A. P. Economopoulos

University of Crete, Retimo, Crete, Greece

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Publications (15)32.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Research on the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) – rearing simplification, insect microflora and transgenic strain evaluation – yielded several findings: (1) incorporation of antibiotics in the adult diet is evidently not needed; (2) colonization appears to be easier when wild adults are collected from the field instead of using mature larvae emerging from field-collected infested olives; (3) a combination of standard solid starter with liquid (no cellulose powder) finisher impregnated in synthetic sponge larval diets was more promising compared with all-liquid diets; (4) molecular analysis revealed extensive differences in bacterial species associated with the fly between laboratory flies and strains from different olive varieties, as well as between strains originating from different seasons of the year; (5) when an enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic strain was compared with the standard long mass-reared strain, it proved significantly inferior according to all quality control tests applied, i.e. egg production, egg hatch, larval-stage duration, pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergence and adult survival. The aforementioned findings are discussed in the context of mass rearing and quality requirements for more successful implementation of the sterile insect technique against this pest.
    International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 11/2014; 34(S1):S114-S122. DOI:10.1017/S1742758414000162
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    ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) is a pest of over 300 fruits, vegetables and nuts. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a control measure used to reduce the reproductive potential of populations through the mass release of sterilized male insects that mate with wild females. However, SIT flies can display poor field performance, due to the effects of mass-rearing and of the irradiation process used for sterilization. The development of female-lethal RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal) strains for medfly can overcome many of the problems of SIT associated with irradiation. Here, we present life-history characterizations for two medfly RIDL strains, OX3864A and OX3647Q. Our results show (i) full functionality of RIDL, (ii) equivalency of RIDL and wild-type strains for life-history characteristics, and (iii) a high level of sexual competitiveness against both wild-type and wild-derived males. We also present the first proof-of-principle experiment on the use of RIDL to eliminate medfly populations. Weekly releases of OX3864A males into stable populations of wild-type medfly caused a successive decline in numbers, leading to eradication. The results show that genetic control can provide an effective alternative to SIT for the control of pest insects.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 10/2014; 281(1792). DOI:10.1098/rspb.2014.1372 · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT) presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®), providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1) are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2) display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3) induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D-Bol male releases provides evidence for the female-specific RIDL approach as a viable method of olive fly control. We conclude that the promising characteristics of OX3097D-Bol may finally enable effective SIT-based control of the olive fly.
    BMC Biology 06/2012; 10:51. DOI:10.1186/1741-7007-10-51 · 7.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on the dispersal rates of normal and σ-irradiated laboratory-reared, and wild Dacus oleae (Gmelin) were carried out in an olive grove using protein-baited McPhail traps. No differences were found in the dispersal rates of normal and irradiated laboratory-cultured flies, or between males and females. The mean distance travelled by the surviving flies up to 2 weeks after release was 180–190 m, and by that time only ca. 13% of the flies remained alive in the grove. No laboratory-reared flies were trapped outside the olive grove. The limited amount of data, obtained with wild flies, suggested that they may disperse over greater distances than laboratory-reared flies.RÉSUMÉDISPERSION EN OLIVERAIE DE DACUS OLEAE PROVENANT DE MOUCHES SAUVAGES OU D'éLEVAGE. IRRADIÉES OU NONL'étude de la vitesse de dispersion de D, oleae soit sauvage, soit élevée en laboratoire, avec ou sans exposition aux rayons σ, a été réalisée en oliveraie en utilisant des pièges Mac Phail, avec pour attractif une protéïne. Aucune différence n'a été enregistrée entre la vitesse de dispersion des mouches (quel que soit leur sexe) provenant d'élevage en laboratoire qu'elles aient été irradiées ou non. La distance moyenne parcourue par les mouches survivantes, deux semaines après le lâcher, est de 180 à 190 m. Le pourcentage de survie de ces mouches dans le verger, 15 jours après leur liberation, est de 13% environ. Aucune des mouches provenant d'élevage en laboratoire n'a été capturée après le lâcher, en dehors des vergers d'oliviers.Les résultats obtenus avec les mouches sauvages, bien que plus limités, indiquent que celles-ci peuvent se disperser sur des distances plus importantes que les mouches élevées en laboratoire.
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 04/2011; 20(2):183 - 194. DOI:10.1111/j.1570-7458.1976.tb02632.x · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • A.P. Economopoulos · A.A. Al-Taweel · N.D. Bruzzone
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    ABSTRACT: Replacing commercial granular sucrose by inexpensive sugar-cane molasses in the finisher bulk phase of the Seibersdorf standard larval diet with starter (SLDS) for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) had no detrimental effect on larval stage duration, pupal size, pupal recovery from hatched eggs, adult emergence, and adult flight ability. When a low-cost yeast from Cairo replaced Schwechat brewer's yeast in the Seibersdorf standard larval diet without the starter (SLD), all quality measurements except the larval stage duration were improved by 5 − 10%, the increase found significant for adult emergence and flight ability. When sugar and Schwechat yeast were replaced by molasses and Cairo yeast, respectively, in both starter and finisher phases of the SLDS, all quality measurements except the pupal size were affected negatively, the difference from control found almost always significant for larval stage duration and pupal recovery. When the SLDS diet contained molasses and Cairo yeast, molasses could be reduced in the finisher by 50% with no significant reduction on any of the quality measurements except the pupal size which was reduced by 6 %. A similar reduction of Cairo yeast resulted in a significant reduction of both pupal recovery (by 26%) and adult emergence (by 18%). Yeast could be reduced by 50% only when molasses was simultaneously increased by 25%. Finally, in the starter phase of SLDS sodium benzoate or citric acid could be reduced considerably without a significant effect on any of the quality measurements.ZusammenfassungEine Larvendiät mit Starterphase zur Massenaufzucht von Ceratitis capitata: Ersatz und Verbesserung der Anwendung von Hefe und ZuckerDer Ersatz von kommerziell verfügbarem, granuliertem Rübenzucker durch billige Zuckerrohrmelasse in der Endkomponente der in Seibersdorf für die Massenaufzucht von Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) verwendeten Standard-Larven-Diät mit Starter (SLDS) hatte keine negativen Auswirkungen auf (i) die Dauer des Larvenstadiums (ii) die GröBe der Puppen (iii) die Entwicklung der Puppen nach dem Schlüpfen sowie auf (iv) die Entwicklung und (v) die Flugfähigkeit erwachsener Fruchtfliegen. Desgleichen führte ein Ersatz von Schwechater Brauhefe durch billige Hefe aus Kairo in der standardisierten Seibersdorfer Larvendiät ohne Starter (SLD) zu einer 5−10%igen Verbesserung der bewerteten Qualitätsparameter mit Ausnahme der Dauer des Larvenstadiums; die Entwicklung und Flugfähigkeit erwachsener Fliegen war zudem signifikant verbessert.Bei Ersatz von Zucker und Schwechater Brauhefe durch Melasse bzw. Hefe aus Kairo sowohl in der Starterphase als auch in der Endkomponente der SLDS wurden alle bewerteten Qualitätskriterien mit Ausnahme der GröBe der Puppen negativ beeinflußt; signifikant verschlechterte Werte zu den Kontrollen traten insbesonders bei der Dauer des Larvenstadiums und der Entwicklung der Puppen auf. Enthielt dagegen die SLDS-Diät Melasse und Hefe aus Kairo, so konnte der Melasseanteil in der Endkomponente der Diät ohne signifikante negative Auswirkungen auf die Qualitätskontrollmerkmale um 50% verringert werden; nur die Größe der Puppen war um 6% reduziert. Eine gleich große Verringerung des Anteils an Kairohefe führte zu einer signifikanten Reduktion der Entwicklung der Puppen (um 26%) und der Entwicklung erwachsener Fliegen (um 18%). Hefe aus Kairo konnte nur dann um 50% vermindert werden, wenn der Melasseanteil gleichzeitig um 25% erhöht wurde.Letztendlich konnte Natriumbenzoat oder Zitronensäure in der Starterphase der SLDS ohne significante Auswirkungen auf die bewerteten Qualitätskriterien wesentlich reduziert werden.
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 04/2011; 55(3):239 - 246. DOI:10.1111/j.1570-7458.1990.tb01368.x · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    N. D. Bruzzone · A. P. Economopoulos · Hua-Song Wang
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    ABSTRACT: The standard finisher larval diet used at Seibersdorf for rearing the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was reused following autoclave heat-treatment to kill larvae or pupae remaining from its first use. Only when the spent diet was mixed with water (about 40% of final diet, w/w) to reconstitute fresh-diet texture, and combined with fresh starter, a similar, but still inferior in respect to larval duration and pupal recovery and size, to the fresh finisher diet production of flies was achieved. Enrichment of the autoclaved spent finisher with small quantities of nutrients gave inconclusive results. Although spent-diet pupae were significantly smaller than fresh-diet control pupae, their adults survived significantly longer than control adults.ZusammenfassungZur Massenaufzucht von Ceratitis capitata: die Wiederverwendung der Endkomponente der LarvenditDie in Seibersdorf zur Aufzucht der Mittelmeerfruchtfliege, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), verwendete Standardend-komponente der Larvendit konnte nach Abtötung der von der Erstverwendung verbliebenen Larven oder Puppen mittels Autoklavensterilisation wiederverwendet werden. Eine zur frischen Kontrolldit vergleichbare, jedoch bezüglich der Lnge des Larvenstadiums, der Entwicklung der Puppen nach dem Schlüpfen sowie der Größe der Puppen noch immer schlechtere Fliegenproduktion wurde erreicht, wenn die wiederverwendete, autoklavierte Dit mit Wasser (ca. 40% der Enddit, w/w) zwecks Rekonstitution zur frischen Dittextur gemischt und mit frischem Starter kombiniert wurde. Eine Anreicherung der wiederverwendeten Ditendkomponente mit geringen Mengen von Nhrstoffen ergab keine schlüssigen Resultate. Obwohl Puppen der wiederverwendeten Dit signifikant kleiner als Puppen der Frischdit-Kontrolle waren, überlebten deren Erwachsene signifikant lnger als die Erwachsenen der Kontrolle.
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 04/2011; 56(1):103 - 106. DOI:10.1111/j.1570-7458.1990.tb01385.x · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    A. M. Estes · D. Nestel · A. Belcari · A. Jessup · P. Rempoulakis · A. P. Economopoulos
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    ABSTRACT: The olive fly (OLF), Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is an invasive tephritid fruit fly that causes extensive damage to olive crops around the world (especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America). Previous attempts to use the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) for the OLF were not successful because of the inability to rear high quality OLF in the laboratory on an artificial diet. New improvements in rearing methods and additional understanding of the basic biology of the OLF have led to a renewal of interest in using SIT for OLF. This review discusses the history, difficulties, improvements and future directions of OLF mass-rearing. Issues include: the design of cages and oviposition substrates, cost and quality of artificial diets, maintenance of endosymbiotic microbiota, control of pathogenic microbes, collection of pupae, the fitness of adults, and the competitiveness of sterilized laboratory males released to the field.
    Journal of Applied Entomology 03/2011; 136(1‐2):1 - 16. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01620.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    I. Dimou · P. Rempoulakis · A. P. Economopoulos
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    ABSTRACT: The olive fruit fly [Bactrocera (Dacus) oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)] adult diet since its development in the 1960’s regularly incorporates antibiotic. Considering recent findings on the importance and function of the indigenous microbial flora of insects, the effects of antibiotic removal were measured on the survival and egg laying of wild flies derived from McPhail trappings and from field infested olive fruits. In the first case wild flies fed no antibiotic laid significantly greater numbers of eggs for two generations (in 5 out of 10 and 2 out of 10 counting dates for G1 and G2 respectively), while there were no significant differences in survival in either test (P = 0.221 for P generation, P = 0.988 for G1 generation from McPhail traps, P = 0.056 for flies from infested fruits). Percent egg–pupa recovery and adult emergence were not significantly affected by lack of antibiotic. An antibiotic-free strain has been maintained for eight generations, showing acceptable performance when compared to the long-reared standard ‘Laboratory’ strain. Overall results suggest the feasibility of an adult diet free of antibiotic without negative effects on colony survival and performance.
    Journal of Applied Entomology 11/2009; 134(1):72 - 79. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.2009.01433.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    A. P. Economopoulos
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    ABSTRACT: En poblaciones mezcladas de machos salvajes y machos provenientes de pupas blancas de hembras T (Y;5) 1-61 de razas genéticamente sexadas de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), los machos esterilizados de razas genéticamente sexadas expresaron la capacidad de llamamiento, la acción de seleccionar un lugar de apareamiento y apareamiento con su contraparte salvaje. No obstante, su capacidad de apareamiento fue en la mayoría de las veces de pobre a muy pobre, por ejemplo, en una serie de estudios llevados a cabo entre junio y octubre de 1996, solamente entre 0 y 1/3 de los apareamientos esperados (basados en proporciones de insectos) por machos estériles genéticamente sexados fueron registrados. Resultados similares se observaron en los otros años de este estudio. No se detectaron diferencias substanciales entre el tipo de copulación entre machos genéticamente sexados × hembras salvajes y machos salvajes × hembras salvajes en las distribuciones espaciales de parejas en cópulas sobre árboles de naranja. Mas del 83% de ambos tipos de apareamiento se detectaron en el lado inferior de la superficie de las hojas.
    Florida Entomologist 09/2009; 97(Mar 2002):58-62. DOI:10.1653/0015-4040(2002)085[0058:MPASDO]2.0.CO;2 · 1.06 Impact Factor
  • A. P. Economopoulos
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    ABSTRACT: For high sterility (egg hatch below 5 %) Dacus oleae males had to be treated either one day before adult emergence at 8 and 11 Krad in air and nitrogen atmosphere respectively, or as young adults at 11 Krad of Co60 γ-rays. Irradiation had no apparent effect on survival when pupae were treated at 5 or 8 Krad in air and nitrogen respectively, or when young adults were treated at 8 Krad in air. At higher doses, survival was reduced considerably. Females were found more sensitive on both survival and sterilization.When males, treated at the pupal stage in nitrogen at 11 Krad, were compared to males treated either as pupae in air at 8 Krad or as young adults at 11 Krad, their sexual competitiveness was found superior. The phenomenon was more striking as insects grew older.ZusammenfassungSterilität mit γ-Strahlen bei Dacus oleae (Gmelin). Wirkungen auf die Konkurrenzfähigkeit bestrahlter MännchenUm hohe Sterilität (Eierschlupfrate < 5 %) von Olivenfliegen-Männchen zu bekommen, sind späte Puppen bei einer Dosis von 8 Krad bzw. 11 Krad in Luft bzw. in Stickstoffatmosphäre, oder Jungadulten bei einer Dosis von 11 Krad zu bestrahlen. (Co60 γ-Strahlen). Die Anwendung von Dosierungen niedriger als 5 bzw. 8 Krad in Luft bzw. in Stickstoffatmosphäre im Puppenstadium, oder 8 Krad im Adulten-Stadium, verursachte eine geringe Wirkung auf die Lebensdauer der Fliegen. Dosierungen größer als die erwähnten verursachten wesentliche Verminderung der Lebensdauer der Fliegen. Es wurde festgestellt, daß die Weibchen wesentlich empfindlicher gegenüber der Sterilität und Lebensdauer waren. Männchen, die in das Puppenstadium in Stickstoffatmosphäre bei einer Dosis von 11 Krad bestrahlt wurden, konnten mit solchen, die im Puppenstadium bei 8 Krad bzw. bei 11 Krad in das Adultenstadium in Luftatmosphäre bestrahlt wurden, sexuell besser konkurrieren. Der Vergleich war unklar, wenn die Fliegen älter waren.
    Journal of Applied Entomology 08/2009; 83(1‐4):86 - 95. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.1977.tb02377.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • A. P. Economopoulos · G. E. Haniotakis · J. Mathioudis · N. Missis · P. Kinigakis
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    ABSTRACT: When 4,500 wild and 36,000 artificially-reared Dacus oleae flies were released simultaneously 2,000 m away from an 8,000-tree olive grove at the beginning of October, only 11 and 2, respectively, were recovered in 136 McPhail traps placed all over the grove. Some of the flies were trapped at distances ca. 4,000 m from the release site. When 20,000 and 12,000 artificially reared flies were released at distances of ca. 1,300 and 2,000 m, respectively, from the trapping area in July, 17 in total were recovered of which 16 were females. In a 3rd release with artificially reared flies in September, no recovery occurred. Finally, in a 4th release with 4,000 wild flies released in each release site at the end of October, only 5 from both sites were recovered. No olive trees existed between the two release and the trapping olive groves over 1,300 and 2,000 m, respectively.ZusammenfassungWeitflüge von wilden und aufgezogenen Olivenfliegen, Dacus oleae (Gmel.) (Dipt., Tephritidae)Nach einer Anfang Oktober erfolgten gleichzeitigen Freilassung von 4500 wild gefangenen und 36 000 im Labor aufgezogenen D. oleae in 2000 m Entfernung von einer 8000 Bäume umfassenden Olivenpflanzung im Sebronas-Tal auf der Insel Kreta wurden nur 11 bzw. 2 Fliegen in den 136 über das Tal verteilten Fallen wiedergefangen. Einige dieser Fliegen waren eine Entfernung von ca. 4000 m vom Freilassungsort geflogen. Bei Freilassung von 20 000 wilden 12 000 aufgezogenen Fliegen im Juli wurden 17 Fliegen, darunter 16 weibliche in Entfernungen von 1300 m und 2000 m wiedergefangen. Eine 3. Freilassung aufgezogener D. oleae im September erbrachte keinen Rückfang. Eine 4. Freilassung von Wildfliegen (je 4000 von der Nord- und Ost-Freilassungsstelle) Ende Oktober ergab einen Wiederfang von 5 Fliegen. Zwischen der Olivenpflanzung und den 2 Freilassungsstellen befanden sich auf 1300 bzw. 2000 m Entfernung keine Olivenbäume.
    Journal of Applied Entomology 08/2009; 87(1‐4):101 - 108. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.1978.tb02430.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • A. P. Economopoulos · M. Konsolaki · M. Roditaki
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    ABSTRACT:   The purpose of this research was to investigate post-harvest heat treatment of Valencia oranges as an effective disinfestation protocol (fast, no fruit damage) for the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Forced high-temperature air was applied under the following conditions: (a) exposure to air temperature of 56°C, for fast increase of temperature in the interior of the fruit, (b) reduction in air temperature to 47°C when the fruit centre reached 47°C and (c) maintenance of fruits in the chamber for another 30 min. Relative humidity in the treatment chamber was kept between 50% and 65% during treatment. Forced air at 47°C applied for 30 min on eggs before hatch or late third instar larvae (the most heat-tolerant stages) resulted in complete kill. Egg and larval sensitivity to high temperature differed between a wild strain and a laboratory genetic-sexing strain based on white pupa mutation. In this strain males emerge from brown pupae and females from white pupae. In particular, mature eggs from the wild strain were significantly more temperature resistant than eggs from the laboratory strain. Exposure of Valencia oranges of a diameter of 7–7.5 cm to 56°C forced air for about 86 and 99 min was required to increase temperature to 47°C at 1.5 cm depth and the fruit centre respectively. Treated oranges showed no substantial peel or interior deterioration, or change in colour and taste when kept at 25°C and 50–60% RH for a period of up to 1 month following treatment. Treatment in 1% O2 atmosphere, produced by flushing of CO2 into the treatment chamber, resulted in about 1°C reduction in killing temperature and faster increase in temperature inside the fruit to a lethal level.
    Journal of Applied Entomology 11/2007; 131(9‐10):722 - 727. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.2007.01142.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The olive fruit fly (olive fly) Bactrocera oleae (Dacus), recently introduced in North America, is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. The lack of an efficient gene transfer technology for olive fly has hampered molecular analysis, as well as development of genetic techniques for its control. We have developed a Minos-based transposon vector carrying a self-activating cassette which overexpresses the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Efficient transposase-mediated integration of one to multiple copies of this vector was achieved in the germ line of B. oleae by coinjecting the vector along with in vitro synthesized Minos transposase mRNA into preblastoderm embryos. The self-activating gene construct combined with transposase mRNA present a system with potential for transgenesis of very diverse species.
    Insect Molecular Biology 03/2006; 15(1):95-103. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2583.2006.00613.x · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • I. Dimou · C. Koutsikopoulos · AP Economopoulos · J. Lykakis
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    ABSTRACT:   The influence of four abiotic factors (temperature, soil type, compaction, moisture) on the pupation depth of the wild Bactrocera (Dacus) oleae (Gmel.) larvae was studied using soils sampled in the field. Two temperatures (25 and 12°C), three different soil types (alluvial deposits, soil from decaying of limestone, soil from decaying of flysch), two compaction levels (low and high) and two moisture levels (10 and 50% field capacity) were tested in a factorial experiment with a total of 96 experimental units. Five larvae were placed on the soil surface of each test container and when burrowing was completed pupae were retrieved and pupation depth was recorded. The majority of larvae pupated in the top 3 cm and the mean depth of all units was 1.16 cm. The means differed significantly depending on soil type, moisture, the temperature–soil type interaction and the soil type–moisture interaction. Larvae pupated at a greater depth in limestone than in the other two soils. Depths were greater in soils at 50% field capacity than in those at 10% field capacity. In limestone and flysch the depth was greater at 25°C whereas no differences were found in alluvial soil. Different moisture levels had diverse effects in the three soil types; in alluvial soil and in flysch the increased moisture resulted in greater values but in limestone these were slightly lower. These results can be used in developing non chemical control measures and designing efficient sampling techniques for the insect in the ground.
    Journal of Applied Entomology 01/2003; 127(1):12 - 17. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0418.2003.00686.x · 1.70 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

127 Citations
32.64 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2014
    • University of Crete
      • • Section of Biotechnology and Applied Biology
      • • Laboratory of Applied Psychology
      Retimo, Crete, Greece
  • 2011
    • Seibersdorf Laboratories
      Seibersdorf, Lower Austria, Austria
  • 2009–2011
    • National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos
      Athínai, Attica, Greece