[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major goal of cancer therapy is to destroy cancer cells without harming normal cells. However, because cancer cells have incredible heterogeneity and adaptability, it is difficult to target them therapeutically. Metabolic reprogramming has emerged as a common feature of cancer. Ever since microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to influence metabolism, researchers have been trying to address the connection between cancer cells and specific miRNAs. Many of the well-known miRNAs relate to crucial genes that can impact metabolic pathways, both negatively and positively. With a better understanding of how different pathways are affected, the roles of miRNAs will be more transparent, which could lead to the discovery of new ideas about the concept of tumorigenesis and other cancer-related topics.
Cancer Letters 10/2014; 356(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.10.011 · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Articular cartilage has restricted self-regenerative capacity; therefore, treatment of cartilage lesions is a great challenge in the field of orthopedics. In the present study, we evaluate the enhancing effect of a transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-immobilized scaffold, fabricated by incorporating TGF-β1-loaded gelatin microspheres into PLGA framework, on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into chondrocytes. Significant increase in cell proliferation was observed in the TGF-β1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold, as compared with the ASC-seeded non-TGF-β1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold. When chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs was evaluated for both constructs, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content was significantly higher in the TGF-β1-immobilized scaffold. This study showed that ASCs containing the TGF-β1-immobilized scaffold better promoted cartilage regeneration in defective articular cartilage, which is assessed by histological observation. Based on the above results, we conclude that TGF-β1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold seeded with ASCs considerably enhances the quality of the tissue-engineered cartilage, therefore, advancing the field of cartilage tissue engineering.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced toxicity and ease of modification make gold nanoparticles (GNPs) suitable for targeted delivery, bioimaging and theranostics by conjugating cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). This study presents the biodistribution and enhanced intracellular uptake of GNPs functionalized with VG-21, a CPP derived from vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (G). Cell penetrating efficiency of VG-21 was demonstrated using CellPPD web server, conjugated to GNPs and were characterized using, UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential. Uptake of VG-21 functionalized GNPs (fGNPs) was tested in eukaryotic cell lines, HEp-2, HeLa, Vero and Cos-7, using flow cytometry, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and inductively coupled plasmon optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The effects of nanoparticles on stress and toxicity related genes were studied in HEp-2 cells. Cytokine response to fGNPs was studied in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution of nanoparticles was studied in BALB/c mice using TEM and ICP-OES. VG-21, GNPs and fGNPs had little to no effect on cell viability. Upon exposure to fGNPs, HEp-2 cells revealed minimal down regulation of stress response genes. fGNPs displayed higher uptake than GNPs in all cell lines with highest internalization by HEp-2, HeLa and Cos-7 cells, in endocytotic vesicles and nuclei. Cytokine ELISA showed that mouse J774 cells exposed to fGNPs produced less IL-6 than did GNP-treated macrophage cells, whereas TNF-α levels were low in both treatment groups. Biodistribution studies in BALB/c mice revealed higher accumulation of fGNPs than GNPs in the liver and spleen. Histopathological analyses showed that fGNP-treated mice accumulated 35 ng/mg tissue and 20 ng/mg tissue gold in spleen and liver respectively, without any adverse effects. Likewise, serum cytokines were low in both GNP- and fGNP-treated mice. Thus, VG-21-conjugated GNPs have enhanced cellular internalization and are suitable for various biomedical applications as nano-conjugates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a rapidly increasing disease that enhances the chances of heart failure twofold to fourfold (as compared to age and sex matched nondiabetics) and becomes a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There are two broad classifications of diabetes: type1 diabetes (T1D) and type2 diabetes (T2D). Several mice models mimic both T1D and T2D in humans. However, the genetic intervention to ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy in these mice often requires creating double knockout (DKO). In order to assess the therapeutic potential of a gene, that specific gene is either overexpressed (transgenic expression) or abrogated (knockout) in the diabetic mice. If the genetic mice model for diabetes is used, it is necessary to create DKO with transgenic/knockout of the target gene to investigate the specific role of that gene in pathological cardiac remodeling in diabetics. One of the important genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in diabetes is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp9). Mmp9 is a collagenase that remains latent in healthy hearts but induced in diabetic hearts. Activated Mmp9 degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) and increases matrix turnover causing cardiac fibrosis that leads to heart failure. Insulin2 mutant (Ins2+/-) Akita is a genetic model for T1D that becomes diabetic spontaneously at the age of 3-4 weeks and show robust hyperglycemia at the age of 10-12 weeks. It is a chronic model of T1D. In Ins2+/- Akita, Mmp9 is induced. To investigate the specific role of Mmp9 in diabetic hearts, it is necessary to create diabetic mice where Mmp9 gene is deleted. Here, we describe the method to generate Ins2+/-/Mmp9-/- (DKO) mice to determine whether the abrogation of Mmp9 ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in carcinogenesis as tumor suppressors or oncogenes has been widely reported. Epigenetic change is one of the mechanisms of transcriptional silencing of miRNAs in cancer. To identify lung cancer-related miRNAs that are mediated by histone modification, we conducted microarray analysis in the Calu-6 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line after treatment with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. The expression level of miR-373 was enhanced by SAHA treatment in this cell line by microarray and the following quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Treatment with another HDAC inhibitor, Trichostatin A, restored the levels of miR-373 expression in A549 and Calu-6 cells, while demethylation drug treatment did not. Importantly, miR-373 was found to be down-regulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Transfection of miR-373 into A549 and Calu-6 cells attenuated cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and reduced the expression of mesenchymal markers. Additional microarray analysis of miR-373-transfected cells and computational predictions identified IRAK2 and LAMP1 as targets of miR-373. Knockdown of these two genes showed similar biological effects to those of miR-373 overexpression. In clinical samples, overexpression of IRAK2 correlated with decreased disease-free survival of patients with non-adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, we found that miR-373 is silenced by histone modification in lung cancer cells and identified its function as a tumor suppressor and negative regulator of the mesenchymal phenotype through downstream IRAK2 and LAMP1 target genes.
Cancer Letters 07/2014; 353(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.07.019 · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the abnormal vasculature, most growing solid tumors contain regions that experience either acute or chronic hypoxia. However, tumor cells can maintain a high glycolytic rate even when there is enough oxygen supply. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play crucial role in the response of tumor cells to this distinct microenvironment by shifting energy production from mitochondria towards glycolysis. In this review, we focus on the metabolism of tumor cell survival in hypoxic microenvironments. Furthermore, we also emphasize the mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate tumor metabolism.
Cancer letters 02/2014; 356(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.01.032 · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hybrid nanostructures consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNs) coated with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) are of great interest due to their numerous potential applications in nanotechnology, medicine, and homeland security. Recent experiments have demonstrated that DNA-CN hybrids can detect the hybridization of complementary DNA strands, paving the way for applications in DNA sequencing and genetic testing. However, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations studying DNA-CN self-assembly have found that adsorbed DNA bases are poorly positioned to hybridize with complementary DNA strands. Here, we apply the adaptive biasing force (ABF) method to all-atom MD models, and find that DNA bases must desorb from the swCN sidewall and suffer significant energy penalties to hybridize with complementary DNA. This agrees with the extremely slow hybridization time scales in fluorescence experiments, as well as observations made using DNA-CN transistor devices. We present the free energy landscape for two model systems and compare the energy required to hybridize a G-C versus an A-T pair. These results reveal significant impediments to rapid DNA hybridization on the swCN surface, and further our understanding of the mechanism by which hybridization gradually occurs—essential knowledge for the advancement of nanotechnology based on DNA-CN.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 01/2014; 118(4):2209–2214. DOI:10.1021/jp4102288 · 4.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultures of primary tumors are very useful as a personalized screening system for effective therapeutic options. We here describe an effective method of reproducing human primary colon tumors through primary culture and a mouse xenograft model. A total of 199 primary colon tumor cultures were successfully established under optimized conditions to enrich for tumor cells and to expand it for long-term storage in liquid nitrogen. To examine whether these stored cultures retained original tumor properties, fifty primary cultures were xenografted into NOD-SCID mouse. Histological and tumor marker analysis of four representative tumor xenografts revealed that all of the xenograft retained its primary tumor characteristics. Oncomap analysis further showed no change in the major mutations in the xenografts, confirming that our method faithfully reproduced human colon tumors. A drug sensitivity assay revealed that two of the primary cultures were hypersensitive to oxaliplatin rather than 5-FU, which was used in the patients, suggesting it as an effective therapeutic option. We thus present an effective, reproducible preclinical model for testing various personalized therapeutic options in colon cancer patients.
Cancer letters 12/2013; 349(1). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2013.11.010 · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infection in infants and the elderly, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The interdisciplinary fields, especially biotechnology and nanotechnology, have facilitated the development of modern detection systems for RSV. Many anti-RSV compounds like fusion inhibitors and RNAi molecules have been successful in laboratory and clinical trials. But, currently, there are no effective drugs for RSV infection even after decades of research. Effective diagnosis can result in effective treatment, but the progress in both of these facets must be concurrent. The development in prevention and treatment measures for RSV is at appreciable pace, but the implementation into clinical practice still seems a challenge. This review attempts to present the promising diverse research approaches and advancements in the area of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment that contribute to RSV management.
Advances in Virology 12/2013; 2013(2):595768. DOI:10.1155/2013/595768
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are totipotent, self-renewing, and clonogenic, having potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. Due to regenerative capability, it has tremendous potential for treating myocardial infarction (death of myocardial tissue) and type 1 diabetes (death of pancreatic beta cells). Understanding the components regulating ESC differentiation is the key to unlock the regenerative potential of ESC-based therapies. Both the stiffness of extracellular matrix (ECM) and surrounding niche/microenvironment play pivotal roles in ESC differentiation. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) induces fibrosis that causes stiffness of the ECM and impairs differentiation of cardiac stem cells into cardiomyocytes. Here, we describe the method of ESC culture and differentiation, and the expression of MMP9 and its inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP4) in differentiating ESC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cells have an enormous capacity of self-renewal, as well as the ability to differentiate into specialized cell types. Proper control of these two properties of stem cells is crucial for animal development, growth control, and reproduction. Germline stem cells (GSCs) are a self-renewing population of germ cells, which generate haploid gametes (sperms or oocyte) that transmit genetic information from generation to generation. In Drosophila testis and ovary, GSCs are anchored around the niche cells. The cap cells cluster in females and hub cells in males act as a niche to control GSC behavior. With highly sophisticated genetic techniques in Drosophila, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the interactions between stem cells and niches at cellular and molecular levels. Here, we provide details of genetic, immunofluorescence labeling, and in situ hybridization techniques in identification and characterization of stem cells in Drosophila male and female germline niches.