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Large discrepancies have been found between Western and Japanese pathologists in the diagnosis of adenoma/dysplasia versus carcinoma for gastric and colorectal glandular lesions. It is important to determine whether similar differences exist in the diagnosis of esophageal squamous lesions.METHODS
Eleven expert gastrointestinal pathologists from Japan, North America, and Europe individually reviewed a set of microscopic slides containing 21 sections of biopsies and corresponding endoscopic mucosal resection specimens from Japanese patients with superficial esophageal squamous neoplastic lesions. The pathologists indicated the pathologic findings on which they based each diagnosis.RESULTSInvasion was the most important diagnostic criterion of carcinoma for the Western pathologists whereas nuclear and structural features were more important for the Japanese pathologists. For two sections showing low grade dysplasia according to most Western pathologists, the Japanese pathologists diagnosed suspected carcinoma in one case and definite carcinoma in the other. For nine sections with high grade dysplasia according to the Western pathologists, the Japanese pathologists diagnosed suspected carcinoma in two cases and definite carcinoma in seven cases. For six sections with suspected carcinoma according to most Western pathologists, the Japanese pathologists diagnosed suspected carcinoma in one case and definite carcinoma in five cases. Four sections showed definite carcinoma according to both the Western and Japanese pathologists. Thus, there was agreement among the Western and Japanese pathologists for only 5 of the 21 sections (kappa value, 0.04). However, when high grade dysplasia, noninvasive carcinoma, and suspected carcinoma were grouped together, the agreement was excellent (19 of the 21 sections; kappa value, 0.75).CONCLUSIONS
In Japan, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is diagnosed mainly based on nuclear criteria, even in cases judged to be noninvasive low grade dysplasia in the West. This difference in diagnostic practice may contribute to the relatively high incidence rate and good prognosis of superficial esophageal carcinoma in Japan. To improve the comparability of research data, the authors recommend that high grade dysplasia, noninvasive carcinoma, and suspected carci- noma be grouped together into one category of “noninvasive high grade neoplasia.” [See editorial on pages 969-70, this issue.] Cancer 2000;88:996–1006. © 2000 American Cancer Society.
Cancer 11/2000; 88(5):996 - 1006. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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In view of the many studies of early stage colorectal carcinoma from Japan, it is essential to know whether the criteria for the histologic diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma are similar in Japan and Western countries.METHODS
Eight expert pathologists from Japan (4), North America (2), and Europe (2) individually reviewed microscope slides of 20 colorectal lesions from Japanese patients who had undergone endoscopic mucosal resection or surgery because early stage carcinoma and/or adenoma was suspected. The pathologists indicated the pathologic findings on which they based each diagnosis.RESULTSFor 11 slides that showed adenoma according to the Western pathologists with low grade dysplasia according to at least half of them, the Japanese diagnosed definite carcinoma with or without adenoma in 4 cases and adenoma in 5, and in 2 cases they were equally divided between a diagnosis of adenoma and carcinoma. For five slides showing adenoma with high grade dysplasia according to the Western pathologists, the Japanese diagnosed definite carcinoma with adenoma in three cases and adenoma in one, and in one case they were equally divided between a diagnosis of adenoma and carcinoma. For one case in which the Western pathologists were equally divided between a diagnosis of carcinoma and adenoma with high grade dysplasia, all the Japanese pathologists diagnosed definite carcinoma with or without adenoma. Three slides showed definite carcinoma with or without adenoma, according to both the Western and the Japanese pathologists. The presence of invasion was the most important diagnostic criterion of colorectal carcinoma for the Western pathologists, whereas for the Japanese the nuclear features and glandular structures were more important.CONCLUSIONS
In Japan, colorectal carcinoma is diagnosed on the basis of nuclear and structural criteria, even in cases considered by Western pathologists to be noninvasive lesions with low grade dysplasia. This diagnostic practice may contribute to the relatively high incidence of early stage colorectal carcinoma reported in Japan as compared with Western countries. Cancer 1998;82:60-69. © 1998 American Cancer Society.
Cancer 12/1997; 82(1):60 - 69. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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The recently introduced genetic diagnosis of cancer micrometastasis is quite attractive because of its high detection sensitivity. Not infrequently, however, there are marked discrepancies between genetic and conventional histologic diagnoses, especially concerning lymph nodes from colon carcinoma patients. Because the histologic approach has long been relied on in the clinic, the reasons for the differences in results need to be elucidated.METHODS
Serial sections of genetic diagnosis positive but histologic negative lymph nodes of colon carcinoma patients were prepared for histologic and immunohistochemical studies. To investigate the possible contaminating influence of DNA sequences derived from degraded carcinoma cells from the primary site through the lymphatics, the authors also injected purified DNA of human colon carcinoma cells (SW480) into the foot pads of rats and sequentially examined lymph nodes using genetic diagnosis methodology.RESULTSCareful histologic examination of genetic diagnosis positive, histologically negative lymph nodes of colon carcinoma patients confirmed the absence of cancer cells, whereas p53 protein was immunohistochemically demonstrated to be present in the cytoplasm of sinus histiocytes. In the rat experiment, positive reactions were obtained with the inguinal lymph nodes beginning 30 minutes after the injection, and lymph nodes at various sites were subsequently affected, even after a 72-hour period.CONCLUSIONS
The current study thus suggests that positive results with genetic diagnosis may simply indicate the presence of tumor DNA and do not necessarily mean that viable cancer cells are present. Although the genetic approach may still hold promise for the detection of cancer micrometastases, its predictive value should be carefully assessed clinicopathologically, because its supersensitivity may be associated with a greatly increased false-positive rate. [See editorial on pages 1363-5, this issue.] Cancer 1997; 80:1393-8. © 1997 American Cancer Society.
Cancer 10/1997; 80(8):1393 - 1398. · 5.20 Impact Factor