[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: South Asia, which is already home to more than one-fifth of the world's population and rapidly growing, will require wheat yields to rise annually by 2.0–2.5% to meet demand and maintain food security. To address these challenges, a wheat phenotyping network was established in the region in 2009 to support national breeding programs by applying practical phenotyping techniques to increase selection success using a cooperative multi-location testing network. A number of trials have been grown to introduce new genetic diversity for stress adaptive traits, to establish their genetic bases, and to test a new generation of lines developed using physiological approaches. The 17th Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT), consisting of a group of 50 elite spring bread wheat advanced lines, bred in Mexico using both conventional (CON) and physiological trait (PT) approaches, was grown for two seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11. Data showed that PT lines gave superior yields overall, associated with higher grain weight, and with cooler vegetative and grain-filling canopy temperatures (CT); the CT trait is considered indicative of increased gas exchange, a likely consequence in these environments of superior vascular capacity including deeper rooting to access subsoil water. Local check genotypes, which were generally well adapted to the stressed environments tended to be 3–5 days earlier to heading than CIMMYT cultivars. Results demonstrate the potential to integrate physiological breeding approaches into genetic improvement for the region, particularly as future wheat production will take place under increasing water scarcity.
Field Crops Research 01/2014; · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina, is a globally important fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell), resulting in significant yield losses, sometimes up to 40% worldwide. In this study we investigated slow rusting resistance at pathological and molecular level. Fifteen (15) wheat genotypes which also included multiple crosses with the aim to characterize pyramid resistance genes, including slow rusting genes like Lr46 and Lr50 were evaluated for disease severity percent, latent period and incubation period under field conditions. Detached leaf assay was also performed with three virulent pathotypes viz., 21R55 (104-2), 121R63-1 (77-5) and 29R45 (12-5), under controlled laboratory conditions. Genotypes, KIRITATAI//HUW234+LR34/PRINIA, WAXWING*2/TUKURU, WBLLI*2/KIRITATI, KAMBI*2/-BRAMBLING and KAMBI*2/KIRITATI were very close to near immunity and showed comparatively higher level of resistance against all the three pathotypes. Disease severity in resistant genotypes was traced type 5 to 6% in both years, while it was 60 to 80% in the case of susceptible genotypes, that is, 'Agra Local' (S1). Similar pattern was observed for AUDPC, that is, <250.0 in the resistant genotypes, while it was beyond 1000.0 in 'Agra Local'. The shorter mean latent (7.67) and incubation period (6.0) was observed in susceptible genotypes, that is, 'Agra Local' to all the resistant genotypes, that is, LP (10 to 12) and IP (9 to 10); while testing against all the three different pathotypes. Linked microsatellite markers were used to confirm the presence of different rust resistance genes required to achieve near immunity. Out of 10 primers, nine produced gene specific bands with all genotypes except the control, that is, Agra Local. Genotypes which showed slow rusting, had longer latent period and incubation period as well as reduced percent disease severity and confirmed the presence of four to five resistance genes including slow rusting genes, that is, Lr46 and Lr50. This indicates that these genotypes have potential durable resistance and can be used as parental lines in the development of more durable rust resistance.
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 11/2012; 11:14956-14966. · 0.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim Zinc (Zn) fertilization is an effective agronomic tool for Zn biofortification of wheat for overcoming human Zn deficiency. But it still needs to be evaluated across locations with different management practices and wheat cultivars, since grain Zn concentrations may be significantly affected by locations, cultivars and management. Materials Field experiments were conducted over 3 years with the following four Zn treatments: nil Zn, soil Zn application, foliar Zn application and soil + foliar Zn application to explore the impact of Zn fertilization in Zn biofortification of wheat. The experiments were conducted at a total of 23 experimental site-years in China, India, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Pakistan, Turkey and Zambia.
Plant and Soil 10/2012; online. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An important step towards reducing the vulnerability of wheat in Africa and Asia to the Ug99 race of the stem rust pathogen
is the substitution of current susceptible varieties with superior resistant varieties. In the 2008–2009 cropping season both
seed multiplication and dissemination of Ug99 resistant varieties were initiated in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Ethiopia,
Iran, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Ug99 resistant varieties must occupy about 5% of the area sown to wheat in each country to
ensure sufficient seed to displace current popular varieties. Because of the underdeveloped seed industry and small farm sizes
in most of these countries, various strategies are being applied for rapid multiplication and dissemination of resistant varieties.
Approaches being used include pre-release seed multiplication while candidate resistant lines are being tested in national
evaluation trials and farmer participatory selection. Resistant varieties are already released in Afghanistan, Bangladesh,
Egypt and Pakistan and more varieties are expected to be released in 2010 in these and other countries. Our results show that
some new Ug99 resistant lines have yield superiority over dominant local varieties. Activities and progress in seed multiplication
using existing and new Ug99 resistant varieties are discussed.
Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici
–Farmer participation–Seed distribution systems–Stem rust–
–Participatory varietal selection–Ug99
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zinc and iron are important micronutrients for human health for which widespread deficiency occurs in many regions of the world including South Asia. Breeding efforts for enriching wheat grains with more zinc and iron are in progress in India, Pakistan and CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre). Further knowledge on genotype × environment interaction of these nutrients in the grain is expected to contribute to better understand the magnitude of this interaction and the potential identification of more stable genotypes for this trait. Elite lines from CIMMYT were evaluated in a multilocation trial in the eastern Gangetic plains (EGP) of India to determine genotype × environment (GE) interactions for agronomic and nutrient traits. Agronomic (yield and days to heading) data were available for 14 environments, while zinc and iron concentration of grains for 10 environments. Soil and meteorological data of each of the locations were also used. GE was significant for all the four traits. Locations showed contrasting response to grain iron and zinc. Compared to iron, zinc showed greater variation across locations. Maximum temperature was the major determinant for the four traits. Zinc content in 30–60 cm soil depth was also a significant determinant for grain zinc as well as iron concentration. The results suggest that the GE was substantial for grain iron and zinc and established varieties of eastern Gangetic plains India are not inferior to the CIMMYT germplasm tested. Hence, greater efforts taking care of GE interactions are needed to breed iron and zinc rich wheat lines.
Field Crops Research 04/2010; 116(3):268–277. · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a destructive disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat growing regions of the world. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for spot blotch resistance, two mapping populations were developed by making the crosses between common susceptible cultivar ‘Sonalika’ with the resistant breeding lines ‘Ning 8201’ and ‘Chirya 3’. Single seed descent derived F6, F7, F8 lines of the first cross ‘Ning 8201’ × ‘Sonalika’ were evaluated for resistance to spot blotch in three blocks in each of the 3 years. After screening of 388 pairs of simple sequence repeat primers between the two parents, 119 polymorphic markers were used to genotype the mapping population. Four QTLs were identified on the chromosomes 2AS, 2BS, 5BL and 7DS and explained 62.9% of phenotypic variation in a simultaneous fit. The QTL on chromosome 2A was detected only in 1 year and explained 22.7% of phenotypic variation. In the second cross (‘Chirya 3’ × ‘Sonalika’), F7 and F8 population were evaluated in three blocks in each of the 2 years. In this population, five QTLs were identified on chromosomes 2BS, 2DS, 3BS, 7BS and 7DS. The QTLs identified in the ‘Chirya 3’ × ‘Sonalika’ population explained 43.4% of phenotypic variation in a simultaneous fit. The alleles for reduced disease severity in both the populations were derived from the respective resistant parent. The QTLs QSb.bhu-2B and QSb.bhu-7D from both populations were placed in the same deletion bins, 2BS1-0.53-0.75 and 7DS5-0.36-0.61, respectively. The closely linked markers Xgwm148 to the QTL on chromosome 2B and Xgwm111 to the QTL on chromosome 7D are potentially diagnostic markers for spot blotch resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixty-seven isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana of barley, belonging to three groups (black, white and mixed) were studied to find an association of melanin with the spore
production of the fungus. Conidiogenesis in black, white and mixed subpopulation of B. sorokiniana was positively correlated with melanin content/g of mycelium. Primary hyphae of black and mixed subpopulation differentiated
into secondary hyphal structures which subsequently produced conidiophores and conidia. Primary hyphae could not differentiate
into secondary hyphae and subsequently conidiophores and conidia in white subpopulation. A melanin containing mutant developed
from white subpopulation regained its ability to differentiate into secondary hyphae, conidiophores and conidia. Results showed
that melanization of mycelia B. sorokiniana mycelia is an important factor for conidia production.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2010; 26(2):309-316. · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a destructive disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat growing regions of the world. To identify quantitative trait loci
(QTLs) for spot blotch resistance, two mapping populations were developed by making the crosses between common susceptible
cultivar ‘Sonalika’ with the resistant breeding lines ‘Ning 8201’ and ‘Chirya 3’. Single seed descent derived F6, F7, F8 lines of the first cross ‘Ning 8201’×‘Sonalika’ were evaluated for resistance to spot blotch in three blocks in each of
the 3years. After screening of 388 pairs of simple sequence repeat primers between the two parents, 119 polymorphic markers
were used to genotype the mapping population. Four QTLs were identified on the chromosomes 2AS, 2BS, 5BL and 7DS and explained
62.9% of phenotypic variation in a simultaneous fit. The QTL on chromosome 2A was detected only in 1year and explained 22.7%
of phenotypic variation. In the second cross (‘Chirya 3’×‘Sonalika’), F7 and F8 population were evaluated in three blocks in each of the 2years. In this population, five QTLs were identified on chromosomes
2BS, 2DS, 3BS, 7BS and 7DS. The QTLs identified in the ‘Chirya 3’×‘Sonalika’ population explained 43.4% of phenotypic variation
in a simultaneous fit. The alleles for reduced disease severity in both the populations were derived from the respective resistant
parent. The QTLs QSb.bhu-2B and QSb.bhu-7D from both populations were placed in the same deletion bins, 2BS1-0.53-0.75 and 7DS5-0.36-0.61, respectively. The closely
linked markers Xgwm148 to the QTL on chromosome 2B and Xgwm111 to the QTL on chromosome 7D are potentially diagnostic markers for spot blotch resistance.
-QTL mapping-Diagnostic marker-Spot blotch-
Triticum aestivum L
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three F1 progenies and their families in the segregating generations (F3, F4, F5 and F6), obtained after crossing resistant × susceptible wheat genotypes were studied in the field to determine the genetics of resistance to spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. Spot blotch scores in the F1 generation showed absence of dominance. Individually threshed F2 plants were used to advance the generations. Progenies (200-250) of resistant genotypes Acc. No. 8226, Mon/Ald, Suzhoe#8 crossed with susceptible ‘Sonalika’ were evaluated in the F3, F4, F5 and F6 generations under induced epiphytotic conditions. Based on disease score distribution in individual progeny rows, F3 progenies were grouped into four classes: homozygous resistant, homozygous susceptible, segregating resistant and segregating susceptible. Resistance appeared to be under the control of three additive genes. The presence of three genes was also noted in the distribution of F4 and F5 lines. In the case of F6 progeny rows, both quantitative and qualitative models were used to estimate the number of segregating genes based on a 2-year trial. It appeared that resistance to spot blotch was controlled by the additive interaction of more than two genes, possibly only three.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helminthosporium leaf blight (HLB) is the most important disease constraint to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivation in the eastern Gangetic Plains of South Asia. A Helminthosporium Monitoring Nursery (HMN) including potential adapted and exotic sources of HLB resistance was developed in Bangladesh, India and Nepal to assess the stability of genetic resistance across locations. The 8th, 9th and 10th HMN assessed the HLB resistance and agronomic traits of 17 wheat genotypes across 20 environments of Bangladesh, India and Nepal in the 1999-2000, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 cropping seasons, respectively. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) for HLB, grain yield, thousand-kernel weight (TKW), days to heading, days to maturity, and plant height were examined. The 17 genotypes showed a range of variability for disease and agronomic characters. Disease severity (AUDPC) differed in the 3 years and showed the highest values in 2002. The increase in AUDPC in 2002 caused the lowest grain yield, with an average 18% reduction due to HLB. A few genotypes (SW 89-5422, Yangmai-6 and Ning 8201) appeared to have stable HLB resistance across environments. However, most of the higher-yielding genotypes, except BL 1883, were unstable. The results suggest that careful selection of HLB resistance with acceptable grain yield, TKW and plant height may be possible using the wheat genotypes included in the HMN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Screening for resistant barley genotypes in response to fungal toxin of Bipolaris sorokiniana was assessed on standing barley plants as well as in selected callus lines of the same. For the standing lines tested, those manifesting chlorosis in response to toxin infiltration showed a significantly slower disease progress as compared to the necrotic lines. Also, necrosis in the callus tissues of the susceptible cultivar in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of the crude toxin was significantly higher than in the callus tissues of the chlorotic lines studied. Similar host response to the toxin in in vitro and field situations open up the possibility of screening barley cultivars for resistance to spot blotch using callus culture as against classical methods of screening in order to increase accuracy and save time and space.
Indian journal of experimental biology 05/2008; 46(4):249-53. · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spot blotch pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana of wheat was investigated with threefold objectives: to establish a relationship between morphological and pathological variability of isolates, identify clonal genotype(s) acting as a source for the generation of new variability, and to determine the mechanism of generation of such variability in the pathogen. Isolates were collected from the leaves and seeds of field-grown wheat crop at four different sites in eastern Gangetic plains of India. Eighty-six clonal isolates derived from a single isolate (gray with white patches, Group III), which segregated in an equal proportion of parental and nonparental types, were studied. Morphological characters-i.e., colony morphology, growth rate, and sporulation-were studied along with disease-causing ability of the isolate clones. Clonal isolates were grouped into three categories. Microscopic analysis of nuclei was done to determine the causes of such variability. Morphological variability appeared to be related to the pathological variability. The isolate having epidemic potential appeared different than that acting as the reservoir for variability. The cause of such variability could be attributed either to hyphal fusion and heterokaryosis, nuclear migration and occurrence of multinucleate state, or a combination of these factors. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay suggested that the unique fragments for different groups could be utilized as molecular markers to identify the isolates of specific groups.
Current Microbiology 02/2008; 56(1):33-41. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four hundred spring wheat genotypes, comprising exotic and indigenous germplasm and adapted cultivars for commercial cultivation, were investigated during four crop seasons for six floral characteristics related to outcrossing behaviour. Genetic variability and heritability were investigated along with phenotypic correlation coefficients among these characteristics. A significant quantitative variation existed among the characteristics in all three groups. High heritability for stigma length, openness of florets, anther extrusion and duration of floral opening indicated that selection for these characteristics may be effective. The adapted cultivars were found more promising than the exotic and indigenous germplasm. Most of the characteristics showed significantly positive correlation with each other and high correlation was observed between anther and stigma length, and anther extrusion and duration of floral opening. Superiority of varietal mixtures and segregating generations (F3 and F4) of two crosses over parental lines suggested that heterozygosity and heterogeneity can provide yield advantages. Germplasm lines possessing superior expression of floral characteristics may be used to improve yielding ability through enhanced heterozygosity or the development of hybrids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One hundred fifty-five isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana of wheat were studied for their morphopathological characterization. These isolates were grouped in five categories--black, brown/dull black, gray cottony growth, dull white/greenish black, and white--on the basis of their growth pattern. The frequency of the black suppressed type was maximum (45.63%), whereas the white isolate displayed lowest frequency (6.96%) in the natural population. Twenty RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) primers were used to observe the variability among the identified groups of B. sorokininana. From each group, eight random isolates were investigated. A total of 143 bands were amplified, out of which 107 (74.83%) were polymorphic and 36 (25.17%) were monomorphic. On an average, the total numbers of bands generated per primer were 7.15, of which 5.35 and 1.80 were polymorphic and monomorphic, respectively. Dendrograms based on molecular polymorphism unveiled a considerable amount of diversity among the isolates. Specific DNA bands were identified for selected isolates. The distinct markers appeared to be potential enough to be employed as genetic fingerprints for future strain identification and classification. The study indicated that the RAPD primers provide an easy, rapid, and simple technique for the preliminary assessment of genetic diversity among the fungal isolates.
Current Microbiology 09/2007; 55(2):135-41. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three varieties viz., Longmai 10, Jinmai and Sanghai, known for their resistance to spot blotch were crossed with a susceptible
parent Sonalika. Disease severities of F1’s were intermediate to parents and thus indicated no dominance. Around 150–200 progeny rows of three resistant × susceptible
crosses were evaluated in the F3, F4 and F5 generations. Spot blotch severity (%) for each progeny row was measured at three different growth stages viz. 69, 77 and
83 (Zadoks scale, 1974). Based on disease score, F3, F4 and F5 progenies were grouped into three classes: homozygous resistant, homozygous susceptible and segregating. Number of genes
was estimated following χ2 and quantitative approach. Two parents showed two genes control while, Jinmai appeared to be under the control of three genes
Resistant x resistant crosses were made to confirm the allelic relationship of resistance genes. The F3 progenies of all the crosses did not show susceptible plants. This proved that at least one gene was common among parents
for resistance. However, the appearance of transgressive segregants was an indication of the non-allelic relationship. The
study indicated the possibility of enhancement of resistance through gene pyramiding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a substantial rice–wheat cropping system area of South Asia, wheat sowing often gets too delayed and exposed to terminal heat stress.
Therefore, farmers prefer varieties that are able to perform well under a short growing period. Tissue culturally regenerated plants of wheat variety
cv. HUW 234, the most widely cultivated variety of North Eastern Plain Zone (NEPZ) of India were screened using immature embryo as explant.
Days to heading and maturity, yield and other yield components and resistance to leaf rust and spot blotch were evaluated. A few somaclones in R3
and R4 generations displayed significant earliness for days to heading and maturity, improved yield traits and resistance to leaf rust and spot blotch
diseases. The superior performance of two of the variants was confirmed in the R5 generation in 3 years of testing under two dates of conventional
and zero-till sowing. Stability analysis also suggested superiority of the two somaclones across 12 environments. This appeared to confirm the
possibility of obtaining useful somaclonal variants of wheat for very late sown as well as zero-till managed agriculture. The superior performing
somaclones can be used as parents in the ongoing breeding programmes targeting late sown wheat in South Asia exposed to terminal heat stress.
Field Crops Research 04/2007; · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spot blotch is an important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in South Asia. Division of test sites for this disease into homogenous subregions is expected to contribute to more effi cient evaluation and better differentiation of cultivars. Data from a collaborative regional program of South Asia conducted by CIMMYT were analyzed to group testing sites into rela- tively homogenous subregions for spot blotch area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). Five-year data of eight locations from Eastern Gangetic Plains Nursery (EGPSN) and fi ve loca- tions of the Eastern Gangetic Plains Yield Trial (EGPYT) conducted in three countries (India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) of South Asia were used. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group locations on the basis of genotype × location interaction effects for spot blotch AUDPC. Cluster analysis divided South Asia into two broad regions and four subregions. This classifi cation was not entirely consistent with the geographic distribution of locations, but clusters mostly followed general geographic- climatic locations. The locations Varanasi (India) and Bhairahawa (Nepal) were identifi ed as the most suitable sites for evaluation of spot blotch, followed by Rampur (Nepal). The major determi- nant for the clustering was mean temperature. The results suggest that the major wheat region of South Asia can be divided into subregions, which may reduce the cost of resistance evalua- tion and aid in developing wheat with resistance to this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seven hundred twenty-nine lines of diverse wheat germplasm lines were evaluated in eight locations of three countries (India, Nepal and Bangladesh) of South Asia for 5 years (1999–2000 to 2003–2004) through Eastern Gangetic Plains Screening Nursery (EGPSN) organized by CIMMYT South Asia, Nepal, for agronomic performance and tolerance to spot blotch of wheat. Each year, the number of lines represented a new set of 150 lines that included six common checks and a different local check at each of the eight locations. One hundred and five lines, 21 in each year, advanced from EGPSN were also tested for 5 years (2000–2001 to 2004–2005) in five locations of South Asia through Eastern Gangetic Plains Yield Trials (EGPYT) to verify spot blotch tolerance and superior yield performance of the selected germplasm. Many lines yielded significantly more than the best check and possessed high levels of spot blotch resistance under warm humid environments of South Asia. The most promising 25 lines have been listed as sources of strong resistance, with 9 lines better yielding than the best resistant check PBW 343 in fewer days to maturity. Most of these superior lines represented elite CIMMYT germplasm and around half were derived from Kauz and Veery. The line EGPYT 67, Kauz//Kauz/Star/3/Prinia/4/Milan/Kauz, was the best for spot blotch resistance, yield, days to maturity, and 1000 grain weight (TKW). The next two lines in the order of merit were EGPYT 84 (Mrng/Buc//Blo/Pvn/3/Pjb 81) and EGPYT 69 (Chirya3/Pastor). The results demonstrate that additional spot blotch resistant wheat genotypes with high grain yield and TKW, and early maturity, have become available as a result of the regional and international collaboration in South Asia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of reduced tillage in sustainable agriculture is well recognized. Reduced-tillage practices (which may or may
not involve retention of crop residues) and their effects differ from those of conventional tillage in several ways: soil
physical properties; shifts in host–weed competition; soil moisture availability (especially when sowing deeply or under stubble);
and the emergence of pathogen populations that survive on crop residues. There may be a need for genotypes suited to special
forms of mechanization (e.g. direct seeding into residues) and to agronomic conditions such as allelopathy, as well as specific
issues relating to problem soils. This article examines issues and breeding targets for researchers who seek to improve crops
for reduced-tillage systems. Most of the examples used pertain to wheat, but we also refer to other crops. Our primary claim
is that new breeding initiatives are needed to introgress favourable traits into wheat and other crops in areas where reduced
or zero-tillage is being adopted. Key traits include faster emergence, faster decomposition, and the ability to germinate
when deep seeded (so that crops compete with weeds and use available moisture more efficiently). Enhancement of resistance
to new pathogens and insect pests surviving on crop residues must also be given attention. In addition to focusing on new
traits, breeders need to assess germplasm and breeding populations under reduced tillage. Farmer participatory approaches
can also enhance the effectiveness of cultivar development and selection in environments where farmers’ links with technology
providers are weak. Finally, modern breeding tools may also play a substantial role in future efforts to develop adapted crop
genotypes for reduced tillage.