Paul Florsheim

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States

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Publications (35)83.43 Total impact

  • Paul Florsheim, Jason Burrow-Sanchez
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    ABSTRACT: We appreciate Sheats' comments on our Young Parenthood Program (YPP) article. Sheats has raised important questions regarding the relevance of YPP for young parents living in different social and cultural contexts. We believe these questions are useful and program developers like us must attend to the diverse needs of young parents based on their socioeconomic status, cultural beliefs and values, and experiences of acculturation and discrimination. Our article reported results from an initial test of the YPP. At the end, we stated that more research was needed to "provide important information about how we might adapt the program for different subgroups." These were not empty words. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print February 14, 2013: e1. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301215).
    American Journal of Public Health 02/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Because of their youth, adolescent parents often lack the interpersonal skills necessary to manage the relationship challenges involved in parenting, leaving them and their children vulnerable to the health risks associated with relational stress and conflict. The primary goal of this study was to test the efficacy of the Young Parenthood Program (YPP), a 10-week counseling program administered during pregnancy and designed to facilitate interpersonal skill development and positive parenting among adolescent parents. Methods. Participants included 105 pregnant adolescents and their partners randomly assigned to YPP or treatment as usual. Assessments measured coparenting skills and parental functioning during the second trimester, 12 weeks after birth, and 18 months after birth. Results. Results indicated that fathers completing YPP demonstrated more positive parenting than did fathers in the control group. Moreover, the positive outcomes in paternal functioning were mediated through changes in the mother's interpersonal skill development. Conclusions. Results supported the efficacy of this couples-focused, coparenting support program, particularly for facilitating positive paternal engagement. These findings underscored the relevance of including fathers in the delivery of maternal-child public health services.
    American Journal of Public Health 08/2012; 102(10):1886-92. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marital difficulties can confer risk of coronary heart disease, as in a study of outwardly healthy couples (T. W. Smith et al., 2011) where behavioral ratings of low affiliation and high control during marital disagreements were associated with asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). However, taxometric studies suggest that marital discord is more accurately represented by discrete groups, rather than continuous dimensions. To determine if a categorical representation of marital discord was also related to CAD, discordant and nondiscordant groups were identified via cluster analysis in further analyses of the T. W. Smith et al. (2011) study. One hundred fifty healthy couples (M age = 63.5) completed a marital disagreement discussion, self-reports of anxiety and anger during the disagreement, and self-report measures of marital adjustment. CAD was measured as coronary artery calcification (CAC) via computed tomography scans. In a 2-group cluster solution, 31% of couples were characterized as discordant, with higher levels of hostility and dominance and lower levels of warmth compared with the nondiscordant group. Discordant couples reported lower marital adjustment and greater negative affect during the discussion. Controlling biomedical and behavioral risk factors, discordant couples had greater CAC (p = .029, η² = .035). Discordant and nondiscordant groups defined via self-reported marital adjustment did not differ in CAC (p = .17, η² = .014). Marital discord defined categorically and with behavioral observations was associated with greater levels of asymptomatic CAD. Marital discord is associated with higher risk at early stages of coronary heart disease, but commonly used self-reports may underestimate this risk.
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 12/2011; 80(1):87-92. · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • Le Ngu, Paul Florsheim
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined relationship factors associated with paternal functioning among young, high-risk fathers, with an emphasis on the role of a young mother's relational competence on her partner's paternal functioning. Participants included 60 young fathers and their coparenting partners, who were identified before childbirth and followed over 2 years. Fathers were identified as being at high risk for paternal failure based on a history of school dropout, psychopathology, and/or serial fatherhood. It was hypothesized that young men who were more relationally competent before childbirth would function more adequately as fathers, despite their high-risk status. Based on principles of family systems theory, it was also predicted that young men with more relationally competent partners would become more relationally competent, and therefore learn to function more positively as fathers. Relational competence was assessed using interview data collected before and 2 years post child birth, and coded with the Relational Competence Index. Paternal functioning was based on a composite score consisting of self-reported and observed parenting. Path analysis indicated that (1) high-risk fathers with relationally competent partners had higher relational competence scores over time, and (2) higher relational competence scores were associated with more positive paternal functioning scores.
    Family Process 06/2011; 50(2):184-202. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This pilot study tested the Young Parenthood Program (YPP), which is a new coparenting counseling program designed to support positive communications and prevent the occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescents and their biological partners. One hundred five coparenting couples were recruited, assessed, and randomized into a treatment or a control group and then reassessed at 3 and 18 months post birth. The assessment process included an interview-based screening for the occurrence of IPV that was administered to both mothers and fathers in individual meetings. Initial results indicated that couples who were randomly assigned to the YPP were significantly less likely to have engaged in IPV at the first follow-up, compared to couples in the “treatment as usual” control group, but the strength of this finding diminished over time. Because the YPP is new and our sample is relatively small, findings should be regarded as preliminary. Additional testing of YPP is necessary, but initial results are promising and underscore the potential value of targeted programs for preventing IPV among at-risk populations.
    Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy 04/2011; 10(2):117-134.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine behavioral observations of affiliation (ie, warmth versus hostility) and control (ie, dominance versus submissiveness) and prior divorce as predictors of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in older couples. In some but not all studies, marital disruption and low marital quality have been shown to confer risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Inconsistencies might reflect limitations of self-reports of marital quality compared with behavioral observations. Also, aspects of marital quality related to CAD might differ for men and women. Couples underwent computed tomography scans for CAC and marital assessments, including observations of laboratory-based disagreement. Participants were 154 couples (mean age, 63.5 years; mean length of marriage, 36.4 years) free of prior diagnosis of CAD. Controlling traditional risk factors, we found behavioral measures of affiliation (low warmth) accounted for 6.2% of variance in CAC for women, p < .01, but not for men. Controlling behavior (dominance) accounted for 6.0% of variance in CAC for men, p < .02, but not for women. Behavioral measures were related to self-reports of marital quality, but the latter were unrelated to CAC. History of divorce predicted CAC for men and women. History of divorce and behavioral--but not self-report--measures of marital quality were related to CAD, such that low warmth and high dominance conferred risk for women and men, respectively. Prior research might underestimate the role of marital quality in CAD by relying on global self-reports of this risk factor.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 03/2011; 73(4):350-7. · 4.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined associations between individual differences in trait negative affect and appraisal biases during a marital conflict discussion in a sample of 300 middle-aged and older couples. We used the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) to quantify specific appraisal biases, defined as discrepancies between participant ratings of their spouses’ levels of hostility, friendliness, and control during a marital disagreement relative to independent behavioral coding of these behavioral dimensions. Further, we examined the specific component affective traits (i.e., anxiety, depression, and anger) individually, as well as their independent effects in simultaneous analyses. Composite negative affectivity was associated with appraisals of the spouse as displaying more control, less friendliness, and more hostility than was evident in independent ratings. For the specific negative affects, depressive tendencies—and perhaps the closely related trait of anxiety—were associated with viewing the spouse as both more hostile and less warm or friendly than did independent observers. In contrast, individuals prone to anger perceived more control in their spouse’s behavior than was rated by observers. The results support interpersonal and cognitive models of the role of appraisals in general negative affectivity and its specific components. KeywordsInterpersonal circumplex–Structural analysis of social behavior–Negative affectivity–Appraisal bias–Anger–Hostility–Depression–Anxiety–Marital interaction
    Cognitive Therapy and Research 01/2011; 35(3):187-198. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to identify early symptoms associated with the occurrence of psychosis during adolescence. Participants were recruited in the Republic of Palau, an isolated island nation in Micronesia with a prevalence rate for schizophrenia of 1.99%. Diagnostic interviews were used to obtain reports of early and current symptoms from 112 genetically high-risk (GHR) and 208 genetically low-risk (GLR) adolescents (ages 16-23). Based on current psychotic symptoms, participants were sorted into three groups: non-clinical, at-risk/symptomatic risk and clinically symptomatic. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed several between-group differences on rates of early symptoms. Most notably, youth who were in the GHR-clinically symptomatic group reported significantly higher rates of early marijuana use than GLR-clinically symptomatic youth, who were significantly more likely to report early symptoms of depression and behaviour disorders. In addition, several gender based differences in the link between early symptoms and adolescent onset psychosis were noted. Findings are generally consistent with previous research on early indicators, though several unexpected findings suggest that results from this study may not be fully generalizable beyond this relatively isolated and culturally distinct Micronesian nation.
    Early Intervention in Psychiatry 05/2010; 4(2):153-61. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    Cecilia Wainryb, Masha Komolova, Paul Florsheim
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    ABSTRACT: Experiences that involve having harmed another person tend to compel individuals to consider their own behavior in light of their understandings of right and wrong, thereby serving as an important context and source of moral development. Although this process begins in early childhood, adolescents become quite preoccupied with the type of person they want to become and are thus likely to be most fully engaged in constructing a sense of themselves as moral agents.
    11/2009: pages 185-206;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the role of adoption and family relations as moderators of genetic risk for psychotic disorders. Participants included 184 adolescents in the Republic of Palau identified to be at genetic risk for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Palau is an island nation in Micronesia with a lifetime prevalence of 1.99% for schizophrenia and 2.67% for psychotic disorders more broadly defined. In Palauan culture, kinship adoption is a common cultural practice; 47 of the 184 participants had been adopted at an early age. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that adoption would function as a protective factor among Palauan youth at genetic risk for the development of psychotic symptoms. Participants were evaluated for psychotic and other psychiatric symptoms using KSADS-PL. Concurrently, the Youth Self Report was used to assess the perceived quality of family relationships. Results indicated that adopted adolescents were more likely to develop psychotic symptoms than non-adopted adolescents. However, perceived family relations moderated the association between adoption status and psychotic symptoms, such that adopted adolescents with poorer family relations reported disproportionately higher rates of psychotic symptoms. Family relations also moderated the association between level of genetic risk and psychotic symptoms, independently of adoption status. Consistent with previous research, adolescents at high genetic risk who reported more positive family relations also reported fewer psychotic symptoms.
    Social Psychiatry 11/2009; 45(12):1105-14. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples' greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity-especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving.
    Psychology and Aging 07/2009; 24(2):259-73. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marital strain confers risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), perhaps though cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to stressful marital interactions. CVR to marital stressors may differ between middle-age and older adults, and types of marital interactions that evoke CVR may also differ across these age groups, as relationship contexts and stressors differ with age. The authors examined cardiovascular responses to a marital conflict discussion and collaborative problem solving in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Marital conflict evoked greater increases in blood pressure, cardiac output, and cardiac sympathetic activation than did collaboration. Older couples displayed smaller heart rate responses to conflict than did middle-aged couples but larger blood pressure responses to collaboration—especially in older men. These effects were maintained during a posttask recovery period. Women did not display greater CVR than men on any measure or in either interaction context, though they did display greater parasympathetic withdrawal. CVR to marital conflict could contribute to the association of marital strain with CVD for middle-aged and older men and women, but other age-related marital contexts (e.g., collaboration among older couples) may also contribute to this mechanism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychology and Aging 05/2009; 24(2):274-286. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aspects of negative affect and social behavior studied as risk factors for coronary heart disease are usually examined separately and through self-reports. Using structural models of these personality domains, we tested associations of self-reports and spouse ratings of anxiety, depressive symptoms, anger, affiliation and dominance with coronary artery disease (CAD). In 154 healthy older couples, the authors tested cross-sectional associations with CAD of three facets of negative affectivity and two dimensions of the Interpersonal Circumplex, (IPC) using scales derived from the NEO-PI-R. CAD was quantified as Agatston scores from CT scans of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Self-reports were generally unrelated to CAC, whereas spouse ratings were consistently associated, largely independent of potential confounds. When considered simultaneously, anxiety and anger were related to CAC but depression was not. When considered together, both dominance and (low) affiliation were related to CAC. Structural models of negative affectivity and social behavior can facilitate integrative study of psychosocial risk factors. Further, self-report measures of these traits might under-estimate related CHD risk.
    Health Psychology 12/2008; 27(6):676-84. · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Paul Florsheim, David R. Moore
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research on adolescent romantic relationships has been largely based on self-reports and interview data; as a result, relatively little is known about the interpersonal-behavioral dynamics of adolescent couples. In an attempt to address this gap in the previous literature on young couples, the present study used observational methods to differentiate between healthy and dysfunctional adolescent romantic relationships. Two groups of adolescent couples were recruited to participate in this study: (1) a high-risk group (n=18 couples) in which one or both partners had a substance use disorder (SUD) and (2) a low-risk group (n=12 couples) in which neither partner had a history of psychopathology. Self-report and observational data on couples’ relationships were collected from both groups. Couples’ observed conflict interactions were coded using the structural analysis of social behavior [Florsheim, P., & Benjamin, L. S. (2001). The structural analysis of social behavior observational coding scheme. In P. K. Kerig, & M. Lindahl (Eds.), Family observational coding schemes: Resources for systemic research (pp. 127–150). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates]. Findings indicated that, compared to couples with no psychopathology, couples in the SUD group engaged in significantly more hostile and less warm behavior, as well as more complex communication involving a mix of hostility and warmth. Self-reported relational quality did not differentiate the two groups, highlighting the unique contributions of observational data for understanding the clinically relevant dynamics of adolescent romantic relationships.
    Journal of Adolescence 12/2008; · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • David R Moore, Paul Florsheim
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to identify links between observed conflict interactions and risk for child abuse and harsh parenting among a multiethnic sample of adolescent mothers (14-19 years) and young fathers (14-24 years). Prior to childbirth (T1), observation-based relationship data were collected from 154 expectant adolescent couples as well as information about physical aggression between partners. Two years after childbirth (T2), data relevant to harsh disciplinary practices and child abuse-prone attitudes were collected from both young mothers and fathers. Multiple regression analyses were run to examine the correspondence between (a) couples' relationship quality prior to childbirth and (b) subsequent risk for harsh and potentially abusive parenting practices. Findings indicated that interpartner violence prior to childbirth predicted physically punitive parenting behavior for fathers, but not for mothers. Young mothers and fathers observed to be more warmly engaged with each other during their pre-birth couple interactions (T1) reported lower rates of physically punitive parenting behavior with their children at T2. Couples' hostility at T1 predicted fathers' level of observed hostility toward his child during a structured play activity at T2. Results underscore the importance of addressing the quality of couples' relations as means of preventing dysfunctional parenting practices among adolescent mothers and their partners. Adolescent mothers and their partners are at heightened risk for engaging in dysfunctional parenting, including child abuse. Focusing on pregnant adolescents and their partners, this study sought to identify interpersonal predictors of child abuse risk. Although this study did not involve administering prevention or intervention services, the goal was to test hypotheses that would inform the development of programs for young at-risk couples. The decision to recruit young couples prior to childbirth was based on the presumption that this period of time could provide a window of opportunity to administer couple-based child abuse prevention programs. Consistent with previous research on marital relations and parenting, results of this study support the idea that efforts to develop and administer preventive-intervention programs targeting at-risk couples could help reduce the occurrence of harsh parenting behavior and abuse.
    Child Abuse & Neglect 05/2008; 32(4):463-75. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study examined age differences in positive (e.g., warm) and negative (e.g., hostile) characteristics of marital interactions between middle-aged and older couples and whether these characteristics were differentially associated with marital satisfaction by age. Spouses' perception of partners' positive and negative behavior during marital interaction was assessed in general and following disagreement and collaborative tasks. Trained observers coded spouses' positive and negative behavior during interactions. Older individuals reported higher marital satisfaction and perceived their spouse's behavior as less negative in general and more positive across all contexts than middle-aged individuals. Spouses' perceptions of their partners' positive and negative behavior independently predicted marital satisfaction for both age groups across contexts. Perceptions of partners' negative behavior in general and of both positive and negative behavior in the disagreement task were more closely associated with marital satisfaction for older spouses than for middle-aged spouses. Results point to the importance of positive and negative characteristics in marital functioning across age cohorts and indicate that such characteristics may be context dependent. Findings suggest that, in some contexts, both positive and negative characteristics are more salient for older adults.
    Psychology and Aging 10/2007; 22(3):428-41. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Collaborative problem solving may be used by older couples to optimize cognitive functioning, with some suggestion that older couples exhibit greater collaborative expertise. The study explored age differences in 2 aspects of collaborative expertise: spouses' knowledge of their own and their spouse's cognitive abilities and the ability to fit task control to these cognitive abilities. The participants were 300 middle-aged and older couples who completed a hypothetical errand task. The interactions were coded for control asserted by husbands and wives. Fluid intelligence was assessed, and spouses rated their own and their spouse's cognitive abilities. The results revealed no age differences in couple expertise, either in the ability to predict their own and their spouse's cognitive abilities or in the ability to fit task control to abilities. However, gender differences were found. Women fit task control to their own and their spouse's cognitive abilities; men only fit task control to their spouse's cognitive abilities. For women only, the fit between control and abilities was associated with better performance. The results indicate no age differences in couple expertise but point to gender as a factor in optimal collaboration.
    Psychology and Aging 10/2007; 22(3):420-7. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between hostile personality traits and coronary artery disease (CAD) and the role of aspects of hostility, method of assessment, and age as influences on its magnitude, as prior studies of hostility and coronary artery calcification (CAC) have produced conflicting findings. Participants included 300 married couples (mean age = 54.4 years) free from diagnosed CAD. Participants completed four measures of hostility-self-reports and spouse ratings of angry hostility (i.e., tendency to experience anger) and antagonism (i.e., argumentative, mistrusting, and cold interpersonal behavior). In hierarchical random regression models accounting for dependency between husbands' and wives' observations, analyses of log-transformed Agatston scores indicated that self-reports of angry hostility and antagonism were not related to CAC. However, spouse ratings of both anger and antagonism were significantly associated with CAC severity. Interactions with age indicated that these associations occurred only among older participants. Control of behavioral and biomedical risk factors did not eliminate these effects. Antagonism but not anger was an independent predictor of CAC when considered simultaneously. Hostility is associated with concurrent asymptomatic CAD as assessed through CAC, but this effect is likely to be underestimated when hostility is assessed through self-reports rather than ratings by others and in samples with lower prevalence and severity of CAC.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 07/2007; 69(5):441-8. · 4.08 Impact Factor
  • David R Moore, Paul Florsheim, Jonathan Butner
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to identify predictors of relationship outcomes among 179 young (ages 14-24) coparenting couples during the transition to parenthood, with a particular focus on interpersonal process and psychopathology. Findings indicated that couples identified as hostile during the prenatal assessment were more likely to report relationship violence at follow-up (2 years postbirth). Couples identified as warm were more likely to remain together as coparents even if their romantic relationship dissolved. Couples in which the female partner was highly controlling were less likely to be cohabiting at follow-up. Mothers with a history of substance abuse and fathers with a history of conduct disorder were also more likely to engage in interpartner violence. Latino couples were more likely than Caucasian and African American couples to be warmly engaged and to remain romantically involved across the transition to parenthood.
    Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 01/2007; 36(4):541-56. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phenomenon of drug craving among adolescents with substance use disorders has been largely overlooked by addiction researchers. This study was designed to: (1) assess craving among adolescents with polysubstance use disorders (SUDs); and (2) examine the association between personality traits and craving among adolescents with SUDs. Craving was found to be a multidimensional phenomenon that demonstrated some degree of consistency across substances (in this case, marijuana and alcohol). Selected personality traits were associated with distinct components of craving; for example, adolescent substance users who obtained high sensation-seeking scores tended to crave the excitement associated with drug use. Adolescents who obtained high anxious-neuroticism scores tended to crave the experience of distress relief associated with drug use.
    Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 01/2007; 17(2):101-124. · 0.62 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

439 Citations
83.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2013
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Psychology
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Center for Addiction and Behavioral Health Research
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Puget Sound
      • Department of Psychology
      Tacoma, Washington, United States
  • 2002
    • Roosevelt University
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Psychiatry (Chicago)
      Chicago, IL, United States