[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of mortality worldwide and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is an important marker of CVD risk. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been widely used in the clinic for treatment of CVD and regulation of lipid metabolism. This study investigated the effects of a high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) on HDL-C level and regulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) gene expression. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and maintained on a high-fat control diet (CON) or high-fat control diet supplemented with high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) for 5 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes related to HDL-C metabolism were analyzed in liver, together with biometric and blood parameters. RESULTS: In the HEG group, the plasma levels of triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased by 19% and 24%, respectively, relative to the control group. The plasma HDL-C level was increased by 59% (P < 0.05). The HEG-supplemented diet lowered the atherogenic index (AI) by 45% as compared to the CON group. Hepatic TG and total cholesterol (TC) levels were reduced by 35% and 43%, respectively in comparison with the CON group. The HEG supplementation increased hepatic mRNA levels of apoA-I, which is one of primarily proteins of HDL-C particle (P < 0.05). The gene expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), importantly involved in the biogenesis in HDL, were also up-regulated by dietary HEG. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that HEG ameliorates plasma lipid profiles and attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in the high-fat fed rats. Our findings provides that the effects of HEG on the increase of the plasma HDL-C level was at least partially mediated by up-regulation of hepatic genes expression such as apoA-I, ABCA1, and LCAT in rats fed a high-fat diet.
Lipids in Health and Disease 06/2012; 11(1):77. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the main causes of mortality worldwide, and dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for CVD. Ginseng has been widely used in the clinic to treat CVD. Ginsenoside Rg3, one of the major active components of ginseng, has been reported to exhibit antiobesity, antidiabetic, and cardioprotective effects. However, the effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether ginsenoside Rg3 would regulate hepatic lipid metabolism with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rg3 significantly reduced hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg3 inhibited expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). Ginsenoside Rg3 increased activity of AMPK, a major regulator of energy metabolism. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg3 reduces hepatic lipid accumulation with inhibition of SREBP-2 and HMGCR expression and stimulation of AMPK activity in HepG2 cells. Therefore, ginsenoside Rg3 may be beneficial as a food ingredient to lower the risk of CVD by regulating dyslipidemia.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(5):5729-39. · 2.46 Impact Factor