[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The infrequent double light chain producing lymphocyte (DLCPL) is discussed in the context of allelic exclusion. Principally allelic selection rather than allelic exclusion would suggest a role for the DLCPL in the normal B cell population rather than as an aberrance of B cell malignancy. Found primarily in the periphery, it is uncertain at what stage of B cell ontogeny the DLCPL might reside. Nevertheless, through the possible presentation of two functional surface receptors, the DLCPL could be capable of recognizing both self and nonself epitopes.
Immunologic Research 02/2001; 24(3):303-10. · 2.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DNA binding domain (DBD) is the most mutated region of p53 in tumors and has proven to be relatively resistant to the generation of specific antibodies. Template assembled synthetic peptide (TASP) synthesis of a peptide derived from the DBD creates a highly immunogenic molecule without the need for large carriers such as keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). In addition, a rapid means of generating monoclonal antibodies can be achieved through immunization in conjunction with ABL/MYC retrovirus injection into recipient mice. In this paper, we demonstrate that an antibody generated by this means, KH2, reacts specifically with the DBD of p53. To date, this is the first example of a peptide immunogen used successfully in ABL/MYC monoclonal antibody production. KH2 is also the first example of a monospecific antibody that directly binds to and, by definition, assumes the conformation of the DNA binding region of p53.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rearrangement of the light chain locus is believed to be an ordered process in which Iglambda rearrangements only occur if Igkappa rearrangements are found to be non-productive or self-reactive. Secondary rearrangements of the B-cell receptor (BCR) have shown, however, that rescue of abortive Igkappa rearrangements or autoreactive B cells can be achieved through receptor editing using upstream V-regions as the template sequences. Since secondary rearrangement can occur in the periphery, possibly in a subset of B cells maintaining constitutive Rag activity, it is conceivable that two light chains (kappa:kappa or kappa:lambda) could be expressed in these cells, apparently in violation of allelic exclusion. Previously, we have reported that silicone-induced plasmacytomas (SIPCs) exhibit dual expression and ongoing rearrangements of Igkappa and Iglambda. In this paper, we show by ELISA that both Igkappa and Iglambda are found at the protein level, but are secreted in different amounts. Furthermore, we demonstrate by micro-manipulation and RT-PCR amplification that Igkappa and Iglambda are simultaneously expressed in a single SIPC cell. We propose that these dual-expressing cells, found intermittently in cases of plasmacytomas (PCs), may have originally been immature B cells when transformed but now are maintained as a long-lived mature B cell found infrequently in the tumor population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The many binding studies of monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) produced by plasmacytomas have found no universally common binding properties, but instead, groups of plasmacytomas with specific antigen-binding activities to haptens such as phosphorylcholine, dextrans, fructofuranans, or dinitrophenyl. Subsequently, it was found that plasmacytomas with similar binding chain specificities not only expressed the same idiotype, but rearranged the same light (V(L)) and heavy (V(H)) variable region genes to express a characteristic monoclonal antibody. In this study, we have examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay five antibodies secreted by silicone-induced mouse plasmacytomas using a broader panel of antigens including actin, myosin, tubulin, single-stranded DNA, and double-stranded DNA. We have determined the Ig heavy and light chain V gene usage in these same plasmacytomas at the DNA and RNA level. Our studies reveal: (a) antibodies secreted by plasmacytomas bind to different antigens in a manner similar to that observed for natural autoantibodies; (b) the expressed Ig heavy genes are restricted in V gene usage to the V(H)-J558 family; and (c) secondary rearrangements occur at the light chain level with at least three plasmacytomas expressing both kappa and lambda light chain genes. These results suggest that plasmacytomas use a restricted population of B cells that may still be undergoing rearrangement, thereby bypassing the allelic exclusion normally associated with expression of antibody genes.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/1999; 190(10):1405-16. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here the isolation and characterization of a cDNA from mouse thymus encoding the murine homolog of the protein product of the Syrian hamster Pcph proto-oncogene. The single open reading frame identified in the cDNA sequence encoded a protein predicted to have 428 amino acids, which shared 93.7% amino acid identity with the Syrian hamster Pcph within the first 412 residues but had a shorter, highly dissimilar C-terminus. Northern and western analyses revealed that Pcph mRNA and protein were widely distributed in mouse embryo and adult tissues, with the highest expression in adults detected in kidney and liver. The mouse Pcph proto-oncogene was mapped by linkage analysis to within 3.3+/-2.3 cM of Pkch-rs1 on chromosome 12. These data should prove valuable in designing studies to define the cellular function of the Pcph proto-oncogene.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and the p53-regulated Mdm2 and Waf1 genes was evaluated in adenovirus (Ad)-transformed mouse cells. The expected levels of p53 mRNA and protein and Mdm2 mRNA were detected in all transformed cells. However, the level of Waf1 mRNA was markedly reduced in Ad12-transformed cells and in some Ad5-transformed cells. Waf1 expression was not reduced in untransformed mouse cells infected with Ad12 or Ad5. Expression of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus was downregulated in 13 Ad-transformed cell lines (derived from four different strains of mice) that exhibited reduced expression of Waf1. Waf1 is located on mouse chromosome 17 proximal to the MHC class I locus. To determine whether other chromosome 17 genes were downregulated, the cells were examined for expression of other genetic loci. Of those tested, only the C2 and C3 complement loci were expressed in mouse fibroblasts. Expression of C2 (which is within the MHC) and expression of C3 (which is 15 cM distal to the MHC) were downregulated in those transformed cells in which Waf1 and MHC class I were downregulated. The Ad12- and Ad5-transformed cells that expressed low levels of Waf1, MHC class I, C2, and C3 formed tumors in syngeneic adult mice. These data suggest that the downregulation of multiple genes within the 32 Mb of mouse chromosome 17 that includes the Waf1 locus to the C3 locus occurs in Ad mouse-cell transformation and may contribute to the tumorigenicity of transformed cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A chromosomal translocation (Tx) that interrupts the transcription of either c-Myc or Pvt 1 is the principal lesion in many B cell malignancies including Burkitt's Lymphoma (BL), AIDs-NHL, mouse plasmacytoma (Pct) and possibly multiple myeloma (MM). There is a restriction associated with this Tx such that only the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain gene is found juxtaposed to c-Myc and only the Ig light chain gene is found juxtaposed to Pvt 1. Over the past several years, our laboratory has been instrumental in the elucidation of the structure of the mouse Pvt 1 locus as a means of understanding the relationship between these two divergent Txs which, nevertheless, produce indistinguishable disease phenotypes. In the mouse, we have identified a uniform Pvt1/Ig Ck fusion product which is consistently found in all tumors harboring Pvt 1 associated Txs. We have recently constructed transgenic mice harboring a translocated Pvt 1/Ck segment in order to determine whether 1). these mice produce the Pvt 1/Ck fusion product 2). these mice are immunocompromised and 3). these mice develop tumors of a B cell origin.
Current topics in microbiology and immunology 02/1997; 224:67-72. · 4.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deregulated expression of c-Myc protein is associated with the non-random locus-specific amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene. This study was performed to determine whether additional chromosomal aberrations occur when c-Myc protein levels are up-regulated for prolonged periods. To this end, we have used Rat1A-MycER cells, which allow the experimental regulation of Myc protein levels. We examined the genomic stability of Rat1A-MycER cells cultivated in either the absence or the presence of estrogen, which reportedly activates the chimeric MycER protein in these cells. Following prolonged periods of MycER activation, Rat1A-Mycer cells exhibited irreversible chromosomal aberrations. The aberrations included numerical changes, chromosome breakage, the formation of circular chromosomal structures, chromosome fusions, and extrachromosomal elements.
Chromosome Research 09/1996; 4(5):365-71. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle is regulated, in part, by the pRB-family proteins, pRB and p107. The basis for this regulation is due to a network of interactions between the pRB-family proteins, pRB, p107, and p130; the E2F-family of transcription factors; and cyclins D, E, and A. One of the pRB-family proteins, p107, has also been found to bind to the transactivation domain of the c-Myc proto-oncogene. This region in c-Myc is frequently mutated in tumors such as Burkitt's lymphoma, HIV-associated lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. The binding of p107 and regulation of c-Myc may conceivably be disrupted not only by mutations in c-Myc, but possibly by mutations in p107. In order to determine if mutations in p107 are indeed present in mouse B-cell tumors which exhibit a lower frequency of c-Myc mutation, we have cloned the mouse p107 cDNA and compared this sequence with its human counterpart. We find that the extreme N-terminal and C-terminal regions are the most conserved between human and mouse p107 sequences. Chromosomal positioning of the locus for p107 (designated Rbl1) as well as E2f1 to the distal end of mouse Chromosome (Chr) 2 also suggests a close but unlinked genetic relationship between these cell cycle regulatory transcription factors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After adaptation of a mouse plasma cell tumor, MOPC265, to culture, we have found several unique chromosomal alterations in addition to the T(12;15) translocation and trisomy 11 frequently observed in plasmacytomas. Among these alterations is a specific coamplification of the c-Myc and Pvt 1 gene loci from mouse chromosome 15. Further analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that the amplicons of c-Myc and Pvt 1 exist as extrachromosomal elements as well as within intact chromosomes. Most importantly, the presence of both Pvt 1 and c-Myc in these extrachromosomal elements indicates ongoing coselection for these loci in the propagation of MOPC265.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cDNA coding for a hybridoma anti Shigella dysenteriae type 1 antibody (3707 E9) has been cloned, and sequenced. Binding patterns with fragments of the bacterial polysaccharide antigen had already been studied in detail. The VH sequence utilizes the VH441 gene, first identified amongst beta-(1,6)galactan-binding antibodies, while the VL is closely related to the V lambda 1 gene. We found that the VL3707 E9 gene employed a VL-J combinatorial joining leading to a rare Trp-->Leu substitution at position L96.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptors for cholcystokinin (CCK) can be pharmacologically classified into at least two distinct subtypes, CCKAR and CCKBR. In an effort to determine whether the CCKA and CCKB receptors may be associated with certain CNS or gastrointestinal diseases, we have localized and compared the human and mouse chromosomal loci encoded by the CCKAR and CCKBR genes. The gene encoding the CCKA receptor maps to a syntenic region of human chromosome 4 and mouse chromosome 5. The CCKB receptor gene, on the other hand, resides on a syntenic region of human chromosome 11 and distal mouse chromosome 7. Localization of the CCK receptors with two dopamine receptors, DRD5 (4p15.1-p15.3) and DRD4 (11p15), provides the interesting possibility of coinvolvement in neuropsychiatric or CNS illnesses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) 55-kDa E1B oncoprotein has been shown to form complexes with the p53 tumor suppressor protein. These complexes are thought to interfere with normal p53 activity and may be responsible for the paucity of p53 mutations in cells transformed by these viruses. This report describes an example of a p53 mutation in exon 5 in an Ad5-transformed cell line that exhibited less expression of E1B 55-kDa protein and a longer tumor-latency phenotype than another Ad5-transformed cell line expressing wild-type p53. The finding of a p53 mutation in an Ad5-transformed cell line is unusual, especially considering the current theory that p53-E1B interactions play an important role in adenovirus transformation. This mutation could represent an alternative method of inactivating p53 function in the absence of sufficient levels of E1B 55-kDa oncoprotein.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some mouse plasmacytomas exhibit a t(6;15) chromosomal translocation in which the breakpoint resides within the Pvt-1 locus located 260 kilobases (kb) downstream of c-myc on mouse chromosome 15. In this report, we show that the Pvt-1 locus does not exhibit allelic exclusion in that Pvt-1 transcripts continue to be expressed from the non-translocated allele in t(6;15) plasmacytomas. From the translocated allele, we find chimeric transcripts containing a short 57-bp segment of Pvt-1 (termed Pvt-1a) spliced directly to the immunoglobulin constant region sequence (Ig-Ck). These short transcripts have replaced a Jk segment with a trytophan residue via RNA splicing and contain a continuous open reading frame (ORF) from Pvt-1a through Ck. Since this Pvt-1a/Ck transcript is found in all 3 t(6;15) plasmacytomas examined, regardless of the location of the chromosomal breakpoint, we suggest that the Pvt-1a/Ck chimera may have a functional role in the development of mouse plasmacytomas.
International Journal of Cancer 01/1995; 59(6):848-51. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent discovery that expression of Waf1 (p21), an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, is induced by the tumor suppressor p53 provides an important linkage between growth suppression and the cell cycle. We report here the cloning and sequencing of a mouse p21 cDNA that contains the entire coding region. Hybridization of the mouse p21 probe in Southern blot analyses confirms that p21 is a single-copy gene and that the corresponding locus, Waf1, lies proximal to H-2 on mouse chromosome 17. In northern analyses, the expression of p21 is found in most normal mouse tissues, but a surprising lack of correlation is found between mRNA levels of p21 and p53. In order to determine which regions of p21 are most evolutionarily conserved, we have compared the cDNA sequences for the entire p21 coding region in 13 different mouse strains or species and the human p21 sequence. We conclude that two regions (corresponding to human codons 21-60 and 130-164) are strongly conserved in p21 and that these regions may represent domains that are especially critical to a functional p21 protein.