Stanton A Glantz

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (467)2927.6 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Light and intermittent smoking has become increasingly common. Smokefree laws and alcohol use affect smoking behavior. We examined whether 100% smokefree laws, especially bar laws, and alcohol use are associated with light/intermittent smoking and quit attempts. Methods: We linked 2009 National Health Interview Survey database with the American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation US Tobacco Control Database. Dependent variables included current smoking, nondaily smoking, very light daily smoking (daily smokers who smoked 1-5 cigarettes per day [CPD]), very light nondaily smoking (nondaily smokers who smoked 1-3 CPD), infrequent smoking (smoked ≤8 days in past 30 days), and quit attempts. Multivariate logistic regression models were conducted among different smoking subgroups to determine if the outcomes were associated with smokefree law coverage and drinking status, controlling for demographics and cigarette pack price. Results: Greater smokefree law (or bar law) coverage scores were associated with decreased odds of current smoking, but were not associated with light/intermittent smoking. Drinking was associated with current smoking, but rarely showed a relationship with light/intermittent smoking. Young people aged 18-24 and Blacks and Hispanics were more likely to report light/intermittent smoking than 45-64-year-olds and Whites respectively. Smokefree law coverage and drinking were not associated with quit attempts, but very light daily smokers and infrequent smokers exhibited a positive association between drinking frequency and quit attempts. Conclusions: Stronger smokefree law coverage predicts less current smoking, but was not associated with smoking intensity or quit attempts. Novel interventions are needed to reach light and intermittent smokers, which is younger and minority.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
  • Eric Crosbie, Mariaelena Gonzalez, Stanton A Glantz
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    ABSTRACT: We agree with Shaffer and Brenner that a complete exclusion of tobacco controls from the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP), also known as a carve-out, is important. The urgency for trade agreements to include a broad public health carve-out and to conform to national and international public health laws is increasingly important, as President Obama in June 2014 set a new deadline for the TPP to be completed by November 2014.(1) In addition, legal mechanisms to prevent potential public health carve-outs once again include trade promotion authority (TPA), also known as fast-track authority, in which Congress cedes authority to the President to expedite trade agreements without public debate. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 16, 2014: e1. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302317).
    American journal of public health. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants: 16 campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August, 2013. Methods: Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) Position Statement on Tobacco. The Institutional Grammar Tool was used to breakdown policy statements into Strategies, Norms, or Rules. Differences in ACHA score and number of Strategies, Norms, and Rules were assessed by region, policy, and institution type. Results: Median ACHA score was 0.35 (scale of 0-1). Schools with 100% tobacco-free policies had highest ACHA scores, but failed to address relationships between schools and tobacco companies. Less than half the schools assessed (7/16) had Rules (enforceable penalties related to policies). In 67% of the policy statements, individuals doing the action were implied (not specifically stated). Conclusion: Campuses should address ACHA recommendations related to campus relationships with tobacco companies, include enforceable rules, and specify individuals and entities covered by policy.
    Journal of American college health : J of ACH. 09/2014;
  • Lauren M Dutra, Stanton A Glantz
    JAMA Pediatrics 08/2014; 168(8):776-777. · 4.28 Impact Factor
  • Eric Crosbie, Mariaelena Gonzalez, Stanton A Glantz
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    ABSTRACT: Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies' influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. "Fast-track authority," in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print July 17, 2014: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302014).
    American journal of public health. 07/2014;
  • Source
    Sujatha Sankaran, Heikki Hiilamo, Stanton A Glantz
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the competition between and among tobacco companies and health groups that led to graphical health warning labels (GHWL) on all tobacco products in India.
    Tobacco control. 06/2014;
  • Source
    Rachel Ann Barry, Heikki Hiilamo, Stanton A Glantz
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    ABSTRACT: In 2012, Washington State and Colorado legalized the recreational use of marijuana, and Uruguay, beginning in 2014, will become the first country to legalize the sale and distribution of marijuana. The challenge facing policymakers and public health advocates is reducing the harms of an ineffective, costly, and discriminatory "war on drugs" while preventing another public health catastrophe similar to tobacco use, which kills 6 million people worldwide each year.
    Milbank Quarterly 06/2014; 92(2):207-42. · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Rachel Grana, Neal Benowitz, Stanton A Glantz
    Circulation 05/2014; 129(19):1972-86. · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • Circulation 05/2014; 129(19):e490-2. · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • Sara Kalkhoran, Stanton A Glantz
    The Lancet 03/2014; · 39.21 Impact Factor
  • Lauren M Dutra, Stanton A Glantz
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly among adolescents, and e-cigarettes are currently unregulated. OBJECTIVE To examine e-cigarette use and conventional cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional analyses of survey data from a representative sample of US middle and high school students in 2011 (n = 17 353) and 2012 (n = 22 529) who completed the 2011 and 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey. EXPOSURES Ever and current e-cigarette use. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Experimentation with, ever, and current smoking, and smoking abstinence. RESULTS Among cigarette experimenters (≥1 puff), ever e-cigarette use was associated with higher odds of ever smoking cigarettes (≥100 cigarettes; odds ratio [OR] = 6.31; 95% CI, 5.39-7.39) and current cigarette smoking (OR = 5.96; 95% CI, 5.67-6.27). Current e-cigarette use was positively associated with ever smoking cigarettes (OR = 7.42; 95% CI, 5.63-9.79) and current cigarette smoking (OR = 7.88; 95% CI, 6.01-10.32). In 2011, current cigarette smokers who had ever used e-cigarettes were more likely to intend to quit smoking within the next year (OR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.03-2.28). Among experimenters with conventional cigarettes, ever use of e-cigarettes was associated with lower 30-day (OR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.21-0.28), 6-month (OR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.21-0.28), and 1-year (OR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.21-0.30) abstinence from cigarettes. Current e-cigarette use was also associated with lower 30-day (OR = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.08-0.15), 6-month (OR = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.08-0.15), and 1-year (OR = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.07-0.18) abstinence. Among ever smokers of cigarettes (≥100 cigarettes), ever e-cigarette use was negatively associated with 30-day (OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.89), 6-month (OR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33-0.83), and 1-year (OR = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.18-0.56) abstinence from conventional cigarettes. Current e-cigarette use was also negatively associated with 30-day (OR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18-0.69), 6-month (OR = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.13-0.68), and 1-year (OR = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.87) abstinence. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Use of e-cigarettes was associated with higher odds of ever or current cigarette smoking, higher odds of established smoking, higher odds of planning to quit smoking among current smokers, and, among experimenters, lower odds of abstinence from conventional cigarettes. Use of e-cigarettes does not discourage, and may encourage, conventional cigarette use among US adolescents.
    JAMA pediatrics. 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco control advocates began to use ballot initiatives to enact tobacco control measures in the late 1970s. In response, the tobacco industry worked for over two decades to change laws governing initiative and referendum processes to prevent passage of such measures. In 1981 the tobacco industry's political lobbying arm, the Tobacco Institute, created a front group that presented itself as a neutral initiative research clearinghouse to effect changes in state initiative and referenda laws. In 1990 the Tobacco Institute began creating an in-house team and worked with third-party groups to try to change state initiative laws. While the industry ultimately abandoned both efforts when neither achieved immediate success, over time, the industry's goals have penetrated legitimate discourse on the initiative and referendum process in the United States, and many specific ideas it advocated have garnered mainstream support. Direct democracy advocates, as well as public health advocates and policy makers, need to understand the tobacco industry's goals (which other industries adopted) of limiting the direct democracy process to ensure that any changes do not inadvertently increase the power of the special interests that direct democracy was developed to counterbalance.
    Journal of Health Politics Policy and Law 03/2014; · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for "hipster" young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print February 13, 2014: e1-e10. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301666).
    American Journal of Public Health 02/2014; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We examined the association of smoke-free laws with dentists' advice to quit smoking and referral to a quit line, among smokers who reported visiting the dentist in the past 12 months. Methods. We used the 2006 to 2007 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey merged with the American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation Local Ordinance Database of smoke-free laws. The dependent variables were advice from a dentist to quit smoking and referral to a quit line, and the independent variable of interest was 100% smoke-free law coverage. We controlled for respondent demographics and an index of state-level smoking ban attitudes (included to ensure that the effect detected was not the result of social attitudes). Results. Smoke-free law coverage was associated with dental advice to quit smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.59; P = .041), but not with referral to a quit line (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 0.79, 2.25; P = .283). Conclusions. Interventions with dentists are needed to increase referrals to quit lines and other smoking cessation efforts. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print February 13, 2014: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301714).
    American Journal of Public Health 02/2014; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Describe tobacco companies' marketing strategies targeting low socioeconomic status (SES) females in the USA. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Tobacco companies focused marketing on low SES women starting in the late 1970s, including military wives, low-income inner-city minority women, 'discount-susceptible' older female smokers and less-educated young white women. Strategies included distributing discount coupons with food stamps to reach the very poor, discount offers at point-of-sale and via direct mail to keep cigarette prices low, developing new brands for low SES females and promoting luxury images to low SES African-American women. More recently, companies integrated promotional strategies targeting low-income women into marketing plans for established brands. Tobacco companies used numerous marketing strategies to reach low SES females in the USA for at least four decades. Strategies to counteract marketing to low SES women could include (1) counteracting price discounts and direct mail coupons that reduce the price of tobacco products, (2) instituting restrictions on point-of-sale advertising and retail display and (3) creating counteradvertising that builds resistance to psychosocial targeting of low SES women. To achieve health equity, tobacco control efforts are needed to counteract the influence of tobacco industry marketing to low-income women.
    Tobacco control 01/2014; · 3.85 Impact Factor
  • 01/2014;
  • Dorie E. Apollonio, Stanton A. Glantz, Lisa A. Bero
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    ABSTRACT: In the 1990s several American states passed term limits on legislators with the stated intention of reducing the influence of wealthy industries on career legislators. Although term limits in the United States do not have a direct relationship to public health, the tobacco industry anticipated that term limits could have indirect effects by either limiting or expanding industry influence. We detail the strategy of the tobacco industry in the wake of term limits using internal tobacco company documents and a database of campaign contributions made to legislators in term limited states between 1988 and 2002. Despite some expectations that term limits would limit tobacco industry access to state legislators, term limits appear to have had the opposite effect.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 01/2014; 104:1–5. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smokefree policies (SFPs) have diffused throughout the US and worldwide. However, the development of SFPs in the difficult policy environment of tobacco-producing states and economies worldwide has not been well-explored. In 2007, Tennessee, the third largest tobacco producer in the US, enacted the Non-Smoker Protection Act (NSPA). This study utilizes the multiple streams model to provide understanding of why and how this policy was developed by triangulating interviews with key stakeholders and legislative debates with archival documents. In June 2006, the Governor unexpectedly announced support for SFP, which created a window of opportunity for policy change. The Campaign for Healthy and Responsible Tennessee, a health coalition, seized this opportunity and worked with the administration and the Tennessee Restaurant Association to negotiate a comprehensive SFP, however, a weaker bill was used by the legislative leadership to develop the NSPA. Although the Governor and the Tennessee Restaurant Association's support generated an environment for 100 % SFP, health groups did not fully capitalize on this environmental change and settled for a weak policy with several exemptions. This study suggests the importance for proponents of policy change to understand changes in their environment and be willing and able to capitalize on these changes.
    Journal of Community Health 12/2013; · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • Anna V Song, Paul Brown, Stanton A Glantz
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    ABSTRACT: In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print December 12, 2013: e1-e10. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301737).
    American Journal of Public Health 12/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the effects of brief exposures to low concentrations of tobacco secondhand smoke (SHS) on arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD, a nitric oxide-dependent measure of vascular endothelial function), in a controlled animal model never before exposed to smoke. In humans, SHS exposure for 30min impairs FMD. It is important to gain a better understanding of the acute effects of exposure to SHS at low concentrations and for brief periods of time. We measured changes in FMD in rats exposed to a range of real-world levels of SHS for durations of 30min, 10min, 1min, and 4 breaths (roughly 15 s). We observed a dose response relationship between SHS particle concentration over 30min and post-exposure impairment of FMD, which was linear through the range typically encountered in smoky restaurants and then saturated at higher concentrations. One minute of exposure to SHS at moderate concentrations was sufficient to impair FMD. Brief SHS exposure at real-world levels reversibly impairs FMD. Even 1min of SHS exposure can cause reduction of endothelial function.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 12/2013; · 2.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

13k Citations
2,927.60 Total Impact Points


  • 1976–2014
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Clinical Pharmacy
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Department of Physiological Nursing
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine
      • • Institute for Health Policy Studies
      • • Cardiovascular Research Institute
      • • Division of Cardiology
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2013
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011–2013
    • Kela - The Social Insurance Institution of Finland
      • Research Department
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Primary Care and Public Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Colorado
      • Department of Anthropology
      Denver, CO, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
      • Department of Health Behavior
      Buffalo, NY, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • East Tennessee State University
      Johnson City, Tennessee, United States
    • University of Nottingham
      • Division of Epidemiology and Public Health
      Nottingham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2009
    • CSU Mentor
      • Department of Medicine
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2008
    • Washington State University
      • Department of Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology (VCAPP)
      Pullman, WA, United States
    • Menlo College
      Atherton, California, United States
  • 2007
    • University of California, Davis
      • School of Medicine
      Davis, CA, United States
    • Temple University
      • Department of Public Health
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2006
    • American Legacy Foundation
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2005
    • VA Palo Alto Health Care System
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2003
    • Cancer Council Victoria
      • Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • Los Angeles County Department of Health Services
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2002
    • American Lung Association of Florida
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2000
    • Tufts University
      Georgia, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • School of Public Health and Health Sciences
      Amherst Center, MA, United States
  • 1995
    • Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
  • 1988–1990
    • University of Vermont
      • Department of Medicine
      Burlington, VT, United States