[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten QTL underlying the accumulation of Zn and Fe in the grain were mapped in a set of RILs bred from the cross Triticum spelta × T. aestivum . Five of these loci (two for Zn and three for Fe) were consistently detected across seven environments. The genetic basis of accumulation in the grain of Zn and Fe was investigated via QTL mapping in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population bred from a cross between Triticum spelta and T. aestivum. The concentration of the two elements was measured from grain produced in three locations over two consecutive cropping seasons and from a greenhouse trial. The range in Zn and Fe concentration across the RILs was, respectively, 18.8-73.5 and 25.3-59.5 ppm, and the concentrations of the two elements were positively correlated with one another (rp =+0.79). Ten QTL (five each for Zn and Fe accumulation) were detected, mapping to seven different chromosomes. The chromosome 2B and 6A grain Zn QTL were consistently expressed across environments. The proportion of the phenotype explained (PVE) by QZn.bhu-2B was >16 %, and the locus was closely linked to the SNP marker 1101425|F|0, while QZn.bhu-6A (7.0 % PVE) was closely linked to DArT marker 3026160|F|0. Of the five Fe QTL detected, three, all mapping to chromosome 1A were detected in all seven environments. The PVE for QFe.bhu-3B was 26.0 %.
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik. 05/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eighteen barley isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana belonging to wild and clonal type of black, mixed and white subpopulations were quantitatively assayed for their melanin content and aggressiveness with respect to production of some of the extracellular enzymes such as cellulase, pectinase, amylase and protease. Cellulase and pectinase constituted major portion of the enzymes recovered from the black, mixed and white isolates. Enzyme production and aggressiveness were relatively higher in melanin devoid or low melanin isolates. The melanin deficient isolates were also differentiated from black and mixed isolates on the basis of variation in internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. Higher enzyme productions positively correlated with area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) and lesion development. Melanin content was negatively correlated with extracellular enzymes and aggressiveness of the isolates. Based on melanin content, lesion size, AUDPC and extracellular enzymes, the isolates were grouped in two major clusters (I and II) with further division of cluster II into two sub-clusters (II-A and II-B). The results appears to indicate a possible role of melanin in release of extracellular enzymes and hence in evolution and selection of aggressive isolates of B. sorokiniana in barley.
Current Microbiology 04/2014; · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: South Asia, which is already home to more than one-fifth of the world's population and rapidly growing, will require wheat yields to rise annually by 2.0–2.5% to meet demand and maintain food security. To address these challenges, a wheat phenotyping network was established in the region in 2009 to support national breeding programs by applying practical phenotyping techniques to increase selection success using a cooperative multi-location testing network. A number of trials have been grown to introduce new genetic diversity for stress adaptive traits, to establish their genetic bases, and to test a new generation of lines developed using physiological approaches. The 17th Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT), consisting of a group of 50 elite spring bread wheat advanced lines, bred in Mexico using both conventional (CON) and physiological trait (PT) approaches, was grown for two seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11. Data showed that PT lines gave superior yields overall, associated with higher grain weight, and with cooler vegetative and grain-filling canopy temperatures (CT); the CT trait is considered indicative of increased gas exchange, a likely consequence in these environments of superior vascular capacity including deeper rooting to access subsoil water. Local check genotypes, which were generally well adapted to the stressed environments tended to be 3–5 days earlier to heading than CIMMYT cultivars. Results demonstrate the potential to integrate physiological breeding approaches into genetic improvement for the region, particularly as future wheat production will take place under increasing water scarcity.
Field Crops Research 01/2014; · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a serious disease of wheat in warmer and humid regions of the world. Three blighting components, area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), disease severity (DS) and lesion size along with four biochemical and histochemical factors viz., total phenol content (TPC), chlorophyll content (CHC), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and lignin deposition were studied in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population involving parents “Sonalika” (susceptible) and “Yangmai 6” (resistant). The objective was to identify one or more robust and reliable tools of resistance, physical, biochemical or histochemical, to facilitate selection against spot blotch. The DS, AUDPC and lesion size were higher in the susceptible parent and RILs compared to the resistant. The mean TPC (246 mg Gallic acid g−1 fresh weight) of the most resistant RIL was significantly higher than the most susceptible (181.5 mg Gallic acid g−1 fresh weight) at 48 h after inoculation (hai). The mean SPAD value for CHC varied between 48.8 in the most resistant RILs to 8.8 in the most susceptible, while the mean PAL varied between 928.4 and 96.0 μmoles Cinnamic acid mg-1 fresh weight at 48 hai in resistant and susceptible RILs, respectively. Likewise, lignin deposition was significantly higher in resistant RILs compared to the susceptible. The biochemical and histochemical parameters were significantly correlated with resistance and appeared robust for facilitating screening of breeding material and for increased precision in phenotyping against spot blotch.
European Journal of Plant Pathology 01/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina, is a globally important fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell), resulting in significant yield losses, sometimes up to 40% worldwide. In this study we investigated slow rusting resistance at pathological and molecular level. Fifteen (15) wheat genotypes which also included multiple crosses with the aim to characterize pyramid resistance genes, including slow rusting genes like Lr46 and Lr50 were evaluated for disease severity percent, latent period and incubation period under field conditions. Detached leaf assay was also performed with three virulent pathotypes viz., 21R55 (104-2), 121R63-1 (77-5) and 29R45 (12-5), under controlled laboratory conditions. Genotypes, KIRITATAI//HUW234+LR34/PRINIA, WAXWING*2/TUKURU, WBLLI*2/KIRITATI, KAMBI*2/-BRAMBLING and KAMBI*2/KIRITATI were very close to near immunity and showed comparatively higher level of resistance against all the three pathotypes. Disease severity in resistant genotypes was traced type 5 to 6% in both years, while it was 60 to 80% in the case of susceptible genotypes, that is, 'Agra Local' (S1). Similar pattern was observed for AUDPC, that is, <250.0 in the resistant genotypes, while it was beyond 1000.0 in 'Agra Local'. The shorter mean latent (7.67) and incubation period (6.0) was observed in susceptible genotypes, that is, 'Agra Local' to all the resistant genotypes, that is, LP (10 to 12) and IP (9 to 10); while testing against all the three different pathotypes. Linked microsatellite markers were used to confirm the presence of different rust resistance genes required to achieve near immunity. Out of 10 primers, nine produced gene specific bands with all genotypes except the control, that is, Agra Local. Genotypes which showed slow rusting, had longer latent period and incubation period as well as reduced percent disease severity and confirmed the presence of four to five resistance genes including slow rusting genes, that is, Lr46 and Lr50. This indicates that these genotypes have potential durable resistance and can be used as parental lines in the development of more durable rust resistance.
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 11/2012; 11:14956-14966. · 0.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a major disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat growing regions of the world including south Asian countries such as India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The CIMMYT bread wheat line Saar which carries the leaf tip necrosis (LTN)-associated rust resistance genes Lr34 and Lr46 has exhibited a low level of spot blotch disease in field trials conducted in Asia and South America. One hundred and fourteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Avocet (Susceptible) × Saar, were evaluated along with parents in two dates of sowing in India for 3 years (2007-2008 to 2009-2010) to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with spot blotch resistance, and to determine the potential association of Lr34 and Lr46 with resistance to this disease. Lr34 was found to constitute the main locus for spot blotch resistance, and explained as much as 55 % of the phenotypic variation in the mean disease data across the six environments. Based on the large effect, the spot blotch resistance at this locus has been given the gene designation Sb1. Two further, minor QTL were detected in the sub-population of RILs not containing Lr34. The first of these was located about 40 cM distal to Lr34 on 7DS, and the other corresponded to Lr46 on 1BL. A major implication for wheat breeding is that Lr34 and Lr46, which are widely used in wheat breeding to improve resistance to rust diseases and powdery mildew, also have a beneficial effect on spot blotch.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 11/2012; · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim Zinc (Zn) fertilization is an effective agronomic tool for Zn biofortification of wheat for overcoming human Zn deficiency. But it still needs to be evaluated across locations with different management practices and wheat cultivars, since grain Zn concentrations may be significantly affected by locations, cultivars and management. Materials Field experiments were conducted over 3 years with the following four Zn treatments: nil Zn, soil Zn application, foliar Zn application and soil + foliar Zn application to explore the impact of Zn fertilization in Zn biofortification of wheat. The experiments were conducted at a total of 23 experimental site-years in China, India, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Pakistan, Turkey and Zambia.
Plant and Soil 10/2012; online. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drought tolerance was investigated in ‘C306’, one of the most drought tolerant wheat cultivars bred in India in the 1960’s. An intervarietal mapping population of recombinant inbred lines of the cross ‘C306’ × ‘HUW206’ was evaluated for drought tolerance components, namely potential quantum efficiency of photosystem (PS) II (Fv/Fm), chlorophyll content (Chl), flag leaf temperature (Lt), and grain yield per plant (Gyp) under stress. Three independent experiments were conducted under well-watered and water-stressed conditions in greenhouses and growth chambers at Kansas State University (USA). Five hundred and sixty microsatellite markers covering the entire genome were screened for polymorphism between the parents. A QTL (QLt.ksu-1D) for Lt (low flag leaf temperature under stress) on the short arm of chromosome 1D between markers Xbarc271 and Xgwm337 at LOD 3.5 explained 37% of the phenotypic variation. A QTL for Fv/Fm (QF v /F m .ksu-3B) and Chl (QChl.ksu-3B) controlling quantum efficiency of PS II and chlorophyll content under stress were co-localized on chromosome 3B in the marker interval Xbarc68–Xbarc101 and explained 35–40% of the phenotypic variation for each trait. A QTL (QGyp.ksu-4A) for Gyp on chromosome 4A at a LOD value of 3.2 explained 16.3% of the phenotypic variation. Inconsistent QTLs were observed for Fv/Fm on chromosomes 3A, 6A, 2B, 4B, and 4D; for Chl on 3A, 6A, 2B and 4B; and for Lt on 1A, 3A 6A, 3B and 5B. The identified QTLs give a first glimpse of the genetics of drought tolerance in C306 and need to be validated in field experiments using the marker-phenotype linkages reported here.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High temperature (>30 °C) at the time of grain filling is one of the major causes of yield reduction in wheat in many parts of the world, especially in tropical countries. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for heat tolerance under terminal heat stress, a set of 148 recombinant inbred lines was developed by crossing a heat-tolerant hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar (NW1014) and a heat-susceptible (HUW468) cultivar. The F(5), F(6), and F(7) generations were evaluated in two different sowing dates under field conditions for 2 years. Using the trait values from controlled and stressed trials, four different traits (1) heat susceptibility index (HSI) of thousand grain weight (HSITGW); (2) HSI of grain fill duration (HSIGFD); (3) HSI of grain yield (HSIYLD); and (4) canopy temperature depression (CTD) were used to determine heat tolerance. Days to maturity was also investigated. A linkage map comprising 160 simple sequence repeat markers was prepared covering the whole genome of wheat. Using composite interval mapping, significant genomic regions on 2B, 7B and 7D were found to be associated with heat tolerance. Of these, two (2B and 7B) were co-localized QTL and explained more than 15 % phenotypic variation for HSITGW, HSIGFD and CTD. In pooled analysis over three trials, QTL explained phenotypic variation ranging from 9.78 to 20.34 %. No QTL × trial interaction was detected for the identified QTL. The three major QTL obtained can be used in marker-assisted selection for heat stress in wheat.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 04/2012; 125(3):561-75. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pea rust caused by Uromyces fabae (Pers.) de-Bary is a major problem in warm humid regions causing huge economic losses. A mapping population of 136 F(6:7) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between pea genotypes, HUVP 1 (susceptible) and FC 1 (resistant) was evaluated in polyhouse as well as under field conditions during two consecutive years. Infection frequency (IF) and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) were used for evaluation of rust reaction of the RILs. A linkage map was constructed with 57 polymorphic loci selected from 148 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 3 sequence tagged sites (STS), and 2 random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) markers covering 634 cM of genetic distance on the seven linkage groups of pea with an average interval length of 11.3 cM. Composite interval mapping (CIM) revealed one major (Qruf) and one minor (Qruf1) QTL for rust resistance on LGVII. The LOD (5.2-15.8) peak for Qruf was flanked by SSR markers, AA505 and AA446 (10.8 cM), explaining 22.2-42.4% and 23.5-58.8% of the total phenotypic variation for IF and AUDPC, respectively. The minor QTL was environment-specific, and it was detected only in the polyhouse (LOD values 4.2 and 4.8). It was flanked by SSR markers, AD146 and AA416 (7.3 cM), and explained 11.2-12.4% of the total phenotypic variation. The major QTL Qruf was consistently identified across all the four environments. Therefore, the SSR markers flanking Qruf would be useful for marker-assisted selection for pea rust (U. fabae) resistance.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 06/2011; 123(5):803-13. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of genetic diversity was made using RAPD as a genetic marker system in allohexaploid wheat (T. aestivum). A set of 30 RAPD markers were used for 43 wheat cultivars to examine their utility for detecting DNA polymorphism in genotypes and estimating genetic diversity among them. A total of 228 different RAPD bands were scored for the presence of bands among all the varieties. Out of 30 oligonucleotide primers used, 5 primers gave reproducible DNA product (bands) suitable for the establishment of genetic diversity among the varieties. The Genetic Similarity (GS) coefficient for all pairs of genotypes was ranged from 0.66 to 1.0. V 35 (HD 2747) and V 39 (HI 8498) had high coefficient of similarity (0.982) while, V 4 (VL 804) and V 6 (VL 809) showed less coefficient of similarity (0.646). It indicated that V 35 (HD 2747) and V 39 (HI 8498) carry closely related ancestry while the cultivars V 4 (VL 804) and V 6 (VL 809) are not close to each other. Present results revealed the potential of RAPD technique in determining genetic diversity and make suitable fingerprints for wheat cultivars
Asian Journal of Biotechnology 03/2011; 3(5-3):460-469.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An important step towards reducing the vulnerability of wheat in Africa and Asia to the Ug99 race of the stem rust pathogen
is the substitution of current susceptible varieties with superior resistant varieties. In the 2008–2009 cropping season both
seed multiplication and dissemination of Ug99 resistant varieties were initiated in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Ethiopia,
Iran, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Ug99 resistant varieties must occupy about 5% of the area sown to wheat in each country to
ensure sufficient seed to displace current popular varieties. Because of the underdeveloped seed industry and small farm sizes
in most of these countries, various strategies are being applied for rapid multiplication and dissemination of resistant varieties.
Approaches being used include pre-release seed multiplication while candidate resistant lines are being tested in national
evaluation trials and farmer participatory selection. Resistant varieties are already released in Afghanistan, Bangladesh,
Egypt and Pakistan and more varieties are expected to be released in 2010 in these and other countries. Our results show that
some new Ug99 resistant lines have yield superiority over dominant local varieties. Activities and progress in seed multiplication
using existing and new Ug99 resistant varieties are discussed.
Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici
–Farmer participation–Seed distribution systems–Stem rust–
–Participatory varietal selection–Ug99
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variation in water availability is a major source of risk for agricultural productivity and food security in South Asia. Three
hundred and thirty expert informants were surveyed during 2008-09 to determine the relative importance of drought and water-related
constraints compared with other constraints limiting the production of four major food crops (wheat, rice, sorghum, chickpea)
in five broad-based South Asian farming systems. Respondents considered drought an important constraint to crop yield in those
farming systems that are predominantly rainfed, but associated it with low yield losses (well below 10% of all reported losses)
for crops in farming systems with well-developed irrigation. In these systems, other water-related constraints (including
difficult access to sufficient irrigation water, the high cost of irrigation, poor water management, waterlogging and flooding
of low-lying fields) were more important. While confirming the importance of drought and water constraints for major food
crops and farming systems in South Asia, this study also indicated they may contribute to no more than 20–30% of current yield
gaps. Other types of constraint, particularly soil infertility and the poor management of fertilizer and weeds for the cereals,
and pests and diseases for chickpea, contributed most yield losses in the systems. Respondents proposed a wide range of interventions
to address these constraints. Continued investments in crop-based genetic solutions to alleviate drought may be justified
for food crops grown in those South Asian farming systems that are predominantly rainfed. However, to provide the substantial
production, sustainability and food security benefits that the region will need in coming decades, the study proposed that
these be complemented by other water interventions, and by improvements to soil fertility for the cereals and plant protection
KeywordsCrop production constraints–Drought–Water use and management–Production solutions–Food crops–Farming systems–South Asia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zinc and iron are important micronutrients for human health for which widespread deficiency occurs in many regions of the world including South Asia. Breeding efforts for enriching wheat grains with more zinc and iron are in progress in India, Pakistan and CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre). Further knowledge on genotype × environment interaction of these nutrients in the grain is expected to contribute to better understand the magnitude of this interaction and the potential identification of more stable genotypes for this trait. Elite lines from CIMMYT were evaluated in a multilocation trial in the eastern Gangetic plains (EGP) of India to determine genotype × environment (GE) interactions for agronomic and nutrient traits. Agronomic (yield and days to heading) data were available for 14 environments, while zinc and iron concentration of grains for 10 environments. Soil and meteorological data of each of the locations were also used. GE was significant for all the four traits. Locations showed contrasting response to grain iron and zinc. Compared to iron, zinc showed greater variation across locations. Maximum temperature was the major determinant for the four traits. Zinc content in 30–60 cm soil depth was also a significant determinant for grain zinc as well as iron concentration. The results suggest that the GE was substantial for grain iron and zinc and established varieties of eastern Gangetic plains India are not inferior to the CIMMYT germplasm tested. Hence, greater efforts taking care of GE interactions are needed to breed iron and zinc rich wheat lines.
Field Crops Research 04/2010; 116(3):268–277. · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a destructive disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat growing regions of the world. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for spot blotch resistance, two mapping populations were developed by making the crosses between common susceptible cultivar ‘Sonalika’ with the resistant breeding lines ‘Ning 8201’ and ‘Chirya 3’. Single seed descent derived F6, F7, F8 lines of the first cross ‘Ning 8201’ × ‘Sonalika’ were evaluated for resistance to spot blotch in three blocks in each of the 3 years. After screening of 388 pairs of simple sequence repeat primers between the two parents, 119 polymorphic markers were used to genotype the mapping population. Four QTLs were identified on the chromosomes 2AS, 2BS, 5BL and 7DS and explained 62.9% of phenotypic variation in a simultaneous fit. The QTL on chromosome 2A was detected only in 1 year and explained 22.7% of phenotypic variation. In the second cross (‘Chirya 3’ × ‘Sonalika’), F7 and F8 population were evaluated in three blocks in each of the 2 years. In this population, five QTLs were identified on chromosomes 2BS, 2DS, 3BS, 7BS and 7DS. The QTLs identified in the ‘Chirya 3’ × ‘Sonalika’ population explained 43.4% of phenotypic variation in a simultaneous fit. The alleles for reduced disease severity in both the populations were derived from the respective resistant parent. The QTLs QSb.bhu-2B and QSb.bhu-7D from both populations were placed in the same deletion bins, 2BS1-0.53-0.75 and 7DS5-0.36-0.61, respectively. The closely linked markers Xgwm148 to the QTL on chromosome 2B and Xgwm111 to the QTL on chromosome 7D are potentially diagnostic markers for spot blotch resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixty-seven isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana of barley, belonging to three groups (black, white and mixed) were studied to find an association of melanin with the spore
production of the fungus. Conidiogenesis in black, white and mixed subpopulation of B. sorokiniana was positively correlated with melanin content/g of mycelium. Primary hyphae of black and mixed subpopulation differentiated
into secondary hyphal structures which subsequently produced conidiophores and conidia. Primary hyphae could not differentiate
into secondary hyphae and subsequently conidiophores and conidia in white subpopulation. A melanin containing mutant developed
from white subpopulation regained its ability to differentiate into secondary hyphae, conidiophores and conidia. Results showed
that melanization of mycelia B. sorokiniana mycelia is an important factor for conidia production.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2010; 26(2):309-316. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a destructive disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat growing regions of the world. To identify quantitative trait loci
(QTLs) for spot blotch resistance, two mapping populations were developed by making the crosses between common susceptible
cultivar ‘Sonalika’ with the resistant breeding lines ‘Ning 8201’ and ‘Chirya 3’. Single seed descent derived F6, F7, F8 lines of the first cross ‘Ning 8201’×‘Sonalika’ were evaluated for resistance to spot blotch in three blocks in each of
the 3years. After screening of 388 pairs of simple sequence repeat primers between the two parents, 119 polymorphic markers
were used to genotype the mapping population. Four QTLs were identified on the chromosomes 2AS, 2BS, 5BL and 7DS and explained
62.9% of phenotypic variation in a simultaneous fit. The QTL on chromosome 2A was detected only in 1year and explained 22.7%
of phenotypic variation. In the second cross (‘Chirya 3’×‘Sonalika’), F7 and F8 population were evaluated in three blocks in each of the 2years. In this population, five QTLs were identified on chromosomes
2BS, 2DS, 3BS, 7BS and 7DS. The QTLs identified in the ‘Chirya 3’×‘Sonalika’ population explained 43.4% of phenotypic variation
in a simultaneous fit. The alleles for reduced disease severity in both the populations were derived from the respective resistant
parent. The QTLs QSb.bhu-2B and QSb.bhu-7D from both populations were placed in the same deletion bins, 2BS1-0.53-0.75 and 7DS5-0.36-0.61, respectively. The closely
linked markers Xgwm148 to the QTL on chromosome 2B and Xgwm111 to the QTL on chromosome 7D are potentially diagnostic markers for spot blotch resistance.
-QTL mapping-Diagnostic marker-Spot blotch-
Triticum aestivum L