C. Adamo

National Research Council, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (25)1.82 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to analize the spatial frequency of lightning over Italy and to interpret the observed features in relationship with topography and with the climatic characteristics of the area. The data used to perform this analysis are : i) cloud to ground measurem ents (CG) from 1995 to 2000 given by CESI/SIRF (Sistem a Italiano Rilevamento Fulmini); ii) total flash measurements from 1995 to 2000 obtained trough the OTD system (Optical Transient Detector) given by NASA; iii) topography measurements obtained trough the ETOPO -2 database downloaded from NOAA. Both the yearly number of positive and negative CG lightning decrease with the increasing of topographic height. The number of positive and negative CG lightning decreases with the same derivative even if it seems that only below 1000 m it is possible to reach ratios between positive over negative CG lightning higher than 1. These values are observed only in the North African area present in the ranges of our analysis , that is from longitude 5 to 11 °E and from latitude 36 to 37 °N. Future studies will confirm if this is a real effect or an observational bias. The behavior of total lightning activity (IC and CG) in relationship with CG lightning activity and with topography is studied by means of OTD data. Being OTD data retrieved trough satellites, the analysis is done making us e of the flash rate per squared kilometer and per year instead of the number of lightning. Flash rate is computed using data on a re solution of 0.5°x0.5° and keping into account the changes in the surface due to the changes in latitude and longitude. This work confirms the observation (made even by other authors) that CG lightning frequency decreases as topographic height increases. A similar trend is found in total lightning flash rate, which is essentially due to the contribution of IC lightning. These observations are explained assuming that thunderstorm activity decreases with the increasing of topographic height, mainly because of the climatic decrease of temperature and moisture with altitude. The low resolution of the data used in this study can not exclude the existence of other effects acting on a smaller scale. One of these effects is the observed discrepancy between the maxima in the total yearly flash rate and cloud to ground flash rate. At the end, the observed flash rates are used to supply an estimate of the NOX lightning production in the study area.
    09/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: In a related presentation in this Session (Casella et al.), we describe the main design features of the Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database (CDRD) approach to precipitation retrieval from passive-microwave (MW) satellite measurements, and then illustrate the microphysical-radiative characteristics of a new CDRD database for the European area. In this presentation, we will discuss how lightning measurements from ground-based networks and cloud microphysics/electrification information from the one-dimensional Explicit Microphysics Thunderstorm Model (EMTM) can be used within the CDRD approach to constrain the Bayesian precipitation retrieval. Then, we will present the results of the application of this retrieval approach to a series of heavy-precipitation case studies over the Italian peninsula, that have been considered within the European FLASH project.
    01/2009;
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    Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology - J APPL METEOROL CLIMATOL. 01/2008; 47(2):525-543.
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    ABSTRACT: The joint use of concurrent data from the Precipitation Radar (PR) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) instruments, on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, provides a unique means to investigate storm characteristics and to make assessments about the relationship between convection and electrification. We discuss some results derived from the observation of the vertical structure of precipitating clouds in the southern Mediterranean during a 5-month period. In this study, we find there is a strong, differentiable relationship between convective and stratiform systems that produce lightning.
    12/2006: pages 127-134;
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    01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is the individuation of convective cells over the Italian peninsula with the conjunction use of geostationary satellite data (METEOSAT, MSG satellite) in the IR and WV channels and lightning data. We will use GCD (Global Convective Diagnostic) algorithm developed at Aviation Weather Centre (AWC) of NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). This algorithm is based on the idea that a deep convective cloud will not have any significant moisture above it. This technique works quite well at identifying active deep convection and can be applied to all the world's geostationary satellites. However it does not always agree with lightning sensors. Low topped convection with lightning will be missed. We will extend the capabilities of GCD using lightning data. The new product will be validate over different cases in the central Italy using the C-band polarimetric radar of ISAC-CNR (Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-of the Italian National Research Council) Rome.
    Advances in Geosciences 01/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: Mesoscale cloud resolving models (CRM&apos;s) are often utilized to generate consistent descriptions of the microphysical structure of precipitating clouds, which are then used by physically-based algorithms for retrieving precipitation from satellite-borne microwave radiometers. However, in principle, the simulated upwelling brightness temperatures (T<sub>B</sub>&apos;s) and derived precipitation retrievals generated by means of different CRM&apos;s with different microphysical assumptions, may be significantly different even when the models simulate well the storm dynamical and rainfall characteristics. In this paper, we investigate this issue for two well-known models having different treatment of the bulk microphysics, i.e. the UW-NMS and the MM5. To this end, the models are used to simulate the same 24-26 November 2002 flood-producing storm over northern Italy. The model outputs that best reproduce the structure of the storm, as it was observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) onboard the EOS-Aqua satellite, have been used in order to compute the upwelling T<sub>B</sub>&apos;s. Then, these T<sub>B</sub>&apos;s have been utilized for retrieving the precipitation fields from the AMSR observations. Finally, these results are compared in order to provide an indication of the CRM-effect on precipitation retrieval.
    Advances in Geosciences 01/2005;
  • International Journal of Modelling and Simulation. 01/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: The key objective of the project "Use of the MSG SEVIRI channels in a combined SSM/I, TRMM and geostationary IR method for rapid updates of rainfall" is the development of algorithms for rapid-update of satellite rainfall estimations at the geostationary (GEO) scale. The new channels available with the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) radiometer in the visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum provide new insights into the microphysical and dynamic structure of precipitating clouds thus allowing for a more precise identification of precipitation intensities. Passive microwave (PMW) radiometers on board low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are used to determine information on the vertical cloud structure. Key features of the new method(s) are: 1.Microphysical characterization of precipitating clouds with VIS/IR sensors; 2.Creation of cloud microphysical and radiative databases from cloud model outputs and aircraft penetrations; 3.Tuning of PMW algorithms for different cloud systems (maritime, continental, convective, stratiform,...); 4.Combination of data from different algorithms and application to a rapid update cycle at the GEO scale. The project provided the background for EURAINSAT "European Satellite Rainfall Estimation and Monitoring at the Geostationary Scale", a research project co-funded by the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development Programme of the European Commission within the topic "Development of generic Earth observation technologies". The project web site is accessible at http://www.isac.cnr.it/~eurainsat/. Moreover, it has represented the European framework for the launch of the International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG). A brief account of the major research and organizational results will be given in the following.
    10/2004; 582:113.
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    2nd MSG-RAO Meeting, Salzburg; 01/2004
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    ABSTRACT: We present a key study on the Po Valley. This is one of the areas of high occurrence of hail damage together with southern France, Switzerland, southern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Caucasus region. Due to its particular geographical situation, surrounded on three sides by high mountains, the Po Valley is an area with high humidity and rather light winds at lower atmospheric levels, which provides favorable conditions for the formation of line storms and Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS). According to the static stability criteria, the lower troposphere in the Po Valley is, on average, markedly unstable during summertime afternoon and evening hours. However, dynamical forcing, induced by synoptic or mesoscale disturbances, plays an even more important role than purely thermodynamic causes in the triggering and maintenance of thunderstorm activity in northern Italy. The night-time hailstorm of Sunday, 4 August 2002, is a good example of a synoptic disturbance combined with the polar jet stream triggering the formation of deep convective storms in northern Italy. We used the 1.5 D Thunderstorm Model Tenebrous, developed at University of Washington, to simulate the convective part of the storm and to infer microphysical cloud properties, together with the mesoscale model MM5 to represent the development of the system. Microphysics of strongly convective clouds are, for several reasons, the most difficult to reproduce in simulations and to observe directly. In such a context, lightning flash rate (from ground based lightning sensors) and cloud reflectivity (from C Band ground radar) represent means to probe the modeling results.
    04/2003;
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    ABSTRACT: Lightning flash rate can identify areas of convective rainfall when the storms are dominated by ice-phase precipitation. Modeling and observational studies indicate that cloud electrification and microphysics are very closely related and it is of great interest to understand the relationship between lightning and cloud microphysical quantities. Analyzing data from the Lightning Image Sensor (LIS) and the Precipitation Radar (PR), we show a quantitative relationship between microphysical characteristics of thunderclouds and lightning flash rate. We have performed a complete analysis of all data available over the Mediterranean during the TRMM mission and show a range of reflective profiles as a function of lightning activity for both convective and stratiform regimes as well as seasonal variations. Due to the increasing global coverage of lightning detection networks, this kind of study can used to extend the knowledge about thunderstorms and discriminate between different regimes in regions where radar measurements are readilly available.
    02/2003;
  • Proceedings of the 5th EGS Plinius Conference on Mediterranean Storms, Ajaccio, Corsica, France. 01/2003;
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    ABSTRACT: A major flood event occurred in northern Africa (Algeria) at the beginning of Novem- ber 2001. After several months of drought, torrential rain, over 100 mm of rain fell in 6 hour, and strong winds of up to 200 km/h caused huge mudslides and floods on Sat- urday 10 November in the capital Algiers and other villages, particularly in the coastal zones, causing more than 700 deaths according to official reports. The aim of the pa- per is to show the evolution of this event as seen from a satellite point of view, and to compare it with the simulation of the event performed with the non-hydrostatical UW model developed at the University of Wisconsin (Tripoli, 1992). In such perspective we will discuss results obtained combining measurements acquired by different sen- sors to better exploit the potential of each technique. The principal satellite observing the event was the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) carry on board the sensors: PR (Precipitation Radar), TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) and LIS (Light- ning Image Sensor). Also, the measurements acquired by the SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites are available. In this way the retrieved precipitation from radar and mi- crowave sensors can be related to the lightning occurrences and the microphysical cloud content.
    01/2002;
  • Robert Solomon, Claudia Adamo, Marcia Baker
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    ABSTRACT: The use of numerical models has greatly increased our understanding of the electrical and microphysical process within electrified clouds. We use the University of Washington, 1.5-dimensional thunderstorm model to examine the effects of including a runaway electron based lightning initiation mechanism. We find that this mechanism can significantly alter the electrification history of modeled storms and produce vertical electric field profiles that are very similar to those of observed storms. To cite this article: R. Solomon et al., C. R. Physique 3 (2002) 1325–1333.
    Comptes Rendus Physique 01/2002; 3(10):1325-1333. · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Proceeding of 17th International Lightning Detection Conference. 01/2002;
  • Mediterranean Storms 2000. 01/2002;
  • Proc SPIE 01/2001;
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    ABSTRACT: Satellite-borne microwave radiometers — such as the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imagers (SSM/I's) flown aboard polar satellites of the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), and the TRAM Microwave Imager (TMI) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) space observatory — provide precipitation measurements over regions that are not covered by ground based radars and/or gauge networks. At present, however, intetpretation of such measurements in terms of surface rainfall is only indirect for it requires a priori information on the relationships between upwelling microwave brightness temperatures and the cloud microphysical structure. This paper shows how water content profiles, estimated by ground or satellite radars within their field of view, can be used to improve the cloud-radiation databases utilized by physically-based passive microwave precipitation retrieval techniques making use of cloud model simulations to interpret the radiometric measurements. Applications of this technique to heavy-precipitation events observed during the Mesoscale Alpine Programme will be presented and discussed.
    Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part B Hydrology Oceans and Atmosphere 01/2000; 25:877-882.
  • Proc. 2000 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Data Users’ Conf. 01/2000;