Thomas P Warelow

The Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (7)27.17 Total impact

  • 4th International Conference on Bio-Sensing Technology, Lisbon, Portugal; 05/2015
  • Applied and Environmental Microbiology 05/2015; 81(9):3278. DOI:10.1128/AEM.00734-15 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids and considered priority environmental pollutants by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Significant advances have been made in understanding microbe-arsenic interactions and how they influence arsenic redox speciation in the environment. However, even the most basic features of how and why a microorganism detects and reacts to antimony remain poorly understood. Previous work with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain 5A concluded that oxidation of antimonite [Sb(III)] and arsenite [As(III)] required different biochemical pathways. Herein, we show with in vivo experiments that a mutation in aioA (encodes the large subunit of As(III) oxidase) reduces the ability to oxidize Sb(III) by approximately one-third relative to wild-type. Further, in vitro studies with the purified As(III) oxidase from Rhizobium sp. str. NT-26 (AioA shares 94 % amino acid sequence identity with that of A. tumefaciens) provide direct evidence of Sb(III) oxidation, but also show a significantly decreased Vmax when compared to As(III) oxidation. The aioBA genes encoding As(III) oxidase are induced by As(III) but not by Sb(III), whereas arsR gene expression is induced by both As(III) and Sb(III), suggesting that detection and transcriptional responses for As(III) and Sb(III) differ. While Sb(III) and As(III) are similar with respect to cellular extrusion (ArsB or Acr3) and interaction with ArsR, they differ in the regulatory mechanisms that control the expression of genes encoding the different Ars or Aio activities. Summarizing, this study documents an enzymatic basis for microbial Sb(III) oxidation, although additional Sb(III) oxidation activity is also apparent in this bacterium. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 01/2015; 81(6):AEM.02981-14. DOI:10.1128/AEM.02981-14 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The arsenite oxidase (Aio) from the facultative autotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Rhizobium sp. NT-26 is a bioenergetic enzyme involved in the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. The enzyme from the distantly related heterotroph, Alcaligenes faecalis, which is thought to oxidise arsenite for detoxification, consists of a large α subunit (AioA) with bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide at its active site and a 3Fe-4S cluster, and a small β subunit (AioB) which contains a Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster. The successful heterologous expression of the NT-26 Aio in Escherichia coli has resulted in the solution of its crystal structure. The NT-26 Aio, a heterotetramer, shares high overall similarity to the heterodimeric arsenite oxidase from A. faecalis but there are striking differences in the structure surrounding the Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster which we demonstrate explains the difference in the observed redox potentials (+225 mV vs. +130/160 mV, respectively). A combination of site-directed mutagenesis and electron paramagnetic resonance was used to explore the differences observed in the structure and redox properties of the Rieske cluster. In the NT-26 AioB the substitution of a serine (S126 in NT-26) for a threonine as in the A. faecalis AioB explains a -20 mV decrease in redox potential. The disulphide bridge in the A. faecalis AioB which is conserved in other betaproteobacterial AioB subunits and the Rieske subunit of the cytochrome bc 1 complex is absent in the NT-26 AioB subunit. The introduction of a disulphide bridge had no effect on Aio activity or protein stability but resulted in a decrease in the redox potential of the cluster. These results are in conflict with previous data on the betaproteobacterial AioB subunit and the Rieske of the bc 1 complex where removal of the disulphide bridge had no effect on the redox potential of the former but a decrease in cluster stability was observed in the latter.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72535. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072535 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics 10/2012; 1817:S148-S149. DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.06.391 · 4.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of native arsenite oxidases from Ralstonia sp. S22 and Rhizobium sp. NT-26 raised two major questions. The first one concerns the mode of the enzyme's membrane-association. It has been suggested that a hypothetical not conserved protein could account for this variable association. Expression of the wild type arsenite oxidase in Escherichia coli allowed us to study the cellular localization of this enzyme in the absence of such a hypothetical partner. The results with the Ralstonia sp. S22 enzyme suggest that no additional protein is required for membrane association. The second question addresses the influence of the disulfide bridge in the small Rieske subunit, conspicuously absent in the Rhizobium sp. NT-26 enzyme, on the properties of the [2Fe-2S] center. The disulfide bridge is considered to be formed only after translocation of the enzyme to the periplasm. To address this question we thus first expressed the enzyme in the absence of its Twin-arginine translocation signal sequence. The spectral and redox properties of the cytoplasmic enzyme are unchanged compared to the periplasmic one. We finally studied a disulfide bridge mutant, Cys106Ala, devoid of the first Cys involved in the disulfide bridge formation. This mutation, proposed to have a strong effect on redox and catalytic properties of the Rieske protein in Rieske/cytb complexes, had no significant effect on properties of the Rieske protein from arsenite oxidase. Our present results demonstrate that the effects attributed to the disulfide bridge in the Rieske/cytb complexes are likely to be secondary effects due to conformational changes.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2012; 1817(9):1701-8. DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.06.001 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The arsenic (As) drinking water crisis in south and south-east Asia has stimulated intense study of the microbial processes controlling the redox cycling of As in soil-water systems. Microbial oxidation of arsenite is a critical link in the global As cycle, and phylogenetically diverse arsenite-oxidizing microorganisms have been isolated from various aquatic and soil environments. However, despite progress characterizing the metabolism of As in various pure cultures, no functional gene approaches have been developed to determine the importance and distribution of arsenite-oxidizing genes in soil-water-sediment systems. Here we report for the first time the successful amplification of arsenite oxidase-like genes (aroA/asoA/aoxB) from a variety of soil-sediment and geothermal environments where arsenite is known to be oxidized. Prior to the current work, only 16 aroA/asoA/aoxB-like gene sequences were available in GenBank, most of these being putative assignments from homology searches of whole genomes. Although aroA/asoA/aoxB gene sequences are not highly conserved across disparate phyla, degenerate primers were used successfully to characterize over 160 diverse aroA-like sequences from 10 geographically isolated, arsenic-contaminated sites and from 13 arsenite-oxidizing organisms. The primer sets were also useful for confirming the expression of aroA-like genes in an arsenite-oxidizing organism and in geothermal environments where arsenite is oxidized to arsenate. The phylogenetic and ecological diversity of aroA-like sequences obtained from this study suggests that genes for aerobic arsenite oxidation are widely distributed in the bacterial domain, are widespread in soil-water systems containing As, and play a critical role in the biogeochemical cycling of As.
    Environmental Microbiology 05/2007; 9(4):934-43. DOI:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2006.01215.x · 6.24 Impact Factor