 11/2014; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308363 · 13.32 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-586. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)62125-9 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic non-bloody diarrhoea affects up to 5% of the population. Microscopic colitis is one of the most common causes, encompassing the subtypes collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. The diagnosis of microscopic colitis is made by histological examination of colonic mucosal biopsy specimens. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether laboratory parameters or questions about disease history or concomitant disease could be helpful in discriminating patients with MC from those with a histologically normal colonic mucosa. Patients admitted for colonoscopy because of chronic non-bloody diarrhoea (>2 loose stools for >3 weeks) at endoscopy units in Malmo during 2007 and 2009, were enrolled. A total number of 78 patients were included (60 women, 18 men, median age 59, IQR 45-69 years). Out of these 78, 15 patients (19%) had microscopic colitis (CC; n = 10, LC; n = 5). MC was especially prevalent in patients above the age of 50 (25%). No differences were found between those with normal histology and MC in laboratory analyses (inflammatory and liver parameters). Neither were differences shown in questions regarding symptoms, environmental factors or concomitant diseases except for an association with celiac disease (p = 0.019) and a trend maybe indicating an inverse association with appendectomy (p = 0.057). Microscopic colitis is associated with female gender, celiac disease and consumption of NSAIDs. Trends were observed indicating that age above 50 years, acute onset and absence of appendectomy may be associated with MC. No associations were observed with other symptoms, calprotectin levels or liver parameters.
    BMC Research Notes 04/2014; 7(1):236. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-236
  • Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 02/2014; 8:S52. DOI:10.1016/S1873-9946(14)60102-1 · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. Collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC) are two subtypes of microscopic colitis (MC). Even though they most often are described as different entities they share many clinical and histological features. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of conversion between CC and LC in a larger cohort of patients. Materials and methods. All 664 patients in our Pathology register with a diagnosis of CC and LC were scrutinized and those where additional endoscopies had been carried out were included, and their biopsies were re-examined. Results. Sixty-five patients (55 women, 10 men, median age 58 years; range 29-86) fulfilled our criteria for inclusion. The primary diagnosis was CC in 47 patients (39 women, 8 men, median age 58 years; range 29-86) and LC in 18 patients (16 women, 2 men, median age 58 years; range 33-74). Conversion occurred in nine of the 65 patients (14%, all women, median age 59 years; range 41-72), three from CC to LC and six from LC to CC. Conclusion. This study has found that patients can show histological features consistent with both CC and LC over time. These patients could represent a subgroup with a true conversion between two separate entities. Alternatively, MC could be a spectral disease where the varying histological features are manifestations of the natural fluctuation. A third possibility could be that the histological changes reflect different manifestations during the disease course and consequently, the diagnostic criteria could be too vague.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2012; DOI:10.3109/00365521.2012.729085 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the incidence of collagenous colitis (CC) in southern Sweden during 2001-2010. Cases were identified by searching for CC in the diagnostic registers at the Pathology Departments in the county of Skåne. The catchment area comprised the south-west part of the county (394 307 inhabitants in 2010) and is a mixed urban and rural type with limited migration. CC patients that had undergone colonoscopy during the defined period and were living in this area were included in the study regardless of where in Skåne they had been diagnosed. Medical records were scrutinized and uncertain cases were reassessed to ensure that only newly diagnosed CC cases were included. The diagnosis of CC was based on both clinical and histopathological criteria. The clinical criterion was non-bloody watery diarrhoea. The histopathological criteria were a chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria, a thickened subepithelial collagen layer ≥ 10 micrometers (μm) and epithelial damage such as flattening and detachment. During the ten year period from 2001-2010, 198 CC patients in the south-west part of the county of Skåne in southern Sweden were newly diagnosed. Of these, 146 were women and 52 were men, i.e., a female: male ratio of 2.8:1. The median age at diagnosis was 71 years (range 28-95/inter-quartile range 59-81); for women median age was 71 (range 28-95) years and was 73 (range 48-92) years for men. The mean annual incidence was 5.4/10(5) inhabitants. During the time periods 2001-2005 and 2006-2010, the mean annual incidence rates were 5.4/10(5) for both periods [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.3-6.5 in 2001-2005 and 4.4-6.4 in 2006-2010, respectively, and 4.7-6.2 for the whole period]. Although the incidence varied over the years (minimum 3.7 to maximum 6.7/10(5)) no increase or decrease in the incidence could be identified. The odds ratio (OR) for CC in women compared to men was estimated to be 2.8 (95% CI: 2.0-3.7). The OR for women 65 years of age or above compared to below 65 years of age was 6.9 (95% CI: 5.0-9.7), and for women 65 years of age or above compared to the whole group the OR was 4.7 (95% CI: 3.6-6.0). The OR for age in general, i.e., above or 65 years of age compared to those younger than 65 was 8.3 (95% CI: 6.2-11.1). During the last decade incidence figures for CC have also been reported from Calgary, Canada during 2002-2004 (4.6/10(5)) and from Terrassa, Spain during 2004-2008 (2.6/10(5)). Our incidence figures from southern Sweden during 2001-2010 (5.4/10(5)) as well as the incidence figures presented in the studies during the 1990s (Terrassa, Spain during 1993-1997 (2.3/10(5)), Olmsted, United States during 1985-2001 (3.1/10(5)), Örebro, Sweden during 1993-1998 (4.9/10(5)), and Iceland during 1995-1999 (5.2/10(5)) are all in line with a north-south gradient, something that has been suggested before both for CC and inflammatory bowel disease. The observed incidence of CC is comparable with previous reports from northern Europe and America. The incidence is stable but the female: male ratio seems to be decreasing.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2012; 18(22):2821-6. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v18.i22.2821 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphocytic colitis is characterised by chronic diarrhoea and specific microscopic changes in a macroscopically normal colonic mucosa. We report clinical features and treatment outcome in a large patient cohort. Patients were searched for in 24 Swedish gastroenterology clinics. The biopsy material was reassessed using strict histopathological criteria. Clinical data were obtained from medical notes. Lymphocytic colitis was diagnosed in 199 cases. The female:male ratio was 2.4:1. Median age at diagnosis was 59 (48-70) years. The most frequent symptoms were diarrhoea (96%), abdominal pain (47%), and weight loss (41%). The course was chronic intermittent in 30% of patients, chronic continuous in 7%, and a single attack in 63%, and in these cases the disease duration was 6 (4-11) months. Seventy nine (40%) patients reported associated diseases, of which thyroid disorders, coeliac disease, and diabetes mellitus were the most common. In 34 first or second degree relatives of 24 (12%) patients, a family history of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, collagenous colitis, or coeliac disease was reported. Drug induced disease was suspected in 19 (10%) patients. A non-significant peak of disease onset was seen in December-January. More than 80% of treated patients improved on corticosteroids, including budesonide. A family history of other bowel disorders is a new finding. The sudden onset and single attack of limited duration may support a possible infectious cause in some cases. Drugs may cause lymphocytic colitis.
    Gut 05/2004; 53(4):536-41. · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microscopic colitis, including collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, mainly affects middle aged and older subjects, with a female predominance in collagenous colitis. The diseases have previously been regarded as rare. We present an epidemiological study of microscopic colitis in a well defined Swedish population. Patients were retrospectively searched for in colonoscopy reports of those who had a colonoscopy in the period 1993-1998 for non-bloody diarrhoea. All colonic mucosal biopsies were reassessed using strict diagnostic criteria. Biopsies from 1018 patients were reassessed. Fifty one (45 female) collagenous colitis patients and 46 (31 female) lymphocytic colitis patients were diagnosed. Median age at diagnosis was 64 years in collagenous colitis and 59 years in lymphocytic colitis. The mean annual incidence of collagenous colitis was 4.9/10(5) inhabitants (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6-6.2/10(5)) and of lymphocytic colitis 4.4/10(5) inhabitants (95% CI 3.1-5.7/10(5)). The annual incidence of collagenous colitis increased from 3.7/10(5) in 1993-1995 to 6.1/10(5) in 1996-1998 (difference 2.4/10(5) (95% CI -0.3-5.1/10(5))) whereas the incidence of lymphocytic colitis increased from 3.1/10(5) to 5.7/10(5) (difference 2.6/10(5) (95% CI 0.1-5.2/10(5))). The annual incidences of collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are higher than considered previously and are now equal to the incidence of Crohn's disease in Sweden, and combined rates approach the incidence of ulcerative colitis. Microscopic colitis was diagnosed in 10% of all patients with non-bloody diarrhoea referred for colonoscopy and in almost 20% of those older than 70 years.
    Gut 04/2004; 53(3):346-50. DOI:10.1136/gut.2003.014431 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colonic nitric oxide (NO) production in collagenous colitis (CC) has been studied in a small number of patients and found increased. The cellular source of NO is believed to be the colonic epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to investigate colonic NO levels in patients with CC and lymphocytic colitis (LC), to compare with the histopathological status and with the clinical activity, and to assess the epithelial expression of inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and eNOS). We included 19 patients with CC, 8 patients with LC and 15 controls. During colonoscopy, luminal gas was sampled and NO levels were measured using the chemiluminescence technique. Mucosal biopsies were obtained for routine histopathologic examination and immunohistochemical studies of iNOS and eNOS. Clinical activity, as measured by the mean frequency of daily bowel movements during the week prior to colonoscopy, was assessed. Luminal NO levels, median (25-75 percentiles), in the patients with CC and LC were greatly increased compared to the controls, 1673 (145-8143) parts per billion (ppb) and 1838 (1065-2694) ppb versus 28 (20-46) ppb (P < 0.005, both). A positive association was seen between NO levels and histopathological status as well as clinical activity. Strong expression of iNOS was seen in the surface epithelium in 5 of 6 patients with CC and in 2 of 5 patients with LC. The fact that luminal NO levels are related to histopathological status and correlate with clinical activity indicates that NO is involved in the pathophysiology of CC and LC. The epithelial cells are the most likely source of luminal NO.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2003; 38(1):66-72. DOI:10.1080/00365520310000465 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The etiology and pathogenesis of microscopic colitis is unknown. Whether genetic predisposition is of importance, as in many other gastrointestinal diseases, is unknown. Familial occurrence of collagenous colitis has earlier been reported only in two families. Familial occurrence of microscopic colitis was searched for in a Swedish national microscopic colitis register. Familial occurrence of microscopic colitis was identified in five families. In all families a sister-sister relationship was found. Two sisters with collagenous colitis had been living apart in different Nordic countries for many years before developing the disease. In one pair, the smoking sister had collagenous colitis and the never smoking sister had lymphocytic colitis. Considering the relative rarity of microscopic colitis, these findings indicate that a genetic predisposition may be of importance.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2001; 36(9):959-62. DOI:10.1080/003655201750305486 · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • J Bohr, M Olesen, C Tysk, G Järnerot
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    ABSTRACT: Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are newly described colitides that are only diagnosable microscopically; therefore, both are known under the umbrella term 'microscopic colitis'. This is a short review of the clinical findings, and epidemiological and basic observations of these relatively little described colitides belonging to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases.
    Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie 01/2001; 14(11):943-7. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The production of nitric oxide (NO) is increased in active ulcerative colitis and in Crohn's disease. We have studied NO production in collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC), both of which are inflammatory bowel disorders of unknown aetiology. NO levels were measured directly in gas sampled from the colon during colonoscopy. Plasma levels of NO metabolites (nitrate/nitrite) were also measured. Luminal NO levels were more than 100 times higher in patients with CC compared with controls. In addition, plasma levels of nitrate/nitrite were increased in the patients as compared with controls. Measurements of NO directly in the colon or its oxidation products in plasma may be a helpful tool in further understanding the role of NO in the pathophysiology of CC and LC. Moreover, it is tempting to speculate that these measurements could be clinically useful in the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of these two inflammatory bowel diseases.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 11/1997; 27(10):869-71. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2362.1997.2230757.x · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microscopic colitis, encompassing collagenous and lymphocytic colitis, is a fairly common cause of chronic watery diarrhoea, especially in elderly women. In recent epidemiological studies the annual incidence of each disorder was 4-6/100.000 inhabitants. The aetiology is unknown. The main clinical symptoms are watery diarrhoea, weight loss and abdominal pain. Laboratory analyses are nondiagnostic, and the diagnoses rely on histopathological examination of colonic mucosal biopsies. There is an association to autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, celiac disease and arthritis. Budesonide is the best-documented treatment of collagenous colitis. It is superior to placebo in short-term therapy, but the long-term efficacy is not well studied. The evidence for other therapeutic alternatives such as loperamide, cholestyramine, bismuth subsalicylate, or 5-aminosalicylates is weak. In unresponsive severe disease azathioprine or methotrexate may be tried. There are at present no controlled data on the treatment of lymphocytic colitis. The long-term prognosis of microscopic colitis is good, serious complications are rare and there is no increased mortality.
    Lakartidningen 102(32-33):2210-4.

Publication Stats

498 Citations
84.98 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Skåne University Hospital
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2014
    • Malmö University
      • Department of Oral Pathology
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2004
    • Akademiska Sjukhuset
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2003
    • Karolinska Institutet
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1997
    • Örebro University Hospital
      Örebro, Örebro, Sweden