Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak

Universities Space Research Association, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (71)50.63 Total impact

  • Proc SPIE 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: New technology in grazing-incidence mirror fabrication and assembly is necessary to achieve subarcsecond optics for large-area x-ray telescopes. In order to define specifications, an understanding of performance sensitivity to design parameters is crucial. MSFC is undertaking a systematic study to specify a mounting approach, mirror substrate, and testing method. Lightweight mirrors are typically flimsy and are, therefore, susceptible to significant distortion due to mounting and gravitational forces. Material properties of the mirror substrate along with its dimensions significantly affect the distortions caused by mounting and gravity. A parametric study of these properties and their relationship to mounting and testing schemes will indicate specifications for the design of the next generation of lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors. Here we report initial results of this study.
    Proc SPIE 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Chandra images of the Crab Nebula resolve the detailed structure of its "inner ring", possibly a termination shock where pulsar-accelerated relativistic particles begin to emit X radiation. Analysis of these images finds that the center of the ellipse-presumably a circular ring in projection-lies about 0.9" (10 light-days at 2 kpc) from the pulsar's image, at a position angle of about 300{\deg} (East of North). This analysis also measures properties of the ellipse: The position angle of the semi-major axis is about 210{\deg} (East of North); the aspect ratio, 0.49. In a simple-albeit, not unique-de-projection of the observed geometry, a circular ring is centered on the axis of symmetry of the pulsar wind nebula. This ring is not equatorial but rather lies near +4.5{\deg} latitude in pulsar-centered coordinates. Alternative geometries are briefly discussed.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2011; 746(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution ( 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.
    Proc SPIE 09/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne telescopes. During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, the sensitivity of focusing x-ray telescopes-through finer angular resolution and increased effective area-has improved by a factor of a 100 million. This technological advance has enabled numerous exciting discoveries and increasingly detailed study of the high-energy universe-including accreting (stellar-mass and super-massive) black holes, accreting and isolated neutron stars, pulsar-wind nebulae, shocked plasma in supernova remnants, and hot thermal plasma in clusters of galaxies. As the largest structures in the universe, galaxy clusters constitute a unique laboratory for measuring the gravitational effects of dark matter and of dark energy. Here, we review the history of high-resolution x-ray telescopes and highlight some of the scientific results enabled by these telescopes. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility-the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility-Generation X. The scientific objectives of such a mission will require very large areas (about 10000 m2) of highly-nested lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsecond) angular resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure. Comment: 19 pages, 11 figures, SPIE Conference 7803 "Adaptive X-ray Optics", part of SPIE Optics+Photonics 2010, San Diego CA, 2010 August 2-5
    Proc SPIE 10/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The Chandra X-Ray Observatory observed the Crab Nebula and pulsar during orbital calibration. Zeroth-order images with the High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) readout by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer spectroscopy array (ACIS-S) show a striking richness of X-ray structure at a resolution comparable to that of the best ground-based visible-light observations. The HETG-ACIS-S images reveal, for the first time, an X-ray inner ring within the X-ray torus, the suggestion of a hollow-tube structure for the torus, and X-ray knots along the inner ring and (perhaps) along the inward extension of the X-ray jet. Although complicated by instrumental effects and the brightness of the Crab Nebula, the spectrometric analysis shows systematic variations of the X-ray spectrum throughout the nebula.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 536(2):L81. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Chandra X-Ray Observatory observed the Crab pulsar using the Low-Energy Transmission Grating with the High-Resolution Camera. Time-resolved zeroth-order images reveal that the pulsar emits X-rays at all pulse phases. Analysis of the flux at minimum—most likely nonthermal in origin—places an upper limit (T∞ < 2.1 MK) on the surface temperature of the underlying neutron star. In addition, analysis of the pulse profile establishes that the error in the Chandra-determined absolute time is quite small, -0.2 ± 0.1 ms.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 554(2):L173. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We are developing a balloon-borne hard X-ray telescope that utilizes grazing-incidence optics. Termed HERO, for High-Energy Replicated Optics, the instrument will provide unprecedented sensitivity in the hard X-ray region and will achieve millicrab-level sensitivity in a typical 3 hr balloon-flight observation and 50 μcrab sensitivity on ultralong-duration flights. A recent proof-of-concept flight, featuring a small number of mirror shells, captured the first focused hard X-ray images of galactic X-ray sources. Full details of the payload, its expected future performance, and its recent measurements are provided.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 568(1):432. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use Chandra data to map the gas temperature in the central region of the merging cluster A2142. The cluster is markedly nonisothermal; it appears that the central cooling flow has been disturbed but not destroyed by a merger. The X-ray image exhibits two sharp, bow-shaped, shocklike surface brightness edges or gas density discontinuities. However, temperature and pressure profiles across these edges indicate that these are not shock fronts. The pressure is reasonably continuous across these edges, while the entropy jumps in the opposite sense to that in a shock (i.e., the denser side of the edge has lower temperature, and hence lower entropy). Most plausibly, these edges delineate the dense subcluster cores that have survived a merger and ram pressure stripping by the surrounding shock-heated gas.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 541(2):542. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Chandra X-Ray Observatory obtained a 50 ks observation of the central region of M81 using the ACIS-S in imaging mode. The global properties of the 97 X-ray sources detected in the inner 83 × 83 field of M81 are examined. Roughly half the sources are concentrated within the central bulge. The remainder are distributed throughout the disk, with the brightest disk sources lying preferentially along spiral arms. The average hardness ratios of both bulge and disk sources are consistent with power-law spectra of index Γ ~ 1.6, indicative of a population of X-ray binaries. A group of much softer sources is also present. The background-source-subtracted log N-log S distribution of the disk follows a power law of index ~-0.5 with no change in slope over three decades in flux. The log N-log S distribution of the bulge follows a similar shape but with a steeper slope above ~4 × 1037 ergs s-1. There is unresolved X-ray flux from the bulge with a radial profile similar to that of the bulge sources. This unresolved flux is softer than the average of the bulge sources, and extrapolating the bulge log N-log S distribution toward weaker sources can account for only 20% of the unresolved flux. No strong time variability was observed for any source with the exception of one bright, soft source.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 549(1):L43. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simbol-X is arguably the most powerful broad-band focusing hard (0.5-80 keV) X-ray telescope operating in the 2013 timeframe. The combination of good angular resolution, broad energy response, and efficient observing provided by a good field of view and high orbit will provide a very large increase in sensitivity in a hitherto relatively unexplored spectral region. This will enable key scientific investigations including a census of supermassive black holes in the crucial energy range in which the cosmic X-ray background peaks, measurements of the geometry and dynamics of accretion in black hole binaries, characterization of hard X-ray sources in the Galactic center, and the nature and origin of energetic particles in galaxy clusters and supernova remnants. Its single optics module contains a set of nested nickel shells coated with multilayers to boost the high-energy response and the field of view. Its focal plane detectors are a novel hybrid configuration, with thick-depletion silicon providing the low energy response, and Cadmium Telluride the high energy response. To achieve the long focal length necessary for large collecting areas at high energies, the optics and detectors are on separate high-earth-orbit formation-flying spacecrafts, 20 m apart. We describe a proposed US participation in the Simbol-X program to provide technical expertise in the area of multilayer coatings for the X-ray optics; expertise in science and the X-ray testing and calibration of the flight optics; and support as a data analysis, Guest Investigator, and archiving center. The use of the NASA DSN Goldstone station, as a complement to the Malindi tracking station,will also be provided.
    03/2008;
  • Melinda A. Fulton, Brian D. Ramsey, Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak
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    ABSTRACT: Microstrips offer significant advantages over traditional wire grids in gas-filled proportional counters in the areas of energy resolution, durability, and spatial uniformity. The objective of microstrip work at Marshall Space Flight Center is to produce a large area (30 cm square) microstrip with optimized parameters for use in hard x-ray astronomy balloon-borne detectors. MSFC facilities for producing microstrips are used to investigate effects on performance of various parameters such as anode width, anode uniformity, cathode-anode spacing, and substrate conductivity. Mechanical production limitations of 10 cm squares have spawned efforts to piece together several small microstrips to form a `mosaic' pattern which will be large enough for use in an imaging flight detector. In addition, the relative merits of thin film dielectric coatings vs. glass plate separation of orthogonal readout layers for 2D imaging microstrips are being investigated. Selected results of this work and progress toward a large area flight detector will be reported.
    01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: We are fabricating optics for the hard-x-ray region using electroless nickel replication. The attraction of this process, which has been widely used elsewhere, is that the resulting full shell optics are inherently stable and thus can have very good angular resolution. The challenge with this process is to develop lightweight optics (nickel has a relatively high density of 8.9 g/cu cm), and to keep down the costs of mandrel fabrication. We accomplished the former through the development of high-strength nickel alloys that permit very thin shells without fabrication- and handling-induced deformations. For the latter, we have utilized inexpensive grinding and diamond turning to figure the mandrels and then purpose-built polishing machines to finish the surface. In-house plating tanks and a simple water-bath separation system complete the process. To date we have built shells ranging in size from 5 cm diameter to 50 cm, and with thickness down to 100 micron. For our HERO balloon program, we are fabricating over 200 iridium-coated shells, 250 microns thick, for hard-x-ray imaging up to 75 keV. Early test results on these have indicated half-power-diameters of 15 arcsec. The status of these and other hard-x-ray optics will be reviewed.
    02/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: As NASA"s next facility-class x-ray mission, Constellation X will provide high-throughput, high-resolution spectroscopy for addressing fundamental astrophysical and cosmological questions. Key to the Constellation-X mission is the development of lightweight grazing-incidence optics for its Spectroscopy X-ray Telescopes (SXT) and for its Hard X-ray Telescopes (HXT). In preparation for x-ray testing Constellation-X SXT and HXT development and demonstration optics, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is upgrading its 100-m x-ray test facility, including development of a five degree-of-freedom (5-DoF) mount for translating and tilting test articles within the facility"s large vacuum chamber. To support development of alignment and assembly procedures for lightweight x-ray optics, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has prepared the Optical Alignment Pathfinder Two (OAP2), which will serve as a surrogate optic for developing and rehearsing x-ray test procedures. In order to minimize thermal distortion of the mirrors during x-ray testing, the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has designed and implemented a thermal control and monitoring system for the OAP2. CfA has also built an aperture wheel for masking and sub-aperture sampling of the OAP2 to aid in characterizing x-ray performance of test optics.
    Proc SPIE 02/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: As NASA"s next facility-class x-ray mission, Constellation X will provide high-throughput, high-resolution spectroscopy for addressing fundamental astrophysical and cosmological questions. Key to the Constellation-X mission is the development of lightweight grazing-incidence optics for its Spectroscopy X-ray Telescopes (SXT) and for its Hard X-ray Telescopes (HXT). In preparation for x-ray testing Constellation-X SXT and HXT development and demonstration optics, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is upgrading its 100-m x-ray test facility, including development of a five degree-of-freedom (5-DoF) mount for translating and tilting test articles within the facility"s large vacuum chamber. To support development of alignment and assembly procedures for lightweight x-ray optics, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has prepared the Optical Alignment Pathfinder Two (OAP2), which will serve as a surrogate optic for developing and rehearsing x-ray test procedures. In order to minimize thermal distortion of the mirrors during x-ray testing, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has designed and implemented a thermal control and monitoring system for the OAP2. CfA has also built an aperture wheel for masking and sub-aperture sampling of the OAP2 to aid in characterizing x-ray performance of test optics.© (2004) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
    01/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed the electroformed-nickel replication process to enable us to fabricate light-weight, high-quality mirrors for the hard-x-ray region. Two projects currently utilizing this technology are the production of 240 mirror shells, of diameters ranging from 50 to 94 mm, for our HERO balloon payload, and 150- and 230-mm-diameter shells for a prototype Constellation-X hard-x-ray telescope module. The challenge for the former is to fabricate, mount, align and fly a large number of high-resolution mirrors within the constraints of a modest budget. For the latter, the challenge is to maintain high angular resolution despite weight-budget-driven mirror shell thicknesses (100 μm) which make the shells extremely sensitive to fabrication and handling stresses, and to ensure that the replication process does not degrade the ultra-smooth surface finish (~3Å) required for eventual multilayer coatings. We present a progress report on these two programs.© (2004) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
    01/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed the electroformed-nickel replication process to enable us to fabricate light-weight hard-x-ray region. Two projects currently utilizing this technology are the production of over 250 r from 5 to 10 cm, for our HERO balloon payload, and 15- and 23-cm-diameter shells for a prototype module. The challenge for the former is to fabricate, mount, align and fly a large number of high-r constraints of a modest budget. For the latter, the challenge is to maintain high angular resolution shell thicknesses (100 micron) which make the shells extremely sensitive to electroforming stresses process does not degrade the ultra-smooth surface finish (approx. 3 A required for eventual multilayer c on these two programs.
    02/2003;
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We are fabricating optics for the hard-x-ray region using electroless nickel replication. The attraction of this process, which has been widely used elsewhere, is that the resulting full shell optics are inherently table and thus can have very good angular resolution. The challenge with this process is to develop lightweight optics (nickel has a relatively high density of 8.9 g / cu cm), and to keep down the costs of mandrel fabrication. We accomplished the former through the development of high-strength nickel alloys that permit very thin shells without fabrication- and handling-induced deformations. For the latter, we have utilized inexpensive grinding and diamond turning to figure the mandrels and then purpose-built polishing machines to finish the surface. In-house plating tanks and a simple water-bath separation system complete the process. To date we have built shells ranging in size from 5 cm diameter to 50 cm, and with thickness down to 100 micron. For our HERO (high energy replicated optics) balloon program, we are fabricating over 200 iridium-coated shells, 250 microns thick, for hard-x-ray imaging up to 75 keV. Early test results on these have indicated half-power-diameters of 15 arcsec. The status of these and other hard-x-ray optics will be reviewed.
    Proc SPIE 02/2002;
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    ABSTRACT: HERO is a balloon payload featuring shallow-graze angle replicated optics for hard-x-ray imaging. When completed, the instrument will offer unprecedented sensitivity in the hard-x-ray region, giving thousands of sources to choose from for detailed study on long flights. A recent proof-of-concept flight captured the first hard-x-ray focused images of the Crab Nebula, Cygnus X-1 and GRS 1915+105. Full details of the HERO program are presented, including the design and performance of the optics, the detectors and the gondola. Results from the recent proving flight are discussed together with expected future performance when the full science payload is completed.© (2002) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
    01/2002;
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    ABSTRACT: HERO is a balloon payload featuring shallow-graze angle replicated optics for hard-x-ray imaging. When completed, the instrument will offer unprecedented sensitivity in the hard-x-ray region, giving thousands of sources to choose from for detailed study on long flights. A recent proof-of-concept flight captured the first hard-x-ray focused images of the Crab Nebula, Cygnus X-1 and GRS 1915+105. Full details of the HERO program are presented, including the design and performance of the optics, the detectors and the gondola. Results from the recent proving flight are discussed together with expected future performance when the full science payload is completed.
    Proc SPIE 01/2002;