Shree Ram Singh

National Cancer Institute (USA), Maryland, United States

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Publications (28)129.98 Total impact

  • Shree Ram Singh, Ming Tan, Prana Rameshwar
    Cancer letters 02/2014; · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Wen Zeng, Peiyi Liu, Weimin Pan, Shree Ram Singh, Yiyong Wei
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the abnormal vasculature, most growing solid tumors contain regions that experience either acute or chronic hypoxia. However, tumor cells can maintain a high glycolytic rate even when there is enough oxygen supply. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play crucial role in the response of tumor cells to this distinct microenvironment by shifting energy production from mitochondria towards glycolysis. In this review, we focus on the metabolism of tumor cell survival in hypoxic microenvironments. Furthermore, we also emphasize the mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate tumor metabolism.
    Cancer letters 02/2014; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cultures of primary tumors are very useful as a personalized screening system for effective therapeutic options. We here describe an effective method of reproducing human primary colon tumors through primary culture and a mouse xenograft model. A total of 199 primary colon tumor cultures were successfully established under optimized conditions to enrich for tumor cells and to expand it for long-term storage in liquid nitrogen. To examine whether these stored cultures retained original tumor properties, fifty primary cultures were xenografted into NOD-SCID mouse. Histological and tumor marker analysis of four representative tumor xenografts revealed that all of the xenograft retained its primary tumor characteristics. Oncomap analysis further showed no change in the major mutations in the xenografts, confirming that our method faithfully reproduced human colon tumors. A drug sensitivity assay revealed that two of the primary cultures were hypersensitive to oxaliplatin rather than 5-FU, which was used in the patients, suggesting it as an effective therapeutic option. We thus present an effective, reproducible preclinical model for testing various personalized therapeutic options in colon cancer patients.
    Cancer letters 12/2013; · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Shree Ram Singh
    Cancer letters 04/2013; · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Shree Ram Singh
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.
    Cancer letters 04/2013; · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Shree Ram Singh
    Cancer letters 03/2013; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells have an enormous capacity of self-renewal, as well as the ability to differentiate into specialized cell types. Proper control of these two properties of stem cells is crucial for animal development, growth control, and reproduction. Germline stem cells (GSCs) are a self-renewing population of germ cells, which generate haploid gametes (sperms or oocyte) that transmit genetic information from generation to generation. In Drosophila testis and ovary, GSCs are anchored around the niche cells. The cap cells cluster in females and hub cells in males act as a niche to control GSC behavior. With highly sophisticated genetic techniques in Drosophila, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the interactions between stem cells and niches at cellular and molecular levels. Here, we provide details of genetic, immunofluorescence labeling, and in situ hybridization techniques in identification and characterization of stem cells in Drosophila male and female germline niches.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 1035:9-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infection in infants and the elderly, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The interdisciplinary fields, especially biotechnology and nanotechnology, have facilitated the development of modern detection systems for RSV. Many anti-RSV compounds like fusion inhibitors and RNAi molecules have been successful in laboratory and clinical trials. But, currently, there are no effective drugs for RSV infection even after decades of research. Effective diagnosis can result in effective treatment, but the progress in both of these facets must be concurrent. The development in prevention and treatment measures for RSV is at appreciable pace, but the implementation into clinical practice still seems a challenge. This review attempts to present the promising diverse research approaches and advancements in the area of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment that contribute to RSV management.
    Advances in Virology 01/2013; 2013:595768.
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    ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are totipotent, self-renewing, and clonogenic, having potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. Due to regenerative capability, it has tremendous potential for treating myocardial infarction (death of myocardial tissue) and type 1 diabetes (death of pancreatic beta cells). Understanding the components regulating ESC differentiation is the key to unlock the regenerative potential of ESC-based therapies. Both the stiffness of extracellular matrix (ECM) and surrounding niche/microenvironment play pivotal roles in ESC differentiation. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) induces fibrosis that causes stiffness of the ECM and impairs differentiation of cardiac stem cells into cardiomyocytes. Here, we describe the method of ESC culture and differentiation, and the expression of MMP9 and its inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP4) in differentiating ESC.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 1035:153-63.
  • Shree Ram Singh
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 09/2012; · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Shree Ram Singh
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells have an essential role in tissue homeostasis, repair, and regeneration of a tissue or organ. Stem cells are immature cells having unlimited ability of self-renewal and capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types. Proper regulation of these dual properties is critical in animal development, growth control, and reproduction. Accumulating evidences suggest that stem cell behavior is regulated by both extracellular signals from the niche cells and intrinsic signal within stem cells. Using diverse model systems, tremendous work has been done to understand how niche control the stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. This review presents the progress made in stem cell niche field in germline and somatic stem cells in lower organism and mammals. The knowledge gained by studying the stem cells and its niches in diverse model organisms and the molecular mechanisms regulate their behavior are vital in understanding tissue homeostasis, regeneration, aging and cancer in humans.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 09/2012; · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cell-mediated tissue repair is a promising approach in regenerative medicine. Intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. Recently, using lineage tracing and molecular marker labeling, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) have been identified in Drosophila adult midgut. ISCs reside at the basement membrane and are multipotent as they produce both enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells. The adult Drosophila midgut provides an excellent in vivo model organ to study ISC behavior during aging, stress, regeneration, and infection. It has been demonstrated that Notch, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase, Hippo, and wingless signaling pathways regulate ISCs proliferation and differentiation. There are plenty of genetic tools and markers developed in recent years in Drosophila stem cell studies. These tools and markers are essential in the precise identification of stem cells as well as manipulation of genes in stem cell regulation. Here, we describe the details of genetic tools, markers, and immunolabeling techniques used in identification and characterization of adult midgut stem cells in Drosophila.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 879:47-69.
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    ABSTRACT: Normal oxygen level is critical for niches that together with other components of the niche play vital role in regulating stem or tumor cells behavior. Hypoxia plays an important role in normal development and disease progression, including the growth of solid tumors. The hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are the key mediators of the cellular response to hypoxia. In this review, we focused on the role of HIFs on bone tumor formation. Further, we also emphasized how hypoxia, stem cells, and its niches regulate the bone tumorigenesis.
    Cancer letters 12/2011; 313(2):129-36. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stomach cancer is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, it is important to elucidate the properties of gastric stem cells, including their regulation and transformation. To date, such stem cells have not been identified in Drosophila. Here, using clonal analysis and molecular marker labeling, we identify a multipotent stem-cell pool at the foregut/midgut junction in the cardia (proventriculus). We found that daughter cells migrate upward either to anterior midgut or downward to esophagus and crop. The cardia functions as a gastric valve and the anterior midgut and crop together function as a stomach in Drosophila; therefore, we named the foregut/midgut stem cells as gastric stem cells (GaSC). We further found that JAK-STAT signaling regulates GaSCs' proliferation, Wingless signaling regulates GaSCs' self-renewal, and hedgehog signaling regulates GaSCs' differentiation. The differentiation pattern and genetic control of the Drosophila GaSCs suggest the possible similarity to mouse gastric stem cells. The identification of the multipotent stem cell pool in the gastric gland in Drosophila will facilitate studies of gastric stem cell regulation and transformation in mammal.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 04/2011; 10(7):1109-20. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are responsible for the transmission of genetic information from an individual to the next generation. SSCs play critical roles in understanding the basic reproductive biology of gametes and treatments of human infertility. SSCs not only maintain normal spermatogenesis, but also sustain fertility by critically balancing both SSC self-renewal and differentiation. This self-renewal and differentiation in turn is tightly regulated by a combination of intrinsic gene expression within the SSC as well as the extrinsic gene signals from the niche. Increased SSCs self-renewal at the expense of differentiation result in germ cell tumours, on the other hand, higher differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can result in male sterility. Testicular germ cell cancers are the most frequent cancers among young men in industrialized countries. However, understanding the pathogenesis of testis cancer has been difficult because it is formed during foetal development. Recent studies suggest that SSCs can be reprogrammed to become embryonic stem (ES)-like cells to acquire pluripotency. In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in SSCs biology and role of SSC in testicular cancer. We believe that studying the biology of SSCs will not only provide better understanding of stem cell regulation in the testis, but eventually will also be a novel target for male infertility and testicular cancers.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 12/2010; 15(3):468-83. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    Xiankun Zeng, Shree Ram Singh, David Hou, Steven X Hou
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing body of evidence suggests that tumors might originate from a few transformed cells that share many properties with normal stem cells. However, it remains unclear how normal stem cells are transformed into cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here, we demonstrated that mutations causing the loss of tumor suppressor Salvador (Sav) or Scribble (Scrib) or activation of the oncogene Ras transform normal stem cells into CSCs through a multistep process in the adult Drosophila Malpighian Tubules (MTs). In wild-type MTs, each stem cell generates one self-renewing and one differentiating daughter cell. However, in flies with loss-of-function sav or scrib or gain-of-function Ras mutations, both daughter cells grew and behaved like stem cells, leading to the formation of tumors in MTs. Ras functioned downstream of Sav and Scrib in regulating the stem-cell transformation. The Ras-transformed stem cells exhibited many of the hallmarks of cancer, such as increased proliferation, reduced cell death, and failure to differentiate. We further demonstrated that several signal transduction pathways (including MEK/MAPK, RhoA, PKA, and TOR) mediate Ras' function in the stem-cell transformation. Therefore, we have identified a molecular mechanism that regulates stem-cell transformation, and this finding may lead to strategies for preventing tumor formation in certain organs.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 09/2010; 224(3):766-74. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In many tissues, two or more types of stem cells share a niche, and how the stem cells coordinate their self-renewal and differentiation is poorly understood. In the Drosophila testis, germ line stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst progenitor cells (CPCs) contact each other and share a niche (the hub). The hub expresses a growth factor unpaired (Upd) that activates the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in GSCs to regulate the stem cell self-renewal. Here, we demonstrate that the JAK/STAT signaling also regulates CPCs self-renewal. We also show that a negative regulator, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 36E (SOCS36E), suppresses JAK/STAT signaling in somatic cells, preventing them from out-competing the GSCs. Furthermore, through selectively manipulating the JAK/STAT signaling level in either CPCs or GSCs, we demonstrate that the somatic JAK/STAT signaling is essential for self-renewal and maintenance of both CPCs and GSCs. These data suggest that a single JAK/STAT signal from the niche orchestrate the competitive and dependent co-existence of GSCs and CPCs in the Drosophila testis niche.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 05/2010; 223(2):500-10. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    Wei Liu, Shree Ram Singh, Steven X Hou
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    ABSTRACT: The Drosophila midgut epithelium undergoes continuous regeneration that is sustained by multipotent intestinal stem cells (ISCs) underneath. Notch signaling has dual functions to control ISC behavior: it slows down the ISC proliferation and drives the activated ISCs into different differentiation pathways at a dose-dependent manner. Here we identified a molecular mechanism to unite these two contradictory functions. We found JAK-STAT signaling controls ISC proliferation and this ability is negatively regulated by Notch at least through a transcriptional control of the JAK-STAT signaling ligand, unpaired (upd). This study provides insight into how stem cells, under steady conditions, balance the processes of proliferation and differentiation to maintain the stable cellular composition of a healthy tissue.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 04/2010; 109(5):992-9. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ag-coated CNTs hybrid nanoparticles (Ag/CNTs) were prepared by ultrasonic irradiation of dimethylformamide (DMF) and silver (I) acetate precursors in the presence of CNTs. The morphology of Ag/CNTs was characterized using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Nylon-6 powder and 1 wt% Ag/CNTs mixture was dispersed uniformly using a noncontact spinning technique. The dried mixture was melted in a single screw extrusion machine and then extruded through an orifice. Extruded filaments were later stretched and stabilized by sequentially passing them through a set of tension adjusters and a secondary heater. The Nylon-6/Ag/CNT hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPNC) fibers, which were of approximately 80 microm size, were tested for their tensile properties. The failure stress and modulus of the extruded HPNC fibers (doped with 1% Ag/CNTs) was about 72.19 % and 342.62% higher than the neat extruded Nylon-6 fiber, respectively. DSC results indicated an increase in the thermal stability and crystallization for HPNC fibers. The antibacterial activity of the Ag-coated CNTs, commercial Ag, neat Nylon-6 and plain CNTs were evaluated. Ag-coated CNTs at 25 microg demonstrated good antimicrobial activity against four common bacterial pathogens as tested by the Kirby-Bauer assay. The mean diameters of the zones of inhibition were 27.9 +/- 6.72 mm, 19.4 +/- 3.64 mm, 21.9 +/- 4.33 mm, and 24.1 +/- 4.14 mm, respectively, for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. By comparison, those obtained using the broad spectrum antibiotic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were 37.7 +/- 2.13 mm, 28.6 +/- 4.27 mm, 22.6 +/- 1.27 mm, and 27.0 +/- 1.41 mm, respectively, for the same strains. The zones of inhibition obtained for Nylon-6 Ag-coated CNT powder at 25 microg were also high, ranging from 15.2 to 25.3 mm in contrast to commercial silver or neat Nylon-6, which did not inhibit the bacterial strains tested. Further, the Nylon-6 nanocomposite fibers infused with Ag/CNTs inhibited bacterial growth by 11-20%. Our results suggest that nylon nanocomposite fibers infused with Ag-coated CNTs have significant antimicrobial activity.
    Nanotechnology 03/2010; 21(9):095102. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are rising. According to some estimates >1 million new cases of IBD arise in the United States annually. The conventional therapies available for IBD range from anti-inflammatory drugs to immunosuppressive agents, but these therapies generally fail to achieve satisfactory results due to their side effects. Interest in a new therapeutic option, that is, biological therapy, has gained much momentum recently due to its focus on different stages of the inflammatory process. Stem cell (SC) research has become a new direction for IBD therapy due to our recent understanding of cell populations involved in the pathogenic process. To this end, hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells are receiving more attention from IBD investigators. The intestinal environment, with its crypts and niches, supports incoming embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells and allows them to engraft and differentiate. The above findings suggest that, in the future, SC-based therapy will be a promising alternative to conventional therapy for IBD. In this review, we discuss SCs as potential therapeutic targets for future treatment of IBD.
    Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition) 01/2010; 2:993-1008.

Publication Stats

256 Citations
129.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Mouse Cancer Genetics Program
      Maryland, United States
    • University of South Carolina
      • Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology
      Columbia, SC, United States
    • Alabama State University
      • Center for Nanobiotechnology Research
      Montgomery, Alabama, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Immunology
      Bethesda, MD, United States