ABSTRACT: To evaluate the reliability of 3-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) for the measurement of choroidal melanomas.
Retrospective case series.
Forty-two consecutive cases of choroidal melanoma imaged with 3D-US.
Tumor measurements obtained with ophthalmoscopy, transillumination, standard ultrasound techniques, 3D-US, and pathological studies. Tumor diameters, heights, and volumes were compared. Our 3D-US tumor measurement techniques were tested for intraobserver and interscan reproducibility.
Fifty 3D-US images were studied. The 3D-US tumor measurements were found to be reproducible (height coefficient of variation [CV] < or = 3%; diameter CV < or = 9.7%; volume CV < or = 13.2%). There was significant correlation with the usual methods of tumor measurement (diameter r = 0.76; height r > or = 0.98). Significant differences were found between measurements at pathological examination, as compared with both 2-dimensional and 3D-US height measurements (range, 0.73-0.83 mm). This finding was thought to be due to specimen shrinkage. Three-dimensional ultrasound was found to be at least as reproducible as clinical examination and standard ultrasound techniques used for measurement of diameter and height of choroidal melanomas. It was our impression that the 3D-US volume measurements accounted for the geometry of the tumor better than volume estimates calculated from basal area and tumor height.
Three-dimensional ultrasound measurements of choroidal melanoma were reproducible, correlated well with other tumor measurement techniques, and can be used for measurement of choroidal melanomas.
Archives of Ophthalmology 09/2001; 119(9):1275-82. · 3.71 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the usefulness of plaque-mounted diode-light transillumination (DLT) for the localization of episcleral plaques around intraocular tumors.
A clinical case series was performed to create, evaluate, and modify diode-light plaque construction, application, and imaging. Eight patients with choroidal melanoma were offered DLT as an additional method of ophthalmic plaque localization. Plaques were constructed by affixing non-heat-producing, light-emitting diodes with their apertures flush with the episcleral outer surface of the rim of the plaque. A bioimplantable epoxy was used to encapsulate the electronic components. Radioactive DLT eye plaques were sewn to the episclera to cover the base of the intraocular tumors; then diode lights were illuminated, viewed, and recorded. Thus, DLT was used to photographically document the relative position of the eye plaque covering the tumor base. The use of DLT also permitted a subjective evaluation of the contact (plaque contact) of each light with the sclera.
Still and video images of plaque-mounted diode retro-transillumination were obtained, and no evidence of toxic effects of diode light were noted.
Small posterior melanomas are difficult to visualize with standard transillumination techniques and are associated with poor local control. To improve and document plaque placement, we developed plaque-mounted diode lights for retrobulbar transillumination. This technique provides unique photographic documentation of episcleral plaque localization beneath intraocular tumors.
Archives of Ophthalmology 03/1999; 117(2):179-83. · 3.71 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To describe the results of three-dimensional ultrasonography used to evaluate extrascleral extension of a choroidal melanoma.
Case report. The three-dimensional ultrasound system uses a 10-MHz B-mode transducer combined with a motorized rotating holder. The system acquires 180 sequential images that are stored and processed to create a three-dimensional block of the region of interest.
Unique coronal and oblique perspectives were obtained from interactive manipulation of the three-dimensional reconstruction. Examination of the three-dimensional image allowed us to detect the transscleral uveal-orbital connection. Extrascleral melanomatous extension was confirmed on histopathologic examination.
Three-dimensional ultrasonography is a promising imaging technique for evaluating melanomatous extrascleral extension.
American Journal of Ophthalmology 01/1999; 126(6):842-4. · 4.22 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the use of 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography for the localization of episcleral eye plaques during the treatment of choroidal melanomas.
A series of 13 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated with radioactive palladium 103 seeds affixed into gold eye plaques. During surgery, 3D ultrasonography was performed with a commercially available system to evaluate the relative position of radioactive plaques secured beneath their intraocular tumors. This system consists of an automated, rotating, handheld, B-scan ultrasonographic probe operating at 10 MHz, a personal computer, and 3D imaging software.
We measured the margins of the plaque extending beyond the tumor and the distance between the radioactive seeds and the tumor apex. We also evaluated the relationship between the plaque edge, the episclera, and the tumor's edges. While the plaques were well centered over the tumor in all cases, the plaque margins around the tumor were found to be variably sized. When comparing measurements taken at the time of plaque insertion with those taken at the time of plaque removal, we noted changes in the apical tumor height and in plaque centration. In the 1 patient with a juxtapapillary tumor, the posterior margin of the plaque was found to be displaced away from the sclera, or "tilted."
Three-dimensional ultrasonography offers a new method for ophthalmic plaque localization. Unique perspectives can be visualized through the use of computer-aided 3D reconstructions that permit the assessment of the relative position of the plaque to the optic nerve and the measurement of the distance between the in vivo radioactive seed and the tumor apex. Our experience suggests that when compared with 2-dimensional ultrasonography, 3D ultrasonography offers new capabilities that can be used to improve plaque placement and radiation dose calculations.
Archives of Ophthalmology 03/1998; 116(3):305-12. · 3.71 Impact Factor