[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracardiac EGM After ICD Therapies. Introduction: Local injury current (LIC) seen after induced ventricular fibrillation rescue implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shock predicts heart failure progression. We sought to determine the frequency of LIC after spontaneous events in patients receiving ICD therapies.Methods and Results: Near-field (NF) right ventricular (RV) EGM during 10 seconds after delivered ICD therapy was compared with baseline EGM in 420 events that occurred in 134 patients (mean age 60.8 ± 14.8, 106 [79%] male). The magnitude of elevated or depressed potential immediately after the major fast EGM deflection was defined as LIC, and its ratio to the peak-to-peak EGM amplitude was defined as relative LIC. LIC of at least 1 mV or relative LIC of at least 15% was considered significant. LIC was observed in 121 events (28.8%) and was detected more frequently after appropriate (43 [60.6%] events) and inappropriate (56 [64.4%] events) ICD shocks, as compared with appropriate (8 [9.2%] events) and inappropriate (3 [4.7%] events) antitachycardia pacing (ATP) or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (11 [9.9%] events) [ANOVA P < 0.0001]. Type of ICD therapy (ICD shock vs ATP) was the most significant predictor of LIC (ATP β coefficient −0.81; 95%CI–1.19 to 0.44); P < 0.0001), along with cycle length of tachycardia (β coefficient –0.0117; 95%CI –0.0167 to –0.0068, P < 0.00001) and shock energy (β coefficient 0.024; 95%CI 0.003–0.045, P = 0.025).Conclusion: Appropriate and inappropriate ICD shocks are frequently characterized by the development of LIC in patients with structural heart disease. Type of electrical ICD therapy, shock energy and cycle length of ventricular arrhythmia are important determinants of LIC. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 22, pp. 554-560 May 2011)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: End-Stage Renal Disease Predicts Complications in Pacemaker and ICD Implants. Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased morbidity following invasive procedures. We hypothesized that patients with CKD have higher complication rates following device implantation than patients with normal renal function.Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients undergoing ICD or pacemaker implantation from August 2004 to August 2007. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockroft–Gault equation. Those with GFR ≥ 90 cc/min served as controls. The remainder was grouped according to American Kidney Foundation stages of CKD. Bleeding complications were defined as need for pocket exploration or blood transfusion; cardiac tamponade; or hematoma requiring pressure dressing, change in medications or prolonged hospitalization. Infection was defined as infection of the pocket or lead system, or development of bacteremia/sepsis within 60 days.Results: There were 82 bleeding complications (5.7%) and 7 infections (0.5%) temporally related to device implantation in 1,440 patients. End-stage renal disease (ESRD), defined as GFR < 15 mL/min or need for dialysis, was identified in 32 patients. Infection rates were significantly higher in patients with ESRD versus controls (12.5% vs 0.2%; P < 0.0001). A significant increase in bleeding complications was observed in ESRD versus controls (21.9% vs 3.2%, respectively; P<0.0001). Bleeding complications were considerably greater than controls in moderate (GFR 30–59 mL/min) and severe (GFR 15–29 mL/min) CKD (7.4% and 9.8% vs 3.2%, respectively; P < 0.005).Conclusion: ESRD markedly increases bleeding and device-related infections. The risk of both complications parallels the severity of CKD. Further research is needed to reduce adverse outcomes in this high-risk population. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 22, pp. 1099-1104, October 2011)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a serious complication of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). The incidence and clinical predictors of periprocedural CVA in patients undergoing AF ablation are not fully understood.Methods: This study included 721 cases (age 57 ± 11 years; 23% female; 345 persistent AF) in 579 consecutive patients referred for AF ablation. Periprocedural CVA was defined as onset of a new neurologic deficit that occurred anytime between the start of the procedure and 30 days after the AF ablation, and was confirmed by a neurologist. Cranial imaging with CT and/or MRI was performed in each case. Patients were anticoagulated with warfarin for at least 4 weeks pre- and immediately postprocedure and were bridged with enoxaparin. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed within 24 hours prior to ablation in all cases.Results: Periprocedural CVA occurred in 10 of 721 cases (1.4%). The risk of periprocedural CVA did not vary significantly during the course of the study. Among these 10 patients (age 62 ± 11 years; 1 female; 5 persistent AF), 6 manifested neurological deficits within 24 hours, 3 after 24–48 hours, and 1 patient had a CVA 6 days following AF ablation despite a therapeutic INR level. All CVAs were ischemic. Five patients had residual deficits after 30 days. Four of 43 patients (9.3%) with a prior history of CVA had periprocedural CVA. Periprocedural CVA occurred in 0.3%, 1.0%, and 4.7% of patients with CHADS2 scores of 0, 1, and ≥ 2 (P < 0.001). In 2 separate multivariate analyses, a CHADS2 score ≥ 2 (OR 7.1, P = 0.02) and history of CVA (OR 9.5, P < 0.01) remained independent predictors of periprocedural CVA.Conclusions: Despite periprocedural anticoagulation and transesophageal echocardiography, we found a 1.4% incidence of periprocedural CVA in AF ablation patients. A CHADS2 score ≥ 2 and a history of CVA are independent predictors of CVA after AF ablation. The CVA risk is low in patients with CHADS2 score of 0.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Preprocedural factors may be helpful in selecting patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) for treatment with catheter ablation and in making an assumption regarding their prognosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether left atrial (LA) volume and pulmonary venous (PV) anatomy, evaluated by computed tomography (CT) prior to ablation, will predict AF recurrence following catheter ablation.Methods and Results: We included 146 patients (mean age 57 ± 11 years, 83% male) with symptomatic AF (55% paroxysmal, 18% persistent, 27% long-standing persistent). All patients underwent CT scanning prior to catheter ablation to evaluate LA volume and PV anatomy. Circumferential PV isolation was performed guided by Cartomerge electroanatomical mapping. The outcome was defined as complete success, improvement, or failure.After a mean follow-up of 19 ±7 months, complete success was achieved in 59 patients (40%), and 38 patients (26%) demonstrated improvement. LA volume was found to be an independent predictor of AF recurrence with an adjusted OR of 1.14 for every 10-mL increase in volume (95% CI 1.00–1.29, P = 0.047). PV variations were equally distributed among the different outcomes of the ablation procedure, and therefore univariate analysis did not identify PV anatomy as a predictor of outcome.Conclusion: LA volume is an independent predictor of AF recurrence after catheter ablation. Additionally, PV anatomy did not have any effect on the outcome. These findings suggest that an assessment of LA volume may be incorporated into the preprocedural evaluation of patients being considered for AF ablation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Ibutilide has been shown to prolong repolarization times and increase the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias particularly in patients with structural heart disease. The mechanisms underlying its proarrhythmic effects remain incompletely understood. We sought to define the effects of ibutilide on the temporal lability of ventricular repolarization in patients with and without structural heart disease.Methods: Twenty-four patients referred for electrophysiology study underwent monophasic action potential (MAP) recordings in the right ventricle during sinus rhythm and random interval right atrial pacing (RIAP). Ibutilide was subsequently administered and the recordings repeated both in sinus rhythm and with RIAP. Digitized recordings were analyzed offline for calculation of the QT variability index (QTVI) based on surface ECG, and the MAP duration variability index (MAPDVI) based on the intracardiac MAP signal.Results: Of 24 patients enrolled, analyses were performed in 21 patients (mean age 59 ± 15 years, 38% women). In three patients, the data were not analyzed due to frequent premature ventricular complexes. Ibutilide resulted in significant changes in heart rate (mean difference: −7.4 ± 0.91 bpm, P < 0.0001) and the surface QT interval (mean difference: 59.6 ± 12.2 ms, P = 0.0001) during sinus rhythm. After ibutilide, QTVI remained unchanged from baseline during sinus rhythm but was significantly different in the setting of RIAP (mean difference: 0.345 ± 0.098, P = 0.0022). With subgroup analyses, these differences remained significant regardless of the presence or absence of heart disease.Conclusion: Ibutilide results in overall prolongation of ventricular repolarization and reductions in baseline sinus rates. Ibutilide increases temporal lability of repolarization only with enriched fluctuations in heart rate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is commonly used prior to catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in order to exclude left atrial (LA) thrombus. However, the incidence and predictors of LA thrombus detected with TEE have not been systematically examined in this setting.Methods: This study included 732 cases (mean age 57 ± 11 years; 23% female; 353 persistent AF) in 585 consecutive patients referred for catheter ablation of AF. Patients were anticoagulated for at least 4 weeks prior to the procedure and then bridged with enoxaparin. TEE was performed in all cases within 24 hours prior to ablation.Results: Preprocedural TEE revealed LA thrombus in 12 of 732 cases (1.6%), all located in the LA appendage. Among these 12 patients, 9 had persistent AF and 3 had paroxysmal AF. All patients with thrombus had an LA size ≥ 4.5 cm. LA thrombus was present in 0.3%, 1.4%, and 5.3% of patients with CHADS2 scores of 0, 1, and ≥ 2, respectively. In multivariate analysis, a CHADS2 score ≥ 2 and larger LA diameter remained significant predictors of LA thrombus.Conclusions: Despite oral anticoagulation treatment, there is a small but significant incidence of LA thrombus by TEE prior to AF ablation. A CHADS2 score ≥ 2 and larger LA diameter are independent predictors of LA thrombus in this patient population, while type of AF or rhythm at the time of TEE is not. The risk of LA thrombus is low in patients with a CHADS2 score of 0 and in patients with an LA diameter < 4.5 cm.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAEs) have been reported as targets for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the temporal stability of CFAE sites remains poorly defined.Methods and Results: The study consisted of two phases. In the initial phase, two automated software algorithms, namely the interval confidence level (ICL) and the average interpotential interval (AIPI) were assessed for their diagnostic accuracy for automated CFAE detection. The AIPI was found to be superior to the ICL, and an AIPI of ≤100 ms was associated with a sensitivity and specificity of both 92% for detection of CFAEs. In the second phase of the study, 12 patients (2 females, mean age 54 ± 12 years) who underwent catheter ablation for persistent AF were studied to investigate the temporal stability of CFAEs. Two consecutive left atrial (LA) three-dimensional CFAE maps coded with AIPI readings were reconstructed during ongoing AF in each study patient, with a mean time difference of 34.3 ± 8.7 minutes between the two maps. Among a total of 149 CFAE sites and 238 non-CFAE sites on the first CFAE map that were precisely revisited during the repeat mapping process, 135 (90.6%) and 225 (94.5%) remained as CFAE sites and non-CFAE sites, respectively. RF ablation at the selected stable CFAE sites significantly prolonged AF cycle length (181 ± 26 ms to 199 ± 29 ms, P < 0.0001).Conclusion: CFAEs recorded in the LA during AF display high temporal stability in patients with persistent AF. The clinical significance of our findings warrants further investigation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Pulmonary vein (PV) isolation by catheter ablation is an increasingly used strategy to treat atrial fibrillation (AF). Complication rates from AF ablation reported in different case series vary widely. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 641 consecutive ablation procedures to assess complication rates, temporal trends, and clinical predictors of adverse outcomes.Methods: All patients (n = 517) undergoing catheter ablation for AF at Johns Hopkins Hospital between February, 2001 and June, 2007 were prospectively enrolled in a database. Data from 641 consecutive procedures were analyzed and complications considered if they occurred within 30 days of ablation. Major complications were defined as those that required intervention, resulted in long-term disability, or prolonged hospitalization.Results: Thirty-two major complications occurred in 641 procedures (5%). Among the patients with major complications, seven had cerebrovascular accident (CVA), eight had tamponade, one had PV occlusion with hemoptysis, and 11 had vascular injury requiring surgical repair and/or transfusion. No periprocedural deaths occurred, and no instances of esophageal injury were seen. Complication rates were higher during the first 100 cases (9.0%) than during the subsequent 541 (4.3%). Major adverse clinical events were associated with age > 70 years (P = 0.007; odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.4–9.6) and female gender (P = 0.014; odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.3–7.2). No other clinical or procedural predictors of complication were identified.Conclusions: Complication rates from AF ablation remain significant, despite improved techniques and increased awareness of procedural risks. Both advanced age and female gender predict major adverse events, suggesting careful consideration of the risk/benefit profile in these patients prior to ablation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Multidetector CT (MDCT) is used prior to atrial fibrillation ablation (AFA) to anatomically guide ablation procedures. Whether 64-slice MDCT also can be used to diagnose left atrial thrombus is not known.Methods: We sought to determine the accuracy and interobserver variability of MDCT in the evaluation of left atrial thrombus prior to AFA. We enrolled 50 patients scheduled for AFA who underwent 64-slice MDCT scan and transesophageal echocardiography prior to the procedure. Three experienced observers reviewed all the MDCT images for the presence of a left atrial thrombus, and two different readers interpreted the transesophageal echocardiograms (TEE), which were used as the gold standard. All observers were blinded to clinical data and each other.Results: Interobserver variability between the three MDCT readers was poor (highest kappa statistic 0.43, P = 0.001). Diagnostic accuracy was highly variable, with sensitivities ranging from 100% to 50% and specificities ranging from 85% to 44%. TEE reader agreement was 98%.Conclusion: MDCT demonstrates high interobserver variability and has only modest diagnostic accuracy for the detection of left atrial thrombus in patients undergoing AFA procedure. Potential factors affecting the accuracy of MDCT include image quality and the difficulty of distinguishing clot from pectinate muscle. MDCT likely is not the optimal method to detect left atrial thrombus using current techniques and standards of interpretation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Current guidelines recommend that all implanted pacemakers (PPM) and defibrillators (ICD) be interrogated before and after every invasive procedure. The ability of newer devices to withstand system malfunction or failure during surgery/endoscopy remains unknown.Objective: To determine the frequency of PPM or ICD malfunction from periprocedural electrocautery.Methods: Ninety-two consecutive individuals referred for evaluation of a PPM or ICD system prior to noncardiac surgery/endoscopy were enrolled. Devices were preoperatively programmed to a “monitor only” zone to allow for detection of electromagnetic interferences (EMIs). Pacing parameters were maintained without disabling rate responsiveness. The devices were fully interrogated again after surgery. Correlations of inappropriate EMI sensing were made with reference to the distance from the site of electrocautery application to the device system.Results: All devices withstood periprocedural EMI exposure without malfunction or changes in programming. Minor changes in lead parameters were noted. Three device systems demonstrated brief atrial mode switching episodes, one of which was likely secondary to inappropriate sensing of atrial noise. Two pacemaker devices demonstrated inappropriate sensing of ventricular noise, both of which occurred when the application of electrocautery was within close proximity to the pacemaker generator (<8 cm). No ventricular sensed events were noted in any ICD system.Conclusions: EMIs during noncardiac surgical/endoscopic procedures pose little threat to current device systems. Rare occasions of inappropriate sensing by devices can be seen in situations where the application of unipolar electrocautery is in close proximity of the system. Routine postsurgical interrogation of PPM or ICDs may not be necessary.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Some studies suggest that it is important to take the end of “T” wave to quantify QT-interval variability, which signifies cardiac repolarization lability, as there is substantial and important information beyond the peak of the T wave on the surface electrocardiogram.Methods: In this study, we examined the relationship between the variability of beat-to-beat RTe (beginning of R-peak to T-end) and the variability of RTp (R-peak to T-peak) in the following groups: normal controls (n = 26), patients with anxiety (n = 26), and patients with cardiovascular disease with or without diabetes (n = 63). We obtained ECG sampled at 1024 Hz in lead II configuration in supine posture to obtain beat-to-beat interbeat interval (R–R) and RT-interval variability for 256 seconds.Results: We found significant positive correlations (r = 0.8; P < 0.00001) in normal controls and patients with anxiety between the variability of RTeVI and RTpVI (RTe and RTp variability indices, respectively, corrected for the mean of RTe and RTp and the mean and the variance of R–R). These correlations were also statistically significant in the medically ill group but the r values were much smaller (r = 0.45 in various groups). The slopes were also significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001). Bland–Altman plots also showed better agreement between the two measures in the controls and patients with anxiety compared to the group with cardiovascular disease.Conclusions: These findings have methodological implications for studies comparing people with and without overt cardiovascular illness. While RTe or RTp variability index may be used interchangeably in normal controls and some patients with no overt cardiovascular problems, it may be more prudent to use both RTe and RTp variability indices in patients with cardiovascular illness. These indices, especially RTeVI, may provide different information about cardiac repolarization lability. Future studies should address the importance of the relative usefulness of these two measures especially in cardiac patients before and after successful treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnesium and Arrhythmias. Introduction: Magnesium deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sudden death, but the investigation of arrhythmic mechanisms has been hindered by difficulties in measuring cellular tissue magnesium stores.Methods and Results: To see if magnesium deficiency is associated with a propensity toward triggered arrhythmias, we measured tissue magnesium levels and QT interval dispersion (as an index of repolarization dispersion) in 40 patients with arrhythmic complaints. Magnesium was measured in sublingual epithelium using X-ray dispersive analysis. QT interval dispersion was assessed on 12-lead surface F-XCs in all patients, and programmed stimulation was performed in 28. The sublingual epithelial magnesium level ([Mg]i), but the not the serum level, correlated Inversely with QT interval dispersion in 40 patients (r = 0.58, P < 0.0.5); in 12 patients undergoing repeat testing on therapy, the change in magnesium also correlated inversely with the change in QT dispersion (r = 0.61, P < 0.05). Patients with left ventricular ejection fractions > 40% had significantly higher tissue magnesium and lower QT dispersion (34.5 ± 0.5 mEq/L, 81 ± 8 msec) than those with left ventricular ejection fractious < 40% (32.7 ± 0.5 mEq/L, P < 0.01, and 114 ± 9 msec, P < 0.05). There was no difference in either [Mg]i, or QT dispersion in the 16 patients with inducible monomorphic ventricular tachycardia versus the 12 noninducible patients.Conclusion: Reduced tissue magnesium stores may represent a significant risk factor for arrhythmias associated with abnormal repolarization, particularly in patients with poor left ventricular systolic function, but may not represent a risk for excitable gap arrhythmias associated with a fixed anatomic substrate (e.g., monomorphic ventricular tachycardia).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal Averaged Intracardiac Electrograms. Introduction: In patients with manifest accessory pathways, Kent potentials are often difficult to identify even at sites of successful catheter ablation, due largely to signal noise and catheter instability. We hypothesized that signal averaging the intracardiac electrogram recorded from the ablation catheter over a number of beats would improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the electrogram and aid in the detection of Kent potentials at accessory pathway locations.Methods and Results: We retrospectively analyzed distal-pair electrograms recorded from 9 successful, 6 transiently successful, and 10 failed ablation sites in 10 patients with manifest accessory pathways who underwent catheter ablation. We developed custom software to finely align 20 to 30 consecutive sinus beats and compute the signal average of the electrogram (SAE) for each site. Kent potentials were classified as probable, possible, or absent in the raw ablation site electrogram and the SAE base on morphologic criteria. A measure of beat-to-beat signal instability, the variability quotient (VQ), was also computed for each site. Probable Kent potentials were found in the raw ablation site electrogram at only 2 of the 15 successful and transiently successful sites, but were found in the SAE at 10 of these sites (P = 0.008). Eight of the 9 successful sites had VQ < 0.2, suggesting stable catheter-tissue contact, while 3 of the 6 transiently successful sites had VQ > 0.2, indicating unstable contact.Conclusions: Signal averaging the intracardiac ablation site electrogram enhances detection of Kent potentials at accessory pathway locations. Catheter instability can be quantified by signal variability analysis and, when high, may predict lack of successful ablation even at sites where Kent potentials are present.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: There are currently no studies systematically evaluating pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) using the anatomic PV ablation approach.Methods and Results: Forty-one patients with AF underwent anatomic PV ablation under the guidance of a three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping system. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in all patients prior to and 8–10 weeks after ablation procedures for screening of PV stenosis. A PV stenosis was defined as a detectable (≥3 mm) narrowing in PV diameter. The severity of stenosis was categorized as mild (<50% stenosis), moderate (50–70%), or severe (>70%). A total 157 PVs were analyzed. A detectable PV narrowing was observed in 60 of 157 PVs (38%). The severity of stenosis was mild in 54 PVs (34%), moderate in five PVs (3.2%), and severe in one PV (0.6%). All mild PV stenoses displayed a concentric pattern. Moderate or severe PV stenosis was only observed in patients with an individual encircling lesion set. Multivariable analysis identified individual encircling lesion set and larger PV size as the independent predictors of detectable PV narrowing. All patients with PV stenosis were asymptomatic and none required treatment.Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that detectable PV narrowing occurs in 38% of PVs following anatomic PV ablation. Moderate or severe PV stenosis occurs in 3.8% of PVs. The high incidence of mild stenosis likely reflects reverse remodeling rather than pathological PV stenosis. The probability of moderate or severe PV stenosis appears to be related to creation of individual encircling rather than encircling in pairs lesion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Anatomically guided left atrial ablation is used increasingly for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Three-dimensional mapping systems used for pulmonary veins (PV) encircling ablation procedures anticipate a stable size and position of the PV orifice. The aim of the current study was therefore to analyze changes of PV orifice size and location throughout the cardiac cycle using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods and Results: Twenty-five healthy volunteers were studied using a 1.5 Tesla MRI system. MR angiograms were acquired with a breath-hold three-dimensional fast-spoiled gradient-echo imaging (3D FSPGR) sequence in the coronal plane before and after gadolinium injection. Maximum intensity projections and multiplanar reformations were performed to reconstruct images of the PV. Bright blood cine imaging in the axial view was acquired by a steady-state free precession pulse sequence. Twenty bright blood images were obtained per cardiac cycle. The axial (anterior-posterior) PV orifice diameter was measured in all 20 images. For analysis of PV movement the location of the orifice posterior edge was plotted on scale paper.PV orifice size depends on the stage of the cardiac cycle with the largest diameter in late atrial diastole and a mean decrease of 32.5% during atrial systole. Location changes of the PV orifice are in the range of up to 7.2 mm and larger in the coronal (lateral-medial) than in the sagittal (anterior-posterior) direction.Conclusion: PV orifice size and location is not as stable as anticipated by three-dimensional mapping systems used for PV encircling left atrial ablation procedures. RF application close to the presumed orifice location should therefore be avoided to minimize the risk of PV stenosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bundle Branch and Interfascicular Reentry. Introduction: Bundle branch reentry and interfascicular reentry are potential mechanisms of ventricular tachycardia in the setting of a dilated cardiomyopathy. We report a patient with myotonic dystrophy who presented with near syncope, in whom both of these mechanisms were present, leading to two different wide complex tachycardias.Methods and Results: Electrophysiologic study demonstrated Infra-Hisian conduction system disease and inducible bundle branch reentrant ventricular tachycardia. Catheter ablation of the right bundle eliminated bundle branch reentry. However, following this, the patient had inducible interfascicular reentry, which subsequently occurred spontaneously while still hospitalized. Catheter ablation of the left posterior fascicle successfully eliminated this second tachycardia, and the patient has had no further arrhythmias.Conclusions: This report is of an unusual patient with coexistent bundle branch reentry and interfascicular reentry producing two different forms of sustained ventricular tachycardia. This is the first report of catheter ablation of the left posterior fascicle for elimination of conduction system reentry.