Leandro Silveira

Jaguar Conservation Fund (JCF), Mineiros, Goiás, Brazil

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Publications (61)102.89 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human activities affect large carnivores worldwide by increasing mortality due to destruction and fragmentation of habitats, decrease of prey availability, and hunting pressure. The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a large carnivore strongly influenced by these threats, with poaching of predators being primarily a retaliatory response that is motivated by depredation of domestic animals. We investigate the distribution of jaguars and cattle depredation in 21 sampling units located in Central Brazil. We consider native and domestic prey availability as well as landscape configuration and composition as possible contributory factors. We removed correlated variables and conducted a set of logistic regressions in a step-wise approach. We used the difference between χ2 of the newest and the previous model to evaluate if the addition of a variable increased the explanatory power of the newest model. Jaguar occurrence was influenced by prey richness, which is correlated with habitat aggregation in the landscape, revealing the attributes that can act as proxies for environmental quality for jaguar. The relationship between jaguar and prey richness also suggests that jaguar can act as a surrogate for the presence of other species. Jaguar occurrence is also related to the availability of non-native prey such as cattle, but not cattle depredation, suggesting that cattle depredation could be an opportunistic event. Patterns of cattle depredation warrant further study because human-wildlife conflict is one of the greatest threats to jaguar conservation.
    European Journal of Wildlife Research 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10344-015-0924-6 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large carnivore management is typically a source of heated controversy worldwide and, in the Americas, jaguars (Panthera onca) are at the centre of many human–wildlife conflicts. Although findings suggest that social, rather than economic, factors are important reasons for why humans kill jaguars, few studies focus on stakeholder attitudes towards jaguar conservation beyond quantifying livestock depredation. Yet insights from other large carnivore conflicts demonstrate the importance of the political landscape and stakeholder attitudes in carnivore conservation. To explore the extent to which stakeholder views about jaguar conservation aligned with institutional arrangements, we conducted a stakeholder analysis among personnel working for key institutions in central Brazil. Using Q methodology, we identified three stakeholder perspectives focusing on: A) jaguars’ intrinsic right to exist; B) wider ecocentric values; and C) contesting jaguar-focused conservation. The three institutional stakeholder groups all accepted the jaguar’s fundamental right to exist and agreed that it was important to establish protected areas for jaguars. Yet, institutional stakeholder views diverged regarding the desired distribution of jaguars in Brazil, hunting policies, and the effects of hunting and development projects on jaguar conservation. These differences and their underlying motivations are important to consider for successful jaguar conservation strategies in Brazil.
    05/2015; 28. DOI:10.1016/j.gecco.2015.04.010
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    ABSTRACT: Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), the kodkod (Leopardus guigna), and Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi). To assess population level variation in the regions surrounding the causative mutations we apply genomic resources from the domestic cat to carry out clone-based capture and targeted resequencing of 299 kb and 251 kb segments that contain ASIP and MC1R, respectively, from 54 individuals (13-21 per species), achieving enrichment of ~500-2500-fold and ~150x coverage. Our analysis points to unique evolutionary histories for each of the three species, with a strong selective sweep in the pampas cat, a distinctive but short melanism-specific haplotype in the Geoffroy's cat, and reduced nucleotide diversity for both ancestral and melanism-bearing chromosomes in the kodkod. These results reveal an important role for natural selection in a trait of longstanding interest to ecologists, geneticists, and the lay community, and provide a platform for comparative studies of morphological variation in other natural populations.
    PLoS Genetics 02/2015; 11(2):e1004892. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004892 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most large reserves in Brazil do not hold viable populations of jaguars to guarantee the species’ long-term survival. Corridors linking populations have been identified as a potential tool to avoid negative effects of isolation, increasing population viability. Here, we performed a Brazil-wide evaluation of potential large scale corridors connecting protected jaguar populations. Six variables (human population size, dam reservoir size, number of dams, roads, railways and cities) expected to negatively impact jaguar movement were analyzed across 180 potential corridors connecting 298 protected jaguar areas. We established overall disturbance scores for the corridors using a principal components analysis and compared them among the Brazilian biomes. We further investigated which variables separated biomes using a canonical variates analysis. The Atlantic Forest and the semi-arid Caatinga have the most impacted potential corridors, whereas the Amazon and Pantanal still have the best potential corridors. Corridor quality in the Cerrado grasslands was intermediate. All variables but human population size and corridor length contributed significantly to differences in corridor variables among biomes. Our conclusions suggest that we need to plan the implementation of large scale corridors in the Amazon, Pantanal and particularly the Cerrado soon, while potential corridors might still be economically viable. In the much more impacted Atlantic Forest and Caatinga, the need for conservation actions is strongest, but logistical difficulties and costs may turn implementation of corridors unfeasible.
    Landscape Ecology 08/2014; 29(7):1213-1223. DOI:10.1007/s10980-014-0057-4 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The global population of jaguars Panthera onca has decreased significantly since the beginning of the 20th century. Given the scarcity of demographic and biological information, estimating population parameters is critical for the design of conservation measures. The jaguar’s elusive behaviour makes it impossible to estimate and monitor populations by direct observation. We propose a noninvasive genetic sampling approach and demonstrate its potential for large-scale monitoring. Sex identification was optimized for faecal samples of jaguars and other felids. We also optimized a set of 11 microsatellite markers for reliable identification of individuals. We estimated the effectiveness of faecal sample genotyping in two distinct Brazilian biomes: the Pantanal and the semi-arid Caatinga. Almost 90% of the samples that were molecularly identified as jaguar (n590) were successfully genotyped and were assigned to 30 individuals. Genetic diversity was generally high but was significantly lower in the Caatinga population. We show that non-invasive genetic sampling can be a reliable tool to study population parameters and to monitor the genetic status of jaguar populations in different habitats. It may also be useful for future surveys of jaguars that address ecological, behavioural and conservation issues, and could provide a baseline for non-invasive genetic studies of other wild felid populations.
    Oryx 07/2014; DOI:10.1017/S0030605312001640 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hybridization among animal species has recently become more recognized as an important phenomenon, especially in the context of recent radiations [1-9]. Here we show that complex hybridization has led to contrasting patterns of genomic composition among closely related species of the Neotropical cat genus Leopardus. We show strong evidence of ancient hybridization and introgression between the pampas cat (L. colocolo) and northeastern populations of tigrina (L. tigrinus), leading to remarkable cytonuclear discordance in the latter. In contrast, southern tigrina populations show recent and continuing hybridization with Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi), leading to extreme levels of interspecific admixture at their contact zone. Finally, we demonstrate that two seemingly continuous Brazilian tigrina populations show no evidence of ongoing gene flow between them, leading us to support their formal recognition as distinct species, namely L. tigrinus in the northeast and L. guttulus in the south.
    Current biology: CB 11/2013; 23(24). DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2013.10.046 · 9.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The modeling of top predators' habitats and the understanding of their environmental requirements in landscapes facing high land-use transformation pressure have long-standing importance for the development of conservation strategies. Multi-distance spatial cluster analysis and logistic regression with environmental weighting for pseudo-absence designation were applied to understand spatial patterns of jaguar occurrence in Mato Grosso state (Central Western Brazil). This location has been under intense deforestation pressure since the 1970s and is historically one of the most important jaguar habitats in the world. By using a model of five independent variables, we were able to achieve a 73.2 percent success rate of case/non-case classification and indicate not only a general loss of habitat suitability, but also an increasing interruption of potential migration corridors in the state. Our analysis on a regional scale demonstrates the importance of forest and savannah woodland for jaguar habitat maintenance in the Mato Grosso state. The jaguar species demonstrates a sensitivity to landscape fragmentation, which can be parameterized for improved model building by metrics such as edge density and patch size. Comparisons with previous studies in South America show that parameter selection for jaguar habitat modeling is highly scale-dependent and that habitat suitability in partially transformed landscapes could be maintained if fragmentation is minimized. Recent land-use transformation, however, has significantly weakened the conservation status of the Pantanal-Amazon corridor. Resumo A modelagem de habitats de predadores topo de cadeia e o entendimento de seus requerimentos ambientais em paisagens sob intensa pressão de uso da terra possuem importância crucial para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de conservação. Neste estudo, foi realizada uma análise de agrupamento de distância múltipla e regressões logísticas para entender os padrões espaciais de ocorrência da onça-pintada no estado de Mato Grosso (Oeste do Brasil Central). Essa região encontra-se sob intensa pressão de desmatamento desde os anos 70 e consiste historicamente em um dos principais habitats para a espécie no país. Utilizando um modelo de cinco variáveis independentes, foi alcançado um acerto geral de 73.2% para uma classificação binária. Os resultados obtidos não somente indicam uma perda geral da adequabilidade de habitat, mas também uma sucessiva interrupção dos potenciais corredores de migração no Mato Grosso. A espécie apresentou uma sensibilidade à fragmentação da paisagem, que pode ser parametrizada para melhorar o desempenho do modelo, por métricas da paisagem, tais como tamanho de fragmentos e densidade de bordas. Comparações com estudos prévios na America Latina mostram que a seleção de parâmetros para modelagem de habitat da onça-pintada é altamente dependente da escala projetada e que a aptidão do habitat em paisagens transformadas pode ser assegurada se a fragmentação for reduzida. As transformações recentes do uso e ocupação da terra, porém, enfraqueceram significativamente o status de conservação do corredor Pantanal-Amazônia.
    Biotropica 11/2013; 46(1). DOI:10.1111/btp.12074 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abundance and density are key pieces of information for questions related to ecology and conservation. These quantities, however, are difficult to obtain for rare and elusive species, where even intensive sampling effort can yield sparse data. Here, we combine data from camera-trapping and noninvasive genetic sampling (scat surveys) of a jaguar population in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil, where the species is threatened and little studied. We analyze data of both survey types separately and jointly in the framework of spatial capture recapture. Density estimates were 1.45 (+/- 0.46) for the camera-trap data alone, 2.03 (+/- 0.77) for the genetic data alone, and 1.57 (+/- 0.43) and 2.45 (+/- 0.70) for the two methods, respectively, in the joint analysis. Density and other parameters were estimated more precisely in the joint model. Particularly the differences in movement between males and females were estimated much more precisely when combining both data sources, especially compared to the genetic data set alone. When compared to a previous non-spatial capture recapture approach, present density estimates were more precise, demonstrating the superior statistical performance of spatial over non-spatial capture recapture models. The ability to combine different surveys into a single analysis with shared parameter allows for more precise population estimates, while at the same time enabling researchers to employ complementary survey techniques in the study of little known species.
    Biological Conservation 11/2013; 167:242-247. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2013.08.003 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the exposure of jaguar (Panthera onca) populations and domestic carnivores to selected viral infections in the Cerrado, Amazon, and Pantanal biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, we collected serum samples from 31 jaguars, 174 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and 35 domestic cats (Felis catus). Serologic analyses for antibodies to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen were conducted. The jaguars from Cerrado and Pantantal were exposed to rabies virus, while the jaguars from the Pantanal and the dogs from all three areas were exposed to CDV. Two cats from the Amazonian site were antigen-positive for FeLV, but no jaguars had FeLV antigen or FIV antibody. Canine distemper and rabies viruses should be carefully monitored and considered potential threats to these jaguar populations. Currently FIV and FeLV do not appear to represent a health threat for jaguar populations in this area. Domestic dogs and cats in these areas should be vaccinated, and the movement of domestic animals around protected areas should be restricted.
    Journal of wildlife diseases 07/2013; 49(3):510-21. DOI:10.7589/2012-02-056 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) coexist throughout the Neotropics. Using camera trapping in four Brazilian biomes, we compare the daily activity patterns of the jaguar and puma, and their relationships with their main prey species. We used a kernel density method to quantify daily activity patterns and to investigate overlap between these predators and their main prey. Both cats showed intensive nocturnal and crepuscular activity (0.69 and 0.14 kernel density, respectively, for jaguars; 0.68 and 0.19 kernel density, respectively, for pumas). Only in the Pantanal did we observe a pattern of concentrated diurnal activity for both species. We found little temporal segregation between jaguars and pumas, as they showed similar activity patterns with high coefficients of overlapping (average 1=0.86; SE=0.15). We also observed a significant overlap between the activity patterns of the predators and their main prey species, suggesting that both predators adjust their activity to reduce their foraging energy expenditure. Our findings suggest that temporal partitioning is probably not a generalized mechanism of coexistence between jaguars and pumas; instead, the partitioning of habitat/space use and food resources may play a larger role in mediating top predator coexistence. Knowledge about these behavior aspects is crucial to elucidating the factors that enable coexistence of jaguars and pumas. Furthermore, an understanding of their respective activity periods is relevant to management and associated research efforts.
    Biotropica 05/2013; 45(3). DOI:10.1111/btp.12021 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diet of the jaguar Panthera onca in the Cerrado, central Brazil, was investigated based on a sample of genetically identified jaguar scats. At least nine prey species were observed in 35 scat samples. Giant anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla contributed more than 75 % of biomass to the observed diet. Tapirs Tapirus terrestris and peccaries Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu contributed approximately 6 % to jaguar diet each, and small mammals contributed least to the jaguar diet. At 0.121, dietary niche breadth was narrower than reported in most other studies. Due to their physical characteristics and abundance, giant anteaters are likely the most profitable prey for jaguars in Emas National Park, and as an important prey, they should be included in jaguar conservation efforts.
    European Journal of Wildlife Research 03/2013; 59:445-448. DOI:10.1007/s10344-013-0708-9 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: White-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) are important seed predators and dispersers throughout the Neotropics. Because they occur in groups as large as 300 individuals, they need large areas to persist. We investigated home-range size and overlap of 13 groups using radiotelemetry data from 3 years of monitoring in the Emas National Park and surrounding farmland in central Brazil. Average home-range sizes were 1,710.64 ha for 50% of the locations and 8,659.99 ha for 95% based on minimum convex polygons and 790.38 ha for 50% of the locations and 7,986.92 ha for 95% based on the fixed kernel estimator. Home-range size did not correlate with group size, the monitoring period, or the number of locations obtained. Home ranges were larger during the wet season than the dry season. Average home-range overlap among groups was 31%; there were no significant differences in overlap between seasons. Home ranges varied seasonally, most likely in response to the dynamic landscape of crop plantations surrounding the park. Although the peccaries fared well in the heterogeneous agricultural landscape surrounding the park, conflict with farmers due to crop damage and landscape changes due to expansion of sugarcane plantations need to be addressed by conservation strategies.
    Journal of Mammalogy 02/2013; 94(1):137-145. DOI:10.2307/23488605 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hybridization among animal species has recently become more recognized as an important phenomenon, especially in the context of recent radiations [1–9]. Here we show that complex hybridization has led to contrasting patterns of genomic composition among closely related species of the Neotropical cat genus Leopardus. We show strong evidence of ancient hybridization and introgression between the pampas cat (L. colocolo) and northeastern populations of ti-grina (L. tigrinus), leading to remarkable cytonuclear discor-dance in the latter. In contrast, southern tigrina populations show recent and continuing hybridization with Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi), leading to extreme levels of interspecific admixture at their contact zone. Finally, we demonstrate that two seemingly continuous Brazilian tigrina populations show no evidence of ongoing gene flow between them, lead-ing us to support their formal recognition as distinct spe-cies, namely L. tigrinus in the northeast and L. guttulus in the south.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hybridization among animal species has recently become more recognized as an important phenomenon, especially in the context of recent radiations [1–9]. Here we show that complex hybridization has led to contrasting patterns of genomic composition among closely related species of the Neotropical cat genus Leopardus. We show strong evidence of ancient hybridization and introgression between the pampas cat (L. colocolo) and northeastern populations of ti-grina (L. tigrinus), leading to remarkable cytonuclear discor-dance in the latter. In contrast, southern tigrina populations show recent and continuing hybridization with Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi), leading to extreme levels of interspecific admixture at their contact zone. Finally, we demonstrate that two seemingly continuous Brazilian tigrina populations show no evidence of ongoing gene flow between them, lead-ing us to support their formal recognition as distinct spe-cies, namely L. tigrinus in the northeast and L. guttulus in the south.
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    ABSTRACT: Faeces provide relevant biological information which includes, with the application of genetic techniques, the sex and identity of individuals that defecated, thus providing potentially useful data on the behaviour and ecology of individuals, as well as the dynamics and structure of populations. This paper presents estimates of the sex ratio of different felid species (jaguar, Panthera onca; puma, Puma concolor; and ocelot/margay, Leopardus pardalis/Leopardus wiedi) as observed in field collected faeces, and proposes several hypotheses that could explain the strikingly high proportion of faeces from male jaguars. The proportion of male and female faeces was estimated using a non-invasive faecal sampling method in 14 study areas in Mexico and Brazil. Faecal samples were genetically analysed to identify the species, the sex and the individual (the latter only for samples identified as belonging to jaguars). Considering the three species, 72.6% of faeces (n = 493) were from males; however, there were significant differences among them, with the proportion from males being higher for jaguars than for pumas and ocelots/margays. A male-bias was consistently observed in all study areas for jaguar faeces, but not for the other species. For jaguars the trend was the same when considering the number of individuals identified (n = 68), with an average of 4.2±0.56 faeces per male and 2.0±0.36 per female. The observed faecal marking patterns might be related to the behaviour of female jaguars directed toward protecting litters from males, and in both male and female pumas, to prevent interspecific aggressions from male jaguars. The hypothesis that there are effectively more males than females in jaguar populations cannot be discarded, which could be due to the fact that females are territorial and males are not, or a tendency for males to disperse into suboptimal areas for the species.
    PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e52923. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0052923 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To test the prediction that environmental suitability derived from species distribution modelling (SDM) could be a surrogate for jaguar local population density estimates. Location: Americas. Methods: We used 1409 occurrence records of jaguars to model the distribution of the species using 11 SDM methods. We tested whether models' suitability is linearly correlated with jaguar population densities estimated from 37 different locations. We evaluated whether the relationship between density and suitability forms a constraint envelope, in which higher densities are found mainly in regions with high suitability, whereas low densities can occur in regions with variable suitability. We tested this using heteroscedasticity test and quantile regressions. Results: A positive linear relationship between suitability and jaguar density was found only for four methods [bioclimatic envelope (BIOCLIM), genetic algorithm for rule set production (GARP), maximum entropy (Maxent) and generalized boosting models (GBM)], but with weak explanatory power. BIOCLIM showed the strongest relationship. Variance of suitability for lower densities values was larger than for higher values for many of the SDM models used, but the quantile regression was significantly positive only for BIOCLIM and random forests (RF). RF and GBM provided the most accurate models when measured with the standard SDM evaluation metrics, but possess poor relationship with local density estimates. Main conclusions: Results indicate that the relationship between density and suitability could be better described as a triangular constraint envelope than by a straight positive relationship, and some of the SDM methods tested here were able to discriminate regions with high or low local population densities. Low jaguar densities can occur in areas with low or high suitability, whereas high values are restricted to areas where the suitability is greater. In high suitability areas but with low jaguar density estimates, we discuss how extrinsic factors driving abundance could act at local scales and then prevent higher densities that would be expected by the favourable regional environmental conditions.
    Diversity and Distributions 06/2012; 18(5):615-627. DOI:10.2307/23258145 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Camera trapping has become a popular tech-nique to monitor carnivore populations due to its use-fulness in estimating abundance. Nevertheless, there are a number of problems associated with study design which are motivating researchers to search for a com-promise that ensures improvement of precision while being cost-effective. We have used data from a capture– recapture study in a forested area in central Brazil to evaluate the effectiveness of using one versus two cam-eras per trapping station for determining jaguar (Pan-thera onca) density and capture rates of several other mammals. The capture rate for the jaguar and other species recorded with only one camera was lower than that with two cameras. The number of jaguars identified using photos from one camera ranged between six and seven animals, but reached ten individuals when two-camera sets were used where pictures of both flanks could be positively individualized. These differences, combined with different estimates of effective sampled area size, resulted in jaguar densities estimates ranging from 2.18 to 5.40 and 3.99 individuals/100 km 2 when one and two cameras were used per station, respectively (using the half-MMDM and Heterogeneity model). Based on our results, we recommend the use of two cameras per station for jaguar density monitoring to ensure reasonable levels of reliability and accuracy of estimates despite a small sample size.
    Ecological Research 05/2012; 27(3). DOI:10.1007/s11284-012-0938-4 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of deforestation and fragmentation upon ecologically important and poorly known groups is currently an important issue for conservation biology. Herein we describe xenathran communities across the Brazilian Cerrado and study the effects of habitat fragmentation on occupancy and activity patterns on these assemblages. Our hypothesis was that larger and specialized species would be more ecologically sensitive, and likely to exhibit shifts in their activity patterns in more deforested areas as a way of dealing with the myriad of effects involved in the fragmentation process. The study was conducted by camera trapping in ten Cerrado sites. Five species were analyzed: Priodontes maximus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Dasypus novemcintus (Order Cingulata), Tamandua tetradactyla and Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Order Pilosa). Fragmentation was quantified by landscape metrics, calculated on scales that matched the species’ home ranges. Occupancy and detection probability analyses were conducted to test for shifts in occupancy under different fragmentation conditions. A mixed-effects model analysis was conducted to test for shifts in species’ frequency of records related to time of day, controlling for spatial autocorrelation by means of eigenvector-based spatial filters for the models’ residuals. There were no changes in activity pattern between more and less fragmented areas, so that our behavioural plasticity hypothesis was not corroborated for this group. The lack of changes in the patterns could be explained by a species’ time-lag response, or by the lack of a wide enough fragmentation gradient in our study.
    Landscape Ecology 02/2012; 28(2). DOI:10.1007/s10980-012-9832-2 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coexistence of sympatric species is mediated by resource partitioning. Pumas occur sympatrically with jaguars throughout most of the jaguar's range but few studies have investigated space partitioning between both species. Here, camera trapping and occupancy models accounting for imperfect detection were employed in a Bayesian framework to investigate space partitioning between the jaguar and puma in Emas National Park (ENP), central Brazil. Jaguars were estimated to occupy 54.1% and pumas 39.3% of the sample sites. Jaguar occupancy was negatively correlated with distance to water and positively correlated with the amount of dense habitat surrounding the camera trap. Puma occupancy only showed a weak negative correlation with distance to water and with jaguar presence. Both species were less often present at the same site than expected under independent distributions. Jaguars had a significantly higher detection probability at cameras on roads than at off-road locations. For pumas, detection was similar on and off-road. Results indicate that both differences in habitat use and active avoidance shape space partitioning between jaguars and pumas in ENP. Considering its size, the jaguar is likely the competitively dominant of the two species. Owing to its habitat preferences, suitable jaguar habitat outside the park is probably sparse. Consequently, the jaguar population is likely largely confined to the park, while the puma population is known to extend into ENP's surroundings.
    Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 01/2012; 77:41-46. DOI:10.1016/j.mambio.2011.06.011 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing that a multi-faceted approach is required to protect these species.
    PLoS ONE 12/2011; 6(12):e28939. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0028939 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

579 Citations
102.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2015
    • Jaguar Conservation Fund (JCF)
      Mineiros, Goiás, Brazil
    • Universidade Estadual de Goiás
      Morrinhos, Goiás, Brazil
  • 2014
    • University of São Paulo
      • Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health (VPS)
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2008–2010
    • CEP America
      Emeryville, California, United States
  • 1999
    • Universidade Federal de Goiás
      Goianá, Goiás, Brazil