[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed the potential role of leptin administration in the protection and intervention against glucocorticoid-induced secondary osteoporosis in female rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose five groups of female Sprague Dawley rats were classified into: (1) negative control group in which the healthy rats received saline as vehicle, (2) a group orally administered with prednisolone (5 mg kg b.wt.-1) daily for six months (osteoporotic group), (3) a group subcutaneously administered with leptin (400 microg kg b.wt.-1) three times weekly for six months (positive control), (4) a group orally administered with prednisolone daily with simultaneous subcutaneous administration of leptin three times weekly for six months (protective group), and (5) a group orally administered with prednisolone daily for six months then subcutaneously administered with leptin three times weekly for other six months (therapeutic group). RESULTS: The obtained data revealed that prednisolone administration resulted in significant decrease in serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) level accompanied with significant increase in serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and beta2-microglobulin levels in comparison with the negative control group. Moreover, prednisolone significantly decreased bone mineral density and content of different areas of the right femur bones as compared to the negative control group. Furthermore, administration of leptin with/after stopping prednisolone administration resulted in a marked modulation in the majority of bone biomarkers as well as improvement in bone mineral density and content. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin provided promising effect on bone through its direct action on bone and matrix mineralization.
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 10/2012; 16(10):1446-1452. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory role of fennel, carob, doum and mixture of them in improving the renal dysfunction induced in rats by the cyclosporine.
Sixty female albino rats were divided into six groups: healthy control rats, cyclosporine injected rats (positive control), other groups were injected by cyclosporine for 7 days and then diet was supplemented with either fennel, doum, carob or mixture of them. After 45 days of supplementation, rats were scarified. Serum and urinary samples were obtained for different biochemical analysis.
The analysis included the determination of creatinine levels in serum and urinary samples, serum ammonia, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), urinary N-acetyl-beta D-glucosaminidase (NAG), beta2 microglobulin as well as calculating the creatinine clearance. Also, an histopathological examination for the kidney tissue was performed.
The present study showed that cyclosporine induced the nephrotoxicity as appeared by elevation of serum and urinary levels of creatinine, urinary level of beta2 microglobulin, serum levels of ammonia, TGF-beta1 and TNF-alpha and the NAG level while decreased the creatinine clearance. Addition of fennel, carob, doum or mixture of them significantly improved the kidney functions. Moreover, anti-inflammatory status of animals injected with cyclosporine and supplemented with fennel, carob, doum and mixture of them, showed a significant amelioration in the kidney functions as compared to animals injected with the cyclosporine only. Histopathological investigation of kidney tissue of rat treated with the cyclosporine showed a moderate degree of renal damages. While, groups fed on fennel, carob, doum or mixture of them showed a great improvement in the kidney morphological structure.
Diet supplementation with fennel, carob, doum have a promising anti-inflammatory influence on attenuating the complications associated with the renal dysfunction.
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 04/2012; 16(4):455-61. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Very little is known about the causes of AD, except that its end stages involve extensive neuronal loss and the appearance of distinctive neuropathological features. This study was under taken to investigate the role of α-chymotrypcin (α-ch) in management of AD-induced in ovariectomized rats. DESIGN: Sixty female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups n=15, (1) normal control group (con), (2) group underwent surgery to remove ovaries (ovx control group), (3) ovx group received aluminum chloride in a dose of 17mg/kg daily for 2 months to induce AD (AD group), (4) AD group treated with α-chymotrypcin (α-ch) at dose (8.1unit/rat/day) which is equivalent to the recommended human dose (α-ch-treated group) for three months. At the end of the experimental period, rats were sacrificed; brain samples were obtained for different biochemical analyses and histopathological examination. The biochemical analyses included determination of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), IL-18, monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 MCP-1, FAS, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2). RESULTS: In comparison with normal control group, the ovx control group recorded significant increase in the brain levels of TNF-α, IL-18, MCP-1 and FAS. On the other hand, the brain level of Bcl2 was significantly decreased. Also, AD group showed a significant increase in TNF-α, IL-18, MCP-1 and FAS levels in brain tissue. In contrast, significant decrease in brain Bcl2 level was detected in AD group as compared to the ovx control group. However, the treatment of AD group with α-chymotrypcin caused an improvement in the most studied biochemical parameters as indicated by decreased brain levels of TNF-α, IL-18, MCP-1 and FAS accompanied with significant increase in the level of Bcl2 compared to AD group. Histopathological investigation of brain tissue of ovx rats administered with aluminum (AD group) showed AD plaques. While, AD group treated with α-chymotrypcin showed great improvement in the brain morphological structure with the disappearance of amyloid plaques. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that α-chymotrypcin significantly ameliorates the neuroinflammation characterizing Alzheimer's disease in ovariectomized rats due to it's proteolytic activity as well as it's anti-inflammatory effect.
Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 03/2012; · 1.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of melatonin (MEL) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) against dexamethasone (DM)-induced neurotoxicity. Adult female rats (60) were divided into: (1) control group, (2) DM-treated group, (3) MEL-treated group, (4) ALC-treated group, (5) MEL- and DM-treated, and (6) ALC- and DM-treated group. Serum acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) level, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were estimated. Gene expression of the prooxidants (NO synthases NOS-1, NOS-2 and heme oxygenases HO-1, HO-2) and antioxidant enzyme (GST-P1) as well as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation analysis of brain tissue were investigated. Histological examination of the brain tissue was carried out. DM administration caused significant increase in serum AchE activity, MDA and NO levels accompanied with significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes activity. Pretreatment with MEL or ALC prior DM has been found to reverse all the former parameters. On the genetic level, DM administration significantly increased the expression level of NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1, and HO-2 messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) and decreased that GST-P1-mRNA in brain tissue. Also, DM produced DNA fragmentation in brain tissue. Treatment with MEL or ALC prior DM administration tend to normalize the above mentioned parameters. These results were documented by the histological examination of brain tissue. The present study suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of DM-induced neurotoxicity. The inhibition of oxidative stress via stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes by MEL and ALC pretreatment plays a central protective role in modulation of neurotoxicity induced by DM.
Journal of physiology and biochemistry 03/2012; 68(1):77-90. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cisplatin (CP), a broadly used anticancer drug, is widely known to induce acute renal failure as a result of renal tubular injury.
In this study, the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or taurine (TAU) for protection against CP-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated.
A single dose of CP 1 mg/kg b.wt. for 4 days was given IP to the rats, 10 days rest, and then the dose was repeated for other 4 days. After CP administration, NAC or TAU was given IP in a dose of 50 mg/kg b.wt. 3 times weekly for 8 weeks.
CP-induced nephrotoxicity is reflected in high values of blood urea and creatinine levels. In addition, the significant increase in the β(2)-MG and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase enzymes exhibited a strong correlation with histology scores of overall proximal tubule damage as compared with the normal control values. Treatment with TAU or NAC after CP administration significantly ameliorated CP-induced nephritic oxidation stress markers as compared with CP-treated group. On the other hand, treatment with TAU or NAC after CP administration significantly ameliorated CP-induced nephritic inflammation with possible attenuation of renal injury.
These data suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of CP-induced acute renal failure. The inhibition in oxidative stress and the elevation of the total antioxidant capacity as well as the inhibition of the inflammatory biomarkers by NAC or TAU after CP administration may play a central role in modulation of nephrotoxicity induced by CP.
NAC and TAU have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory against CP-induced nephrotoxicity.
Toxicology mechanisms and methods 04/2011; 21(7):538-46. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to evaluate the potential role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the protection and intervention of glucocorticoid-induced secondary osteoporosis in female rats. For this purpose this study was conducted on five groups of female Sprague Dawley rats which were classified into: (1) negative control group received saline as vehicle, (2) osteoporotic group orally administered with prednisolone (5 mg/kg b.wt.) daily for six months, (3) positive control group orally administered with DHEA (250 mg/kg b.wt.) three times weekly for six months, (4) protective group orally administered with prednisolone daily with simultaneous oral administration of DHEA three times weekly for six months and (5) therapeutic group orally administered with prednisolone daily for six months then orally administered with DHEA three times weekly for other six months. The obtained data revealed that prednisolone administration resulted in significant decrease in serum osteocalcin (OC), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-(OH)(2) D(3)) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels accompanied with significant increase in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) levels. Histopathological investigation of left femur bone showed that prednisolone administration produced compression of the reduced articular surface and atrophy of the epiphyseal bone. On the other hand, DHEA supplementation to osteoporotic rats increased serum OC, 1,25-(OH)(2) D(3) and OPG levels while decreased serum PTH and RANKL levels. Moreover, DHEA administration resulted in restoration of intact epiphyseal bony structure and articular surface. In conclusion, DHEA via its control on glucocorticoid activity and androgenic action provided potent effect on bone.
Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 02/2011; 64(6):659-64. · 1.43 Impact Factor