[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study surveyed MP3 player usage and evaluated its effect on hearing thresholds in high school students. It is reported an increase in risk factors for hearing loss in adolescents that paralleled the increase in sales of MP3 players. A total of 538 students in two high schools in Gwangju province participated in this study. The students completed questionnaires about their MP3 player use and their pure tone hearing thresholds were tested at several frequencies. The questionnaire results indicated that 61.1%, of the students listened to music on MP3 players for more than one hour per day, 71.6% listened for four or more days per week, and 36.7% had listened for more than 3 years. Listening at a high volume of 60% of the maximum level was reported by 51% and they recognized having ear pains. The pure tone hearing threshold was found to be raised for the adolescents who had a long history of MP3 listening at high volume (p< 0.0001).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diosgenin was modified to control its in vivo bioavailability by conjugating a hydrophilic unit, tetraethylene glycol. The diosgenin-tetraethylene glycol conjugate (TE) was orally administered in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice for this auditory protection study. The bioactivity improvement of TE for in vivo diabetic auditory impairment treatment was clearly observed in three different auditory tests and compared with that of diosgenin. The improvement in in vivo efficacy suggests that the small molecular weight PEGylation of diosgenin is a synthetically robust and systematically applicable strategy to reform the poor pharmacokinetics of a hydrophobic aglycone.