Shree Ram Singh

Alabama State University, Montgomery, Alabama, United States

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Publications (37)159.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Articular cartilage has restricted self-regenerative capacity; therefore, treatment of cartilage lesions is a great challenge in the field of orthopedics. In the present study, we evaluate the enhancing effect of a transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-immobilized scaffold, fabricated by incorporating TGF-β1-loaded gelatin microspheres into PLGA framework, on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into chondrocytes. Significant increase in cell proliferation was observed in the TGF-β1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold, as compared with the ASC-seeded non-TGF-β1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold. When chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs was evaluated for both constructs, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content was significantly higher in the TGF-β1-immobilized scaffold. This study showed that ASCs containing the TGF-β1-immobilized scaffold better promoted cartilage regeneration in defective articular cartilage, which is assessed by histological observation. Based on the above results, we conclude that TGF-β1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold seeded with ASCs considerably enhances the quality of the tissue-engineered cartilage, therefore, advancing the field of cartilage tissue engineering.
    Stem cell reviews. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced toxicity and ease of modification make gold nanoparticles (GNPs) suitable for targeted delivery, bioimaging and theranostics by conjugating cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). This study presents the biodistribution and enhanced intracellular uptake of GNPs functionalized with VG-21, a CPP derived from vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (G). Cell penetrating efficiency of VG-21 was demonstrated using CellPPD web server, conjugated to GNPs and were characterized using, UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential. Uptake of VG-21 functionalized GNPs (fGNPs) was tested in eukaryotic cell lines, HEp-2, HeLa, Vero and Cos-7, using flow cytometry, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and inductively coupled plasmon optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The effects of nanoparticles on stress and toxicity related genes were studied in HEp-2 cells. Cytokine response to fGNPs was studied in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution of nanoparticles was studied in BALB/c mice using TEM and ICP-OES. VG-21, GNPs and fGNPs had little to no effect on cell viability. Upon exposure to fGNPs, HEp-2 cells revealed minimal down regulation of stress response genes. fGNPs displayed higher uptake than GNPs in all cell lines with highest internalization by HEp-2, HeLa and Cos-7 cells, in endocytotic vesicles and nuclei. Cytokine ELISA showed that mouse J774 cells exposed to fGNPs produced less IL-6 than did GNP-treated macrophage cells, whereas TNF-α levels were low in both treatment groups. Biodistribution studies in BALB/c mice revealed higher accumulation of fGNPs than GNPs in the liver and spleen. Histopathological analyses showed that fGNP-treated mice accumulated 35 ng/mg tissue and 20 ng/mg tissue gold in spleen and liver respectively, without any adverse effects. Likewise, serum cytokines were low in both GNP- and fGNP-treated mice. Thus, VG-21-conjugated GNPs have enhanced cellular internalization and are suitable for various biomedical applications as nano-conjugates.
    Biomaterials 08/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in carcinogenesis as tumor suppressors or oncogenes has been widely reported. Epigenetic change is one of the mechanisms of transcriptional silencing of miRNAs in cancer. To identify lung cancer-related miRNAs that are mediated by histone modification, we conducted microarray analysis in the Calu-6 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line after treatment with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. The expression level of miR-373 was enhanced by SAHA treatment in this cell line by microarray and the following quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Treatment with another HDAC inhibitor, Trichostatin A, restored the levels of miR-373 expression in A549 and Calu-6 cells, while demethylation drug treatment did not. Importantly, miR-373 was found to be down-regulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Transfection of miR-373 into A549 and Calu-6 cells attenuated cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and reduced the expression of mesenchymal markers. Additional microarray analysis of miR-373-transfected cells and computational predictions identified IRAK2 and LAMP1 as targets of miR-373. Knockdown of these two genes showed similar biological effects to those of miR-373 overexpression. In clinical samples, overexpression of IRAK2 correlated with decreased disease-free survival of patients with non-adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, we found that miR-373 is silenced by histone modification in lung cancer cells and identified its function as a tumor suppressor and negative regulator of the mesenchymal phenotype through downstream IRAK2 and LAMP1 target genes.
    Cancer letters. 07/2014;
  • Shree Ram Singh, Ming Tan, Pranela Rameshwar
    Cancer letters. 06/2014;
  • Shree Ram Singh, Ming Tan, Prana Rameshwar
    Cancer letters 02/2014; · 5.02 Impact Factor
  • Wen Zeng, Peiyi Liu, Weimin Pan, Shree Ram Singh, Yiyong Wei
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the abnormal vasculature, most growing solid tumors contain regions that experience either acute or chronic hypoxia. However, tumor cells can maintain a high glycolytic rate even when there is enough oxygen supply. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play crucial role in the response of tumor cells to this distinct microenvironment by shifting energy production from mitochondria towards glycolysis. In this review, we focus on the metabolism of tumor cell survival in hypoxic microenvironments. Furthermore, we also emphasize the mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate tumor metabolism.
    Cancer letters 02/2014; · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hybrid nanostructures consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNs) coated with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) are of great interest due to their numerous potential applications in nanotechnology, medicine, and homeland security. Recent experiments have demonstrated that DNA-CN hybrids can detect the hybridization of complementary DNA strands, paving the way for applications in DNA sequencing and genetic testing. However, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations studying DNA-CN self-assembly have found that adsorbed DNA bases are poorly positioned to hybridize with complementary DNA strands. Here, we apply the adaptive biasing force (ABF) method to all-atom MD models, and find that DNA bases must desorb from the swCN sidewall and suffer significant energy penalties to hybridize with complementary DNA. This agrees with the extremely slow hybridization time scales in fluorescence experiments, as well as observations made using DNA-CN transistor devices. We present the free energy landscape for two model systems and compare the energy required to hybridize a G-C versus an A-T pair. These results reveal significant impediments to rapid DNA hybridization on the swCN surface, and further our understanding of the mechanism by which hybridization gradually occurs—essential knowledge for the advancement of nanotechnology based on DNA-CN.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 01/2014; 118(4):2209–2214.
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a rapidly increasing disease that enhances the chances of heart failure twofold to fourfold (as compared to age and sex matched nondiabetics) and becomes a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There are two broad classifications of diabetes: type1 diabetes (T1D) and type2 diabetes (T2D). Several mice models mimic both T1D and T2D in humans. However, the genetic intervention to ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy in these mice often requires creating double knockout (DKO). In order to assess the therapeutic potential of a gene, that specific gene is either overexpressed (transgenic expression) or abrogated (knockout) in the diabetic mice. If the genetic mice model for diabetes is used, it is necessary to create DKO with transgenic/knockout of the target gene to investigate the specific role of that gene in pathological cardiac remodeling in diabetics. One of the important genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in diabetes is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp9). Mmp9 is a collagenase that remains latent in healthy hearts but induced in diabetic hearts. Activated Mmp9 degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) and increases matrix turnover causing cardiac fibrosis that leads to heart failure. Insulin2 mutant (Ins2+/-) Akita is a genetic model for T1D that becomes diabetic spontaneously at the age of 3-4 weeks and show robust hyperglycemia at the age of 10-12 weeks. It is a chronic model of T1D. In Ins2+/- Akita, Mmp9 is induced. To investigate the specific role of Mmp9 in diabetic hearts, it is necessary to create diabetic mice where Mmp9 gene is deleted. Here, we describe the method to generate Ins2+/-/Mmp9-/- (DKO) mice to determine whether the abrogation of Mmp9 ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2014; 1194:385-400. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cultures of primary tumors are very useful as a personalized screening system for effective therapeutic options. We here describe an effective method of reproducing human primary colon tumors through primary culture and a mouse xenograft model. A total of 199 primary colon tumor cultures were successfully established under optimized conditions to enrich for tumor cells and to expand it for long-term storage in liquid nitrogen. To examine whether these stored cultures retained original tumor properties, fifty primary cultures were xenografted into NOD-SCID mouse. Histological and tumor marker analysis of four representative tumor xenografts revealed that all of the xenograft retained its primary tumor characteristics. Oncomap analysis further showed no change in the major mutations in the xenografts, confirming that our method faithfully reproduced human colon tumors. A drug sensitivity assay revealed that two of the primary cultures were hypersensitive to oxaliplatin rather than 5-FU, which was used in the patients, suggesting it as an effective therapeutic option. We thus present an effective, reproducible preclinical model for testing various personalized therapeutic options in colon cancer patients.
    Cancer letters 12/2013; · 5.02 Impact Factor
  • Shree Ram Singh
    Cancer letters 04/2013; · 5.02 Impact Factor
  • Shree Ram Singh
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.
    Cancer letters 04/2013; · 5.02 Impact Factor
  • Shree Ram Singh
    Cancer letters 03/2013; · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infection in infants and the elderly, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The interdisciplinary fields, especially biotechnology and nanotechnology, have facilitated the development of modern detection systems for RSV. Many anti-RSV compounds like fusion inhibitors and RNAi molecules have been successful in laboratory and clinical trials. But, currently, there are no effective drugs for RSV infection even after decades of research. Effective diagnosis can result in effective treatment, but the progress in both of these facets must be concurrent. The development in prevention and treatment measures for RSV is at appreciable pace, but the implementation into clinical practice still seems a challenge. This review attempts to present the promising diverse research approaches and advancements in the area of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment that contribute to RSV management.
    Advances in Virology 01/2013; 2013:595768.
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells have an enormous capacity of self-renewal, as well as the ability to differentiate into specialized cell types. Proper control of these two properties of stem cells is crucial for animal development, growth control, and reproduction. Germline stem cells (GSCs) are a self-renewing population of germ cells, which generate haploid gametes (sperms or oocyte) that transmit genetic information from generation to generation. In Drosophila testis and ovary, GSCs are anchored around the niche cells. The cap cells cluster in females and hub cells in males act as a niche to control GSC behavior. With highly sophisticated genetic techniques in Drosophila, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the interactions between stem cells and niches at cellular and molecular levels. Here, we provide details of genetic, immunofluorescence labeling, and in situ hybridization techniques in identification and characterization of stem cells in Drosophila male and female germline niches.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 1035:9-23. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are totipotent, self-renewing, and clonogenic, having potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. Due to regenerative capability, it has tremendous potential for treating myocardial infarction (death of myocardial tissue) and type 1 diabetes (death of pancreatic beta cells). Understanding the components regulating ESC differentiation is the key to unlock the regenerative potential of ESC-based therapies. Both the stiffness of extracellular matrix (ECM) and surrounding niche/microenvironment play pivotal roles in ESC differentiation. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) induces fibrosis that causes stiffness of the ECM and impairs differentiation of cardiac stem cells into cardiomyocytes. Here, we describe the method of ESC culture and differentiation, and the expression of MMP9 and its inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP4) in differentiating ESC.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 1035:153-63. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Shree Ram Singh
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells have an essential role in tissue homeostasis, repair, and regeneration of a tissue or organ. Stem cells are immature cells having unlimited ability of self-renewal and capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types. Proper regulation of these dual properties is critical in animal development, growth control, and reproduction. Accumulating evidences suggest that stem cell behavior is regulated by both extracellular signals from the niche cells and intrinsic signal within stem cells. Using diverse model systems, tremendous work has been done to understand how niche control the stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. This review presents the progress made in stem cell niche field in germline and somatic stem cells in lower organism and mammals. The knowledge gained by studying the stem cells and its niches in diverse model organisms and the molecular mechanisms regulate their behavior are vital in understanding tissue homeostasis, regeneration, aging and cancer in humans.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 09/2012; · 3.72 Impact Factor
  • Shree Ram Singh
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 09/2012; · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cell-mediated tissue repair is a promising approach in regenerative medicine. Intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. Recently, using lineage tracing and molecular marker labeling, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) have been identified in Drosophila adult midgut. ISCs reside at the basement membrane and are multipotent as they produce both enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells. The adult Drosophila midgut provides an excellent in vivo model organ to study ISC behavior during aging, stress, regeneration, and infection. It has been demonstrated that Notch, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase, Hippo, and wingless signaling pathways regulate ISCs proliferation and differentiation. There are plenty of genetic tools and markers developed in recent years in Drosophila stem cell studies. These tools and markers are essential in the precise identification of stem cells as well as manipulation of genes in stem cell regulation. Here, we describe the details of genetic tools, markers, and immunolabeling techniques used in identification and characterization of adult midgut stem cells in Drosophila.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 879:47-69. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Normal oxygen level is critical for niches that together with other components of the niche play vital role in regulating stem or tumor cells behavior. Hypoxia plays an important role in normal development and disease progression, including the growth of solid tumors. The hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are the key mediators of the cellular response to hypoxia. In this review, we focused on the role of HIFs on bone tumor formation. Further, we also emphasized how hypoxia, stem cells, and its niches regulate the bone tumorigenesis.
    Cancer letters 12/2011; 313(2):129-36. · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stomach cancer is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, it is important to elucidate the properties of gastric stem cells, including their regulation and transformation. To date, such stem cells have not been identified in Drosophila. Here, using clonal analysis and molecular marker labeling, we identify a multipotent stem-cell pool at the foregut/midgut junction in the cardia (proventriculus). We found that daughter cells migrate upward either to anterior midgut or downward to esophagus and crop. The cardia functions as a gastric valve and the anterior midgut and crop together function as a stomach in Drosophila; therefore, we named the foregut/midgut stem cells as gastric stem cells (GaSC). We further found that JAK-STAT signaling regulates GaSCs' proliferation, Wingless signaling regulates GaSCs' self-renewal, and hedgehog signaling regulates GaSCs' differentiation. The differentiation pattern and genetic control of the Drosophila GaSCs suggest the possible similarity to mouse gastric stem cells. The identification of the multipotent stem cell pool in the gastric gland in Drosophila will facilitate studies of gastric stem cell regulation and transformation in mammal.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 04/2011; 10(7):1109-20. · 5.24 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

330 Citations
159.37 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • Alabama State University
      • Center for Nanobiotechnology Research
      Montgomery, Alabama, United States
    • University of South Carolina
      • Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology
      Columbia, SC, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Mouse Cancer Genetics Program
      Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • Leidos Biomedical Research
      Maryland, United States
  • 2011
    • Ruijin Hospital North
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2005–2011
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Immunology
      Bethesda, MD, United States