Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak

NASA, Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States

Are you Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak?

Claim your profile

Publications (93)130.42 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard-x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has ~65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MSFC is fabricating x-ray optics for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope – X-Ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART for short) instrument under agreements with the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI). ART-XC is one of two instruments that will be launched on the Russian-German Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) Mission to be launched in 20161. Delivery of the flight optics for ART-XC (7 mirror modules) is currently scheduled for summer/fall of 20142. MSFC has to date completed assembly of four modules and has performed extensive calibration on two of these. These calibrations show that the modules meet effective area requirements and greatly exceed the angular resolution requirements. Details of the calibration procedure and an overview of the results obtained to date are presented here.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Future x-ray telescopes will likely require lightweight mirrors to attain the large collecting areas needed to accomplish the science objectives. Understanding and demonstrating processes now is critical to achieving sub-arcsecond performance in the future. Consequently, designs not only of the mirrors but of fixtures for supporting them during fabrication, metrology, handling, assembly, and testing must be adequately modeled and verified. To this end, MSFC is using finite-element modeling to study the effects of mounting on thin, full-shell grazing-incidence mirrors, during all processes leading to flight mirror assemblies. Here we report initial results of this study.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Future x-ray astronomical missions require x-ray mirror assemblies that provide both high angular resolution and large photon collecting area. In addition, as x-ray astronomy undertakes more sensitive sky surveys, a large field of view is becoming increasingly important as well. Since implementation of these requirements must be carried out in broad political and economical contexts, any technology that meets these performance requirements must also be financially affordable and can be implemented on a reasonable schedule. In this paper we report on progress of an x-ray optics development program that has been designed to address all of these requirements. The program adopts the segmented optical design, thereby is capable of making both small and large mirror assemblies for missions of any size. This program has five technical elements: (1) fabrication of mirror substrates, (2) coating, (3) alignment, (4) bonding, and (5) mirror module systems engineering and testing. In the past year we have made progress in each of these five areas, advancing the angular resolution of mirror modules from 10.8 arc-seconds half-power diameter reported (HPD) a year ago to 8.3 arc-seconds now. These mirror modules have been subjected to and passed all environmental tests, including vibration, acoustic, and thermal vacuum. As such this technology is ready for implementing a mission that requires a 10-arc-second mirror assembly. Further development in the next two years would make it ready for a mission requiring a 5-arc-second mirror assembly. We expect that, by the end of this decade, this technology would enable the x-ray astrophysical community to compete effectively for a major x-ray mission in the 2020s that would require one or more 1-arc-second mirror assemblies for imaging, spectroscopic, timing, and survey studies.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Kepler mission has to date found almost 6,000 planetary transit-like signals, utilizing three years of data for over 170,000 stars at extremely high photometric precision. Due to its design, contamination from eclipsing binaries, variable stars, and other transiting planets results in a significant number of these signals being false positives. This directly affects the determination of the occurrence rate of Earth-like planets in our Galaxy, as well as other planet population statistics. In order to detect as many of these false positives as possible, we perform ephemeris matching among all transiting planet, eclipsing binary, and variable star sources. We find that 685 Kepler Objects of Interest - 12% of all those analyzed - are false positives as a result of contamination, due to 409 unique parent sources. Of these, 118 have not previously been identified by other methods. We estimate that ~35% of KOIs are false positives due to contamination, when performing a first-order correction for observational bias. Comparing single-planet candidate KOIs to multi-planet candidate KOIs, we find an observed false positive fraction due to contamination of 16% and 2.4% respectively, bolstering the existing evidence that multi-planet KOIs are significantly less likely to be false positives. We also analyze the parameter distributions of the ephemeris matches and derive a simple model for the most common type of contamination in the Kepler field. We find that the ephemeris matching technique is able to identify low signal-to-noise false positives that are difficult to identify with other vetting techniques. We expect false positive KOIs to become more frequent when analyzing more quarters of Kepler data, and note that many of them will not be able to be identified based on Kepler data alone.
    The Astronomical Journal 01/2014; 147(5). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/147/5/119 · 4.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: New technology in grazing-incidence mirror fabrication and assembly is necessary to achieve subarcsecond optics for large-area x-ray telescopes. In order to define specifications, an understanding of performance sensitivity to design parameters is crucial. MSFC is undertaking a systematic study to specify a mounting approach, mirror substrate, and testing method. Lightweight mirrors are typically flimsy and are, therefore, susceptible to significant distortion due to mounting and gravitational forces. Material properties of the mirror substrate along with its dimensions significantly affect the distortions caused by mounting and gravity. A parametric study of these properties and their relationship to mounting and testing schemes will indicate specifications for the design of the next generation of lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors. Here we report initial results of this study.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 09/2013; DOI:10.1117/12.2026884 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: X-ray optics is an essential component of every conceivable future x-ray observatory. Its astronomical utility is measured with two quantities: angular resolution and photon collecting area. The angular resolution determines the quality of its images and the photon collecting area determines the faintest sources it is capable of detecting and studying. Since it must be space-borne, the resources necessary to realize an x-ray mirror assembly, such as mass and volume, are at a premium. In this paper we report on a technology development program designed to advance four metrics that measure the capability of an x-ray mirror technology: (1) angular resolution, (2) mass per unit photon collecting area, (3) volume per unit photon collecting area, and (4) production cost per unit photon collecting area. We have adopted two approaches. The first approach uses the thermal slumping of thin glass sheets. It has advantages in mass, volume, and cost. The objective for this approach is improving its angular resolution. As of August 2013, we have been able to consistently build and test with x-ray beams modules that contain three co-aligned Wolter-I parabolic-hyperbolic mirror pairs, achieving a point spread function (PSF) of 11 arc-second half-power diameter (HPD), to be compared with the 17 arc-seconds we reported last year. If gravity distortion during x-ray tests is removed, these images would have a resolution of 9 arc-seconds, meeting requirements for a 10 arc-second flight mirror assembly. These modules have been subjected to a series of vibration, acoustic, and thermal vacuum tests. The second approach is polishing and light-weighting single crystal silicon, a material that is commercially available, inexpensive, and without internal stress. This approach has advantages in angular resolution, mass, and volume, and objective is reducing fabrication cost to make it financially feasible to fabricate the similar to 10(3) m(2) mirror area that would be required for a future major x-ray observatory. The overall objective of this technology program is to enable missions in the upcoming years with a 10 arc-second angular resolution, and missions with similar to 1 arc-second angular resolution in the 2020s.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 09/2013; DOI:10.1117/12.2024250 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the detection of five planets-Kepler-62b, c, d, e, and f-of size 1.31, 0.54, 1.95, 1.61 and 1.41 Earth radii (R⊕), orbiting a K2V star at periods of 5.7, 12.4, 18.2, 122.4, and 267.3 days, respectively. The outermost planets (Kepler-62e and -62f) are super-Earth-size (1.25 < planet radius ≤ 2.0 R⊕) planets in the habitable zone (HZ) of their host star, receiving 1.2 ± 0.2 and 0.41 ± 0.05 times the solar flux at Earth's orbit (S⊙). Theoretical models of Kepler-62e and -62f for a stellar age of ~7 Gyr suggest that both planets could be solid, either with a rocky composition or composed of mostly solid water in their bulk.
    Science 04/2013; DOI:10.1126/science.1234702 · 31.48 Impact Factor
  • Bruce Clarke, J. J. Kolodziejczak, D. A. Caldwell
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Instrument-induced artifacts in the raw Kepler pixel data include time-varying crosstalk from the fine guidance sensor (FGS) clock signals, manifestations of drifting moiré pattern as locally correlated nonstationary noise and rolling bands in the images which find their way into the calibrated pixel time series and ultimately into the calibrated target flux time series. As the Kepler Mission continues to improve the fidelity of its science data products, we are evaluating the benefits of adding pipeline steps to more completely model and dynamically correct the FGS crosstalk, then use the residuals from these model fits to detect and flag spatial regions and time intervals of strong time-varying black-level which may complicate later processing or lead to misinterpretation of instrument behavior as stellar activity. The FGS crosstalk pixels are present in 20-25% of targets but typically vary slowly enough to create a very small risk of reduced sensitivity or increased false positive rate in the transit search. However, they do have the potential to complicate or reduce the effectiveness of cotrending algorithms by introducing additional cotrending terms into the light curves which are not associated with prior relations. We will present results regarding the improvement in cotrending performance as a result of including FGS corrections in the calibration. The rolling bands appear in only 10% of channels and are present only in 3% of the total exposure, but we estimate that, because of the rotation of stars through the affected sky groups, about 30% of light curves are ultimately affected. Thus the utility of rolling band flagging is expected to be high. We will discuss the effectiveness of the proposed flagging and illustrate with some affected light curves. Funding for the Kepler Mission has been provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the unprecedented photometric precision of the Kepler Spacecraft, significant systematic and stochastic errors on transit signal levels are observable in the Kepler photometric data. These errors, which include discontinuities, outliers, systematic trends and other instrumental signatures, obscure astrophysical signals. The Presearch Data Conditioning (PDC) module of the Kepler data analysis pipeline tries to remove these errors while preserving planet transits and other astrophysically interesting signals. The completely new noise and stellar variability regime observed in Kepler data poses a significant problem to standard cotrending methods such as SYSREM and TFA. Variable stars are often of particular astrophysical interest so the preservation of their signals is of significant importance to the astrophysical community. We present a Bayesian Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) approach where a subset of highly correlated and quiet stars is used to generate a cotrending basis vector set which is in turn used to establish a range of "reasonable" robust fit parameters. These robust fit parameters are then used to generate a Bayesian Prior and a Bayesian Posterior Probability Distribution Function (PDF) which when maximized finds the best fit that simultaneously removes systematic effects while reducing the signal distortion and noise injection which commonly afflicts simple least-squares (LS) fitting. A numerical and empirical approach is taken where the Bayesian Prior PDFs are generated from fits to the light curve distributions themselves.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 03/2012; DOI:10.1086/667697 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kepler provides light curves of 156,000 stars with unprecedented precision. However, the raw data as they come from the spacecraft contain significant systematic and stochastic errors. These errors, which include discontinuities, systematic trends, and outliers, obscure the astrophysical signals in the light curves. To correct these errors is the task of the Presearch Data Conditioning (PDC) module of the Kepler data analysis pipeline. The original version of PDC in Kepler did not meet the extremely high performance requirements for the detection of miniscule planet transits or highly accurate analysis of stellar activity and rotation. One particular deficiency was that astrophysical features were often removed as a side-effect to removal of errors. In this paper we introduce the completely new and significantly improved version of PDC which was implemented in Kepler SOC 8.0. This new PDC version, which utilizes a Bayesian approach for removal of systematics, reliably corrects errors in the light curves while at the same time preserving planet transits and other astrophysically interesting signals. We describe the architecture and the algorithms of this new PDC module, show typical errors encountered in Kepler data, and illustrate the corrections using real light curve examples.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 03/2012; DOI:10.1086/667698 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) effect observations of a sample of 25 massive relaxed galaxy clusters observed with the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich array (SZA), an eight-element interferometer that is part of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We performed an analysis of new SZA data and archival Chandra observations of this sample to investigate the integrated pressure—a proxy for cluster mass—determined from x-ray and SZ observations, two independent probes of the intra-cluster medium (ICM). This analysis makes use of a model for the ICM introduced by Bulbul (2010 Astrophys. J. 720 1038) which can be applied simultaneously to the SZ and x-ray data. With this model, we estimated the pressure profile for each cluster using a joint analysis of the SZ and x-ray data, and using the SZ data alone. We found that the integrated pressures measured from the x-ray and SZ data are consistent. This conclusion is in agreement with recent results obtained using WMAP and Planck data, confirming that SZ and x-ray observations of massive clusters detect the same amount of thermal pressure from the ICM. To test for possible biases introduced by our choice of model, we also fitted the SZ data using the universal pressure profile proposed by Arnaud (2010 Astron. Astrophys. 517 A92) and found consistency between the two models out to r500 in the pressure profiles and integrated pressures.
    New Journal of Physics 02/2012; 14(2):025010. DOI:10.1088/1367-2630/14/2/025010 · 3.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We perform a joint analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) effect data using an analytic model that describes the gas properties of galaxy clusters. The joint analysis allows the measurement of the cluster gas mass fraction profile and Hubble constant independent of cosmological parameters. Weak cosmological priors are used to calculate the overdensity radius within which the gas mass fractions are reported. Such an analysis can provide direct constraints on the evolution of the cluster gas mass fraction with redshift. We validate the model and the joint analysis on high signal-to-noise data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array for two clusters, Abell 2631 and Abell 2204.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2012; 748(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/748/2/113 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A search of the time-series photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft reveals a transiting planet candidate orbiting the 11th magnitude G5 dwarf KIC 10593626 with a period of 290 days. The characteristics of the host star are well constrained by high-resolution spectroscopy combined with an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry, leading to an estimated mass and radius of 0.970 +/- 0.060 MSun and 0.979 +/- 0.020 RSun. The depth of 492 +/- 10ppm for the three observed transits yields a radius of 2.38 +/- 0.13 REarth for the planet. The system passes a battery of tests for false positives, including reconnaissance spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and centroid motion. A full BLENDER analysis provides further validation of the planet interpretation by showing that contamination of the target by an eclipsing system would rarely mimic the observed shape of the transits. The final validation of the planet is provided by 16 radial velocities obtained with HIRES on Keck 1 over a one year span. Although the velocities do not lead to a reliable orbit and mass determination, they are able to constrain the mass to a 3{\sigma} upper limit of 124 MEarth, safely in the regime of planetary masses, thus earning the designation Kepler-22b. The radiative equilibrium temperature is 262K for a planet in Kepler-22b's orbit. Although there is no evidence that Kepler-22b is a rocky planet, it is the first confirmed planet with a measured radius to orbit in the Habitable Zone of any star other than the Sun.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2011; 745(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/745/2/120 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chandra images of the Crab Nebula resolve the detailed structure of its "inner ring", possibly a termination shock where pulsar-accelerated relativistic particles begin to emit X radiation. Analysis of these images finds that the center of the ellipse-presumably a circular ring in projection-lies about 0.9" (10 light-days at 2 kpc) from the pulsar's image, at a position angle of about 300{\deg} (East of North). This analysis also measures properties of the ellipse: The position angle of the semi-major axis is about 210{\deg} (East of North); the aspect ratio, 0.49. In a simple-albeit, not unique-de-projection of the observed geometry, a circular ring is centered on the axis of symmetry of the pulsar wind nebula. This ring is not equatorial but rather lies near +4.5{\deg} latitude in pulsar-centered coordinates. Alternative geometries are briefly discussed.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2011; 746(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/746/1/41 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution ( 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 09/2011; DOI:10.1117/12.896458 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: On 1 February 2011 the Kepler Mission released data for 156,453 stars observed from the beginning of the science observations on 2 May through 16 September 2009. There are 1235 planetary candidates with transit like signatures detected in this period. These are associated with 997 host stars. Distributions of the characteristics of the planetary candidates are separated into five class-sizes; 68 candidates of approximately Earth-size (radius < 1.25 Earth radii), 288 super-Earth size (1.25 Earth radii < radius < 2 Earth radii), 662 Neptune-size (2 Earth radii < radius < 6 Earth radii), 165 Jupiter-size (6 Earth radii < radius < 15 Earth radii), and 19 up to twice the size of Jupiter (15 Earth radii < radius < 22 Earth radii). In the temperature range appropriate for the habitable zone, 54 candidates are found with sizes ranging from Earth-size to larger than that of Jupiter. Five are less than twice the size of the Earth. Over 74% of the planetary candidates are smaller than Neptune. The observed number versus size distribution of planetary candidates increases to a peak at two to three times Earth-size and then declines inversely proportional to area of the candidate. Our current best estimates of the intrinsic frequencies of planetary candidates, after correcting for geometric and sensitivity biases, are 6% for Earth-size candidates, 7% for super-Earth size candidates, 17% for Neptune-size candidates, and 4% for Jupiter-size candidates. Multi-candidate, transiting systems are frequent; 17% of the host stars have multi-candidate systems, and 33.9% of all the candidates are part of multi-candidate systems.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2011; 736. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/19 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the spring of 2009, the Kepler Mission commenced high-precision photometry on nearly 156,000 stars to determine the frequency and characteristics of small exoplanets, conduct a guest observer program, and obtain asteroseismic data on a wide variety of stars. On 2010 June 15, the Kepler Mission released most of the data from the first quarter of observations. At the time of this data release, 705 stars from this first data set have exoplanet candidates with sizes from as small as that of Earth to larger than that of Jupiter. Here we give the identity and characteristics of 305 released stars with planetary candidates. Data for the remaining 400 stars with planetary candidates will be released in 2011 February. More than half the candidates on the released list have radii less than half that of Jupiter. Five candidates are present in and near the habitable zone; two near super-Earth size, and three bracketing the size of Jupiter. The released stars also include five possible multi-planet systems. One of these has two Neptune-size (2.3 and 2.5 Earth radius) candidates with near-resonant periods.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2011; 728(2):117. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/728/2/117 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne telescopes. During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, the sensitivity of focusing x-ray telescopes-through finer angular resolution and increased effective area-has improved by a factor of a 100 million. This technological advance has enabled numerous exciting discoveries and increasingly detailed study of the high-energy universe-including accreting (stellar-mass and super-massive) black holes, accreting and isolated neutron stars, pulsar-wind nebulae, shocked plasma in supernova remnants, and hot thermal plasma in clusters of galaxies. As the largest structures in the universe, galaxy clusters constitute a unique laboratory for measuring the gravitational effects of dark matter and of dark energy. Here, we review the history of high-resolution x-ray telescopes and highlight some of the scientific results enabled by these telescopes. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility-the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility-Generation X. The scientific objectives of such a mission will require very large areas (about 10000 m2) of highly-nested lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsecond) angular resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure. Comment: 19 pages, 11 figures, SPIE Conference 7803 "Adaptive X-ray Optics", part of SPIE Optics+Photonics 2010, San Diego CA, 2010 August 2-5
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 10/2010; DOI:10.1117/12.862315 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Kepler Mission is designed to detect the 80 parts per million (ppm) signal from an Earth-Sun equivalent transit. Such precision requires superb instrument stability on time scales up to 2 days and systematic error removal to better than 20 ppm. The sole scientific instrument is the photometer, a 0.95 m aperture Schmidt telescope that feeds the 94.6 million pixel CCD detector array, which contains both Science and Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) CCDs. We find that the in-flight detector properties of the focal plane, including bias levels, read noise, gain, linearity, saturation, FGS to Science crosstalk, and video crosstalk between Science CCDs, are essentially unchanged from their pre-launch values. Now that Kepler has been collecting science data for more than a year, we are able to track stars through a complete orbit of the spacecraft around the Sun and its associated roll orientations. Using these data, we can begin to disentangle the instrument related signals from those intrinsic to the sky background and stars, measure both short- and long-term effects from cosmic rays, see interactions of previously known image artifacts with starlight, and uncover several unexpected systematics that affect photometric precision, including unexplained diffuse illumination events that occur at significant levels 10 times per month. Funding for this Discovery Mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
130.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2014
    • NASA
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Chicago
      • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2011
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 1997–1998
    • Universities Space Research Association
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1995
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Fayetteville State University
      Fayetteville, New York, United States