[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BS69 (also called ZMYND11) contains tandemly arranged PHD, BROMO, and PWWP domains, which are chromatin recognition modalities. Here, we show that BS69 selectively recognizes histone variant H3.3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3.3K36me3) via its chromatin-binding domains. We further identify BS69 association with RNA splicing regulators, including the U5 snRNP components of the spliceosome, such as EFTUD2. Remarkably, RNA sequencing shows that BS69 mainly regulates intron retention (IR), which is the least understood RNA alternative splicing event in mammalian cells. Biochemical and genetic experiments demonstrate that BS69 promotes IR by antagonizing EFTUD2 through physical interactions. We further show that regulation of IR by BS69 also depends on its binding to H3K36me3-decorated chromatin. Taken together, our study identifies an H3.3K36me3-specific reader and a regulator of IR and reveals that BS69 connects histone H3.3K36me3 to regulated RNA splicing, providing significant, important insights into chromatin regulation of pre-mRNA processing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genome-wide distribution patterns of the '6th base' 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in many tissues and cells have recently been revealed by hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation (hMeDIP) followed by high throughput sequencing or tiling arrays. However, it has been challenging to directly compare different data sets and samples using data generated by this method. Here, we report a new comparative hMeDIP-seq method, which involves barcoding different input DNA samples at the start and then performing hMeDIP-seq for multiple samples in one hMeDIP reaction. This approach extends the barcode technology from simply multiplexing the DNA deep sequencing outcome and provides significant advantages for quantitative control of all experimental steps, from unbiased hMeDIP to deep sequencing data analysis. Using this improved method, we profiled and compared the DNA hydroxymethylomes of mouse ES cells (ESCs) and mouse ESC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We identified differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DHMRs) between ESCs and NPCs and uncovered an intricate relationship between the alteration of DNA hydroxymethylation and changes in gene expression during neural lineage commitment of ESCs. Presumably, the DHMRs between ESCs and NPCs uncovered by this approach may provide new insight into the function of 5hmC in gene regulation and neural differentiation. Thus, this newly developed comparative hMeDIP-seq method provides a cost-effective and user-friendly strategy for direct genome-wide comparison of DNA hydroxymethylation across multiple samples, lending significant biological, physiological and clinical implications.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2013; 41(7). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt091 · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA methylation at the 5 position of cytosine (5-mC) is a key epigenetic mark that is critical for various biological and pathological processes. 5-mC can be converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of DNA hydroxylases. Here, we report that "loss of 5-hmC" is an epigenetic hallmark of melanoma, with diagnostic and prognostic implications. Genome-wide mapping of 5-hmC reveals loss of the 5-hmC landscape in the melanoma epigenome. We show that downregulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) and TET family enzymes is likely one of the mechanisms underlying 5-hmC loss in melanoma. Rebuilding the 5-hmC landscape in melanoma cells by reintroducing active TET2 or IDH2 suppresses melanoma growth and increases tumor-free survival in animal models. Thus, our study reveals a critical function of 5-hmC in melanoma development and directly links the IDH and TET activity-dependent epigenetic pathway to 5-hmC-mediated suppression of melanoma progression, suggesting a new strategy for epigenetic cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The histone H3 Lys 27 (H3K27) demethylase JMJD3 has been shown to play important roles in transcriptional regulation and cell differentiation. However, the mechanism underlying JMJD3-mediated transcriptional regulation remains incompletely understood. Here we show that JMJD3 is associated with KIAA1718, whose substrates include dimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me2), and proteins involved in transcriptional elongation. JMJD3 and KIAA1718 directly bind to and regulate the expression of a plethora of common target genes in both a demethylase activity-dependent and -independent manner in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60. We found that JMJD3 and KIAA1718 collaborate to demethylate trimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me3) on a subset of their target genes, some of which are bivalently marked by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 and associated with promoter-proximal, paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) before activation. Reduction of either JMJD3 or KIAA1718 diminishes Pol II traveling along the gene bodies of the affected genes while having no effect on the promoter-proximal Pol II. Furthermore, JMJD3 and KIAA1718 also play a role in localizing elongation factors SPT6 and SPT16 to the target genes. Our results support the model whereby JMJD3 activates bivalent gene transcription by demethylating H3K27me3 and promoting transcriptional elongation. Taken together, these findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which JMJD3 regulates gene expression.
Genes & development 06/2012; 26(12):1364-75. DOI:10.1101/gad.186056.111 · 12.64 Impact Factor