[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: This is a multicenter retrospective study evaluating the immediate- and mid-term outcomes of cryoablation of accessory pathways in the coronary sinus in children or in patients with congenital heart disease.Methods and Results: Twenty-one patients (median age 13.0 years, range 2–40) from six institutions were included. The accessory pathways were concealed in 11 and manifest in 10. Of 12 patients who had coronary sinus angiography, two had large coronary sinus diverticula, one had a dilated coronary sinus due to a left superior vena cava to coronary sinus, and one had a “pouch” at the mouth of the coronary sinus. Six patients underwent ablation procedures with cryoablation alone, while in the remaining 15 patients, both cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation were utilized. The ablation procedure included left-sided endocardial mapping via a retrograde or transeptal approach in 13 (62%). Procedural success was achieved with cryoablation in the coronary sinus in 15/21 (71%). Four patients (19%) had successful radiofrequency ablation at the right or left posterior septum. Two patients (10%) had unsuccessful procedures. Of the 15 patients with initially successful cryoablation procedures, six (40%) had arrhythmia recurrences at a median of 17 days (range 1–120). Recurrences could not be explained by differences in patient or procedural variables.Conclusion: Cryoablation in the coronary venous system in young patients is feasible but associated with a high arrhythmia recurrence rate. Cryoablation techniques and/or equipment need to be improved in order to safely create more permanent lesions in this arrhythmia substrate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: In pediatric and congenital heart disease patients, transvenous ICD implantation may be limited secondary to patient size, venous, or cardiac anatomy. Epicardial patches require a thoracotomy, and may lead to a restrictive pericardial process. Because of these issues, we have explored novel ICD configurations.Methods: Retrospective review at 10 centers implanting ICDs without a transvenous shocking coil or epicardial patches.Results: Twenty-two patients underwent implant at a mean age of 8.9 years (range: 0.3–43.5), with a mean weight of 25.5 kg (range: 5.2–70). Diagnoses included complex CHD, intracardiac tumors, cardiomyopathy, idiopathic VT, LV noncompaction, and long QT syndrome. Three configurations were used: subcutaneous array, a transvenous design ICD lead placed on the epicardium, or a transvenous design ICD lead placed subcutaneously. Difficulties were found at implant in 8 patients: 4 had difficulty inducing VT/VF, and 4 had high DFTs. Over a mean follow-up of 2.2 years (range: 0.2–10.5), 7 patients had appropriate shocks. Inappropriate shocks occurred in 4 patients. System revisions were required in 7 patients: 2 generator changes (in 1 patient), 3 pace-sense lead replacement, 1 additional subcutaneous coil placement due to increased DFT, 1 upgrade to a transvenous system, and 1 revision to epicardial patch system.Conclusions: ICD implantation can be performed without epicardial patches or transvenous high-energy leads in this population, using individualized techniques. This will allow ICD use in patients who have intracardiac shunting or are deemed too small for transvenous ICD leads. The long-term outcome and possible complications are as yet unknown in this population, and they should be monitored closely with follow-up DFTs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ablation of Chaotic Atrial Rhythm. Chaotic atrial rhythm in infants has been defined similar to multifocal atrial tachycardia in adults, implying; a multifocal etiology. However, its ECG appearance resembles atrial fibrillation, which sometimes has a unifocal ectopic mechanism umenable to catheter ablation. Curative focal radiofrequency ablation was performed in a 4-month-old infant with chaotic atrial rhythm and dilated cardiomyopathy. Left ventricular function subsequently returned to normal. Reversibility of associated cardiomyopathy supports aggressive rhythm management of chaotic atrial rhythm. In this patient, the unifocal origin allows insight into the pathophysiology of the rhythm and demonstrates the potential utility of catheter ablation for refractory cases.