Elmar Koerding

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chōfu, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (80)359.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We report on the discovery of an apparent triple radio structure hidden inside the radio bubble of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg II X-1. The morphology is consistent with a collimated jet structure, which is observed to emit optically thin synchrotron radiation. The central component has a steep radio spectrum and is brighter than the outer components indicating a renewed radio activity. We estimate a minimum time-averaged jet power of 2 x 10^{39} erg/s that is associated with a time-averaged isotropic X-ray luminosity of at least 4 x 10^{39} erg/s. Our results suggest that Holmberg II X-1 is powered by a black hole of M_BH \geq 25 M_sun, that is inferred to be accreting at a high Eddington rate with intermittent radio activity.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Time series photometry of 20 Cataclysmic Variables detected by the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey is presented. 14 of these systems have not been observed previously and only two have been examined in-depth. From the observations we determined 12 new orbital periods and independently found a further two. Eight of the CVs are eclipsing systems, five of which have eclipse depths of more than 0.9 mag. Included in the sample are six SU UMa systems (three of which show superhumps in our photometry), a polar (SSS1944-42) and one system (CSS1417-18) that displays an abnormally fast decline from outburst.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2013; 437(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The microquasar GX 339-4 was observed by Suzaku five times, spaced by a few days, during its transition back to the hard state at the end of its 2010-2011 outburst. The 2-10 keV source flux decreases by a factor ~10 between the beginning and the end of the monitoring. Simultaneous radio and OIR observations highlighted the re-ignition of the radio emission just before the beginning of the campaign, the maximum radio emission being reached between the two first Suzaku pointings, while the IR peaked a few weeks latter. A fluorescent iron line is always significantly detected. Fits with a gaussian or Laor profiles give statistically equivalent results. In the case of a Laor profile, fits of the five data sets simultaneously agree with a disk inclination angle of ~20 degrees. The disk inner radius is <10-30 R_g in the first two observations but almost unconstrained in the last three. A soft X-ray excess is also present in these two first observations. Fits with a multicolor disk component give disk inner radii in agreement with those obtained with the iron line fits. The use of a physically more realistic model, including a blurred reflection component and a comptonization continuum, give some hints of the increase of the disk inner radius but the significances are always weak. Interestingly, the addition of warm absorption significantly improves the fit of OBS1 while it is not needed in the other observations. The radio-jet re-ignition occurring between OBS1 and OBS2, these absorption features may indicate the natural evolution from a disk wind and a jet. The comparison with a long 2008 Suzaku observation of GX 339-4 in a persistent faint hard state where a narrow iron line clearly indicates a disk recession, is discussed.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: An international consortium is presently constructing a beamformer for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile that will be available as a facility instrument. The beamformer will aggregate the entire collecting area of the array into a single, very large aperture. The extraordinary sensitivity of phased ALMA, combined with the extremely fine angular resolution available on baselines to the Northern Hemisphere, will enable transformational new very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations in Bands 6 and 7 (1.3 and 0.8 mm) and provide substantial improvements to existing VLBI arrays in Bands 1 and 3 (7 and 3 mm). The ALMA beamformer will have impact on a variety of scientific topics, including accretion and outflow processes around black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN), tests of general relativity near black holes, jet launch and collimation from AGN and microquasars, pulsar and magnetar emission processes, the chemical history of the universe and the evolution of fundamental constants across cosmic time, maser science, and astrometry.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We obtained multi-epoch Very Large Telescope (VLT) optical spectroscopic data in 2011 and 2012 on the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1. We confirm that the HeII\lambda4686 line has a broad component with an average FWHM of v=780\pm64 km/s with a variation of ~13% during observations spanning over 4 years, and is consistent with the origin in the accretion disc. The deepest optical spectrum does not reveal any absorption line from a donor star. Our aim was to measure the radial velocity curve and estimate the parameters of the binary system. We find an upper limit on the semi-amplitude of the radial velocity of K=132\pm42 km/s. A search for a periodic signal in the data resulted in no statistically significant period. The mass function and constraints on the binary system imply a black hole mass of less than ~510 M_sun. Whilst, a disc irradiation model may imply a black hole mass smaller than ~431-1985 M_sun, depending on inclination. Our data can also be consistent with an unexplored orbital period range from a couple of hours to a few days, thus with a stellar-mass black hole and a subgiant companion.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 435(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dwarf novae are white dwarfs accreting matter from a nearby red dwarf companion. Their regular outbursts are explained by a thermal-viscous instability in the accretion disc, described by the disc instability model that has since been successfully extended to other accreting systems. However, the prototypical dwarf nova, SS Cygni, presents a major challenge to our understanding of accretion disc theory. At the distance of 159 ± 12 parsecs measured by the Hubble Space Telescope, it is too luminous to be undergoing the observed regular outbursts. Using very long baseline interferometric radio observations, we report an accurate, model-independent distance to SS Cygni that places the source substantially closer at 114 ± 2 parsecs. This reconciles the source behavior with our understanding of accretion disc theory in accreting compact objects.
    Science 05/2013; 340(6135):950-952. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report striking changes in the broadband spectrum of the compact jet of the black hole transient MAXI J1836–194 over state transitions during its discovery outburst in 2011. A fading of the optical-infrared (IR) flux occurred as the source entered the hard-intermediate state, followed by a brightening as it returned to the hard state. The optical-IR spectrum was consistent with a power law from optically thin synchrotron emission, except when the X-ray spectrum was softest. By fitting the radio to optical spectra with a broken power law, we constrain the frequency and flux of the optically thick/thin break in the jet synchrotron spectrum. The break gradually shifted to higher frequencies as the source hardened at X-ray energies, from ~1011 to ~4 × 1013 Hz. The radiative jet luminosity integrated over the spectrum appeared to be greatest when the source entered the hard state during the outburst decay (although this is dependent on the high-energy cooling break, which is not seen directly), even though the radio flux was fading at the time. The physical process responsible for suppressing and reactivating the jet (neither of which are instantaneous but occur on timescales of weeks) is uncertain, but could arise from the varying inner accretion disk radius regulating the fraction of accreting matter that is channeled into the jet. This provides an unprecedented insight into the connection between inflow and outflow, and has implications for the conditions required for jets to be produced, and hence their launching process.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 04/2013; 768(2):L35. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first study of Fourier-frequency-dependent coherence and phase/time lags at optical wavelengths of cataclysmic variables (MV Lyr and LU Cam) displaying typical flickering variability in white light. Observations were performed on the William Herschel Telescope using ULTRACAM. Lightcurves for both systems have been obtained with the SDSS filters $u'$, $g'$ and $r'$ simultaneously with cadences between $\approx0.5-2$ seconds, and allow us to probe temporal frequencies between ~10^{-3} Hz and ~1 Hz. We find high levels of coherence between the u', g' and r' lightcurves up to at least ~10^{-2} Hz. Furthermore we detect red/negative lags where the redder bands lag the bluer ones at the lowest observed frequencies. For MV Lyr time lags up to ~3 seconds are observed, whilst LU Cam displays larger time lags of ~10 seconds. Mechanisms which seek to explain red/negative lags observed in X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei involve reflection of photons generated close to the compact object onto the surface layers of the accretion disk, where the lag delay is simply the light-travel time from the emitting source to the reflecting accretion disk area. Although this could be a viable explanation for the lags observed in MV Lyr, the lags observed in LU Cam are too large to be explained by reflection from the disk and/or the donor star. We suggest reprocessing on the thermal timescale of boundary layer photons onto the accretion disk as a possible mechanism to explain the lags observed in accreting white dwarfs, or reverse (inside-out) shocks within the disk travelling through cooler disk regions as they move outwards.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2013; 431(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first results of an ongoing spectroscopic follow-up programme of blue-Hα-excess sources within the Kepler field of view in order to identify new cataclysmic variables. Kepler observations of the identified targets in this work will then provide detailed, time-resolved, studies of accretion. Candidates selected from the Kepler-Isaac Newton Telescope Survey were observed with the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. Out of 38 observed candidates, we found 11 new cataclysmic variables reported here for the first time, as well as 13 new quasars. Our target selection has a success rate of 29 per cent when searching for cataclysmic variables, and we show how this can be improved by including photometry obtained with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2013; 428(3):2207-2215. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have obtained optical spectroscopy of the bright optical transient SSS130101:122222-311525 reported in ATel 4699 and 4700) with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. The observations were taken on Jan 3, 2013 with the dual arm spectrograph ISIS, covering both blue and red optical wavelengths. The total exposure time was 29 mins, centered on 06:33 UT. The data were obtained at high airmass in poor seeing, and no flux calibration was attempted.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The spectroscopy described in ATel #4704 was taken on Jan 5, 2013, not Jan 3, 2013, as erroneously stated there. The authors apologize for the typo.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and X-ray binaries have shown that relativistic jets are ubiquitous when compact objects accrete. One could therefore anticipate the launch of a jet after a star is disrupted and accreted by a massive black hole. This birth of a relativistic jet may have been observed recently in two stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs), which were discovered in gamma-rays by Swift. Yet no transient radio emission has been detected from the tens of TDF candidates that were discovered at optical to soft X-ray frequencies. Because the sample that was followed-up at radio frequencies is small, the non-detections can be explained by Doppler boosting, which reduces the jet flux for off-axis observers. Plus, the existing followup observation are mostly within ˜ 10 months of the discovery, so the non-detections can also be due to a delay of the radio emission with respect to the time of disruption. To test the conjecture that all TDFs launch jets, we obtained 5 GHz follow-up observations with the Jansky VLA of six known TDFs. To avoid missing delayed jet emission, our observations probe 1-8 years since the estimated time of disruption. None of the sources are detected, with very deep upper limits at the 10 micro Jansky level. These observations rule out the hypothesis that these TDFs launched jets similar to radio-loud quasars. We also constrain the possibility that the flares hosted a jet identical to Sw 1644+57.
    12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first results of an ongoing spectroscopic follow-up program of blue H-alpha excess sources within the Kepler field-of-view, in order to identify new cataclysmic variables. Kepler observations of the identified targets in this work will then provide detailed, time-resolved, studies of accretion. Candidates selected from the Kepler-INT Survey were observed with the 4.2 meter William Herschel Telescope. Out of 38 observed candidates, we found 11 new cataclysmic variables reported here for the first time, as well as 13 new quasars. Our target selection has a success rate of 29% when searching for cataclysmic variables, and we show how this can be improved by including photometry obtained with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Many decades of observations of active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries have shown that relativistic jets are ubiquitous when compact objects accrete. One could therefore anticipate the launch of a jet after a star is disrupted and accreted by a massive black hole. This birth of a relativistic jet may have been observed recently in two stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs), which were discovered in gamma-rays by Swift. Yet no transient radio emission has been detected from the tens of TDF candidates that were discovered at optical to soft X-ray frequencies. Because the sample that was followed-up at radio frequencies is small, the non-detections can be explained by Doppler boosting, which reduces the jet flux for off-axis observers. And since the existing follow-up observation are mostly within ~10 months of the discovery, the non-detections can also be due to a delay of the radio emission with respect to the time of disruption. To test the conjecture that all TDFs launch jets, we obtained 5 GHz follow-up observations with the Jansky VLA of seven known TDFs. To avoid missing delayed jet emission, our observations probe 1-8 years since the estimated time of disruption. None of the sources are detected, with very deep upper limits at the 10 micro Jansky level. These observations rule out the hypothesis that these TDFs launched jets similar to radio-loud quasars. We also constrain the possibility that the flares hosted a jet identical to Sw 1644+57, the first and best-sampled relativistic TDF. We thus obtain evidence for a dichotomy in the stellar tidal disruption population, implying that the jet launching mechanism is sensitive to the parameters of the disruption.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a broad-band timing analysis of the accreting white dwarf system MV Lyrae based on data obtained with the Kepler satellite. The observations span 633 days at a cadence of 58.8 seconds and allow us to probe 4 orders of magnitude in temporal frequency. The modelling of the observed broad-band noise components is based on the superposition of multiple Lorentzian components, similar to the empirical modelling adopted for X-ray binary systems. We also present the detection of a frequency varying Lorentzian component in the lightcurve of MV Lyrae, where the Lorentzian characteristic frequency is inversely correlated with the mean source flux. Because in the literature similar broad-band noise components have been associated to either the viscous or dynamical timescale for different source types (accreting black holes or neutron stars), we here systematically explore both scenarios and place constraints on the accretion disk structure. In the viscous case we employ the fluctuating accretion disk model to infer parameters for the viscosity and disk scale height, and infer uncomfortably high parameters to be accommodated by the standard thin disk, whilst in the dynamical case we infer a large accretion disk truncation radius of ~10 white dwarf radii. More importantly however, the phenomenological properties between the broad-band variability observed here and in X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei are very similar, potentially suggesting a common origin for the broad-band variability.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2012; 427(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an intensive radio and X-ray monitoring campaign on the 2009 outburst of the Galactic black hole candidate X-ray binary H1743-322. With the high angular resolution of the Very Long Baseline Array, we resolve the jet ejection event and measure the proper motions of the jet ejecta relative to the position of the compact core jets detected at the beginning of the outburst. This allows us to accurately couple the moment when the jet ejection event occurred with X-ray spectral and timing signatures. We find that X-ray timing signatures are the best diagnostic of the jet ejection event in this outburst, which occurred as the X-ray variability began to decrease and the Type C quasi-periodic oscillations disappeared from the X-ray power density spectrum. However, this sequence of events does not appear to be replicated in all black hole X-ray binary outbursts, even within an individual source. In our observations of H1743-322, the ejection was contemporaneous with a quenching of the radio emission, prior to the start of the major radio flare. This contradicts previous assumptions that the onset of the radio flare marks the moment of ejection. The jet speed appears to vary between outbursts, with a possible positive correlation with outburst luminosity. The compact core radio jet reactivated on transition to the hard intermediate state at the end of the outburst, and not when the source reached the low hard spectral state. Comparison with the known near-infrared behaviour of the compact jets suggests a gradual evolution of the compact jet power over a few days near the beginning and end of an outburst.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • G. R. Sivakoff, E. G. Körding, V. Tudose
    Tissue Engineering Part A - TISSUE ENG PART A. 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the questions in this chapter deal with sources that do not show the "classical" broad emission-line spectrum that characterizes the majority of known AGNs at high and low redshift. If that majority represents a "parent population" of AGNs, is the apparent absence of broad lines a result of obscuration, orientation, or different physical conditions? Can all of the subclasses be unified under the AGN umbrella? With the unification scheme set in place and assumed to be fundamentally correct, there are at least four overarching questions: do all type-2 AGNs possess an obscured broad-line region? Or how can we distinguishing type-2 AGNs without a broad-line region if they exist? Where is the low end of quasar activity? The least luminous AGNs are the so-called low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), but it is legitimate to ask if they are all true AGNs.
    01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The empirical basis of quasar astronomy can be overawing especially in the twenty-first century. A first source of intricacy involves the nomenclature that has evolved to label the multifold phenomenological manifestations now united under the umbrella of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). A further complication involves observations of the many subclasses with the observations now spanning the electromagnetic spectrum.
    01/2012: pages 91-215; , ISBN: 978-3-642-27563-0
  • E. G. Körding, C. Knigge, T. Tzioumis, R. Fender
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    ABSTRACT: Jets have been detected in many accreting compact objects, and recently indications for jets have finally been found for transient cataclysmic variables (dwarf novae). However, so far, there have been no convincing reports of radio emission from white dwarfs undergoing stable disc accretion at a high rate, the so-called nova-like variables. Here, we present the first reproducible radio detection of a nova-like cataclysmic variable. The accretion rate and the distance of the detected source V3885 Sgr are comparable to the dwarf nova SS Cyg during its plateau phase. The detected radio emission is also of a similar level, although the source seems to show a steep spectrum. Besides V3885 Sgr, we have also observed IX Vel as well as reanalysed the available data for AC Cnc. Due to dynamic range limitations for IX Vel, we were not able to reach the required sensitivity and only obtained an upper limit. For AC Cnc we cannot confirm the previous detection. We discuss the detection of V3885 Sgr in the context of other types of accreting objects and conclude that the most likely source of the radio emission is optically thin synchrotron emission originating in a jet. Thus, tentative evidence for jets has now been found in both steady and transient CVs, making a universal connection between disc accretion and jet formation possible.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters 10/2011; 418(1):L129 - L132. · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

873 Citations
359.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
      Chōfu, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2005–2013
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • Department of Astrophysics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • The University of Warwick
      Coventry, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009–2011
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2005–2010
    • University of Southampton
      • • Physics and Astronomy
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Southampton, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2007
    • University of New Hampshire
      Durham, New Hampshire, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany