[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance (IR) links Alzheimer's disease (AD) with oxidative damage, cholinergic deficit, and cognitive impairment. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist pioglitazone previously used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has also been demonstrated to be effective in anti-inflammatory reaction and anti-oxidative stress in the animal models of AD and other neuroinflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of pioglitazone on learning and memory impairment and the molecular events that may cause it in fructose-drinking insulin resistance rats. We found that long-term fructose-drinking causes insulin resistance, oxidative stress, down-regulated activity of cholinergic system, and cognitive deficit, which could be ameliorated by pioglitazone administration. The results from the present study provide experimental evidence for using pioglitazone in the treatment of brain damage caused by insulin resistance.
PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59313. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059313 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are elevated in aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), and they can stimulate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) via NADPH oxidase, induce oxidative stress that lead to cell death. In the current study, we investigated the molecular events underlying the process that AGEs induce cell death in SH-SY5Y cells and rat cortical neurons. We found: (1) AGEs increase intracellular ROSs; (2) AGEs cause cell death after ROSs increase; (3) oxidative stress-induced cell death is inhibited via the blockage of AGEs receptor (RAGE), the down-regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, and the increase of scavenging by anti-oxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA); (4) endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was triggered by AGE-induced oxidative stress, resulting in the activation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-12 that consequently initiates cell death, taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) inhibited AGE-induced ER stress and cell death. Blocking RAGE-NADPH oxidase, and RAGE-NADPH oxidase-ROSs and ER stress scavenging pathways could efficiently prevent the oxidative and ER stresses, and consequently inhibited cell death. Our results suggest a new prevention and or therapeutic approach in AGE-induced cell death.