Publications (250)792.05 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: The rprocess is known to be responsible for the synthesis of about half of the elements heavier than iron, nevertheless its astrophysical site has not yet been clearly ascertained, but observations indicate that at least two possible sites should contribute to the solar system abundance of rprocess elements. The rprocess being responsible for the production of elements heavier than Z = 56 operates rather robustly always resulting in a similar relative abundance pattern. From the nuclearphysics point of view the rprocess requires the knowledge of a large number of reaction rates involving exotic nuclei that are not accessible by experiment and data have to be provided by theoretical predictions. We have developed for the first time a complete database of reaction rates that in addition to neutroncapture rates and βdecay halflives includes the dominant reactions that can induce fission (neutroncapture, βdecay and spontaneous fission) and the corresponding fission yields. In addition, we have implemented these reaction rates in a fully implicit reaction network. The influence of the nuclear physics input constituted in the reaction rates based on the two mass models FRDM and ETFSI and on the astrophysical conditions simulating a cold or hot environment are examined.Journal of Physics Conference Series 02/2010; 202(1):012008. DOI:10.1088/17426596/202/1/012008  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The most promising astrophysical sources of kHz gravitational waves (GWs) are the inspiral and merger of binary neutron star(NS)/black hole systems. Maximizing the scientific return of a GW detection will require identifying a coincident electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. One of the most likely sources of isotropic EM emission from compact object mergers is a supernovalike transient powered by the radioactive decay of heavy elements synthesized in ejecta from the merger. We present the first calculations of the optical transients from compact object mergers that selfconsistently determine the radioactive heating by means of a nuclear reaction network; using this heating rate, we model the light curve with a one dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer calculation. For an ejecta mass ~1e2 M_sun[1e3 M_sun] the resulting light curve peaks on a timescale ~ 1 day at a Vband luminosity nu L_nu ~ 3e41[1e41] ergs/s (M_V = 15[14]); this corresponds to an effective "f" parameter ~3e6 in the LiPaczynski toy model. We argue that these results are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the relevant nuclear physics and to the precise earlytime dynamics and ejecta composition. Due to the rapid evolution and low luminosity of NS merger transients, EM counterpart searches triggered by GW detections will require close collaboration between the GW and astronomical communities. NS merger transients may also be detectable following a shortduration GammaRay Burst or "blindly" with present or upcoming optical transient surveys. Because the emission produced by NS merger ejecta is powered by the formation of rare rprocess elements, current optical transient surveys can directly constrain the unknown origin of the heaviest elements in the Universe. Comment: 14 pages, 7 figures; accepted to MNRAS; title changed to highlight rprocess connection and new figure added.Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2010; DOI:10.1111/j.13652966.2010.16864.x · 5.23 Impact Factor 
Article: Scales in the fine structure of the magnetic dipole resonance: A wavelet approach to the shell model
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ABSTRACT: Wavelet analysis is applied as a tool for the examination of magnetic dipole (M1) strength distributions in pfshell nuclei by the extraction of wavelet scales. Results from the analysis of theoretical M1 strength distributions calculated with the KB3G interaction are compared to experimental data from (e,e') experiments and good agreement of the deduced wavelet scales is observed. This provides further insight into the nature of the scales from the model results. The influence of the number of Lanczos iterations on the development and stability of scales and the role of the model space in terms of the truncation level are studied. Moreover, differences in the scales of spin and orbital parts of the M1 strength are investigated, as is the use of different effective interactions (KB3G, GXPF1, and FPD6).Physical Review C 01/2010; 81(1). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.81.014308 · 3.88 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We study proton rich nucleosynthesis in windlike outflows from gammaray bursts accretion disks with the aim to determine if such outflows are a site of the vpprocess. The efficacy of this vpprocess depends on thermodynamic and hydrodynamic factors. We discuss the importance of the entropy of the material, the outflow rate, the initial ejection point and accretion rate of the disk. In some cases the vpprocess pushes the nucleosynthesis out to A~100 and produces light pnuclei. However, even when these nuclei are not produced, neutrino induced interactions can significantly alter the abundance pattern and cannot be neglected. Comment: 9 pages, 16 figures, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. CPhysical Review C 01/2010; 81(2). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.81.025802 · 3.88 Impact Factor  Nuclear Physics A 01/2010; · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One of the most important discoveries made with Swift is that long and shortduration gammaray bursts (GRBs) originate from distinct stellar progenitors. While long GRBs track ongoing star formation and result from the deaths of massive stars, short GRBs have been localized to both early and latetype galaxies, suggesting a more evolved progenitor population. Although the origin of short GRBs remains a mystery, the most popular and wellstudied model is accretion following the merger of neutron star binaries. This model is qualitatively consistent with both the demographics of short GRBs and the lack of a bright associated supernova in some cases. Despite these successes, this picture has grown complex with the discovery that short GRBs are often followed by a "tail" of emission (usually soft Xrays) lasting 100 seconds after the burst. Such energetic, latetime emission from the central engine is difficult to explain in standard merger pictures. One proposed explanation is latetime "fallback" onto the black hole of material that was ejected during the merger into highly eccentric, marginallybound orbits. As this matter decompresses from nuclear densities, however, it undergoes rapidneutron capture (rprocess) nucleosynthesis, which can release energy comparable to the orbital binding energy. This implies that the rprocess (normally thought unimportant dynamically in astrophysical contexts) has important implications for the quantity and timedependence of fallback and, ultimately, the source of flaring and identity of the central engine. 



Conference Paper: Highresolution study of [sup 37]Cl→[sup 37]Ar GamowTeller transition via [sup 37]Cl([sup 3]He, t)[sup 37]Ar reaction
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ABSTRACT: We performed a 37 Cl ( 3 He , t) 37 Ar experiment at E = 140 MeV / nucleon and 0° with a resolution of 30 keV. The Gamow‐Teller (GT) strength distribution was obtained up to the excitation energy (E x ) of 14.2 MeV in 37 Ar . Under the assumption of isospin symmetry, the GT strengths in the 37 Cl → 37 Ar and 37 Ca → 37 K transitions are analogous. The obtained strength distribution was compared with the mirror 37 Ca β decay up to E x = 8.6 MeV . The overall shapes of the distributions were similar, but the details were not necessary the same. In order to understand those differences, the experimental distribution was compared with the shell model (SM) calculation using the USD interaction. The SM calculation suggests that differences at lower energies can be caused by a large tensor contribution in the charge‐exchange reaction. On the other hand, the differences seen at higher energies are due to the breaking of the mirror symmetry. The neutrino cross section for the 8 B solar neutrino source was calculated using the obtained data.THE 10TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ORIGIN OF MATTER AND EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES: OMEG—2010; 01/2010  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The organization of Tables 36 with calculated rates for 24 different values of T9 is extremely simple  all data are in 8 columns. The columns give, in this order, the target element, the atomic mass number A of the target, the temperature in T9, partition function of the target, neutroninduced fission rate for the ground state, neutroninduced fission rate with thermally populated target states, neutron capture rate for the ground state, neutron capture rate with thermally populated target states. The rates in Tables 36 were calculated on the basis of different mass and fission barrier predictions: ETFSI, TF and FRDM(masses)+TF(barriers), respectively (see main text of the paper for details). The fitting coefficients for the (n,g), (g,n), and neutroninduced fission rates (n,f) with different mass and fissionbarrier predictions are placed in the Tables 718 (see example on how to use them in Appendix A of the main paper). The columns in Tables 718 are organized as follows: target element, atomic mass number A of the target, target charge number Z, the number of fitting curves i_{fit}, seven coefficients of the forward reaction a_i, and the mean square error for direct reactions. A value i{fit}=0 means that there is only one sevenparameter set to fit the rate. Values i_{fit}>1 give the number of parameter sets which have to be added up to yield the final rate, i.e. the rate r is calculated as r={sum.on.i}ri, with each ri computed from the ith parameter set and using Eq. ri=exp(a0+a1/T9+a2/T91/3+a3*T91/3+a4*T9+a5*T95/3^+a6*ln(T9)) (4). (16 data files).  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Large scale shellmodel calculations with an effective interaction derived from the realistic Gmatrices were performed for N=80 isotones for which socalled mixedsymmetry states were recently observed experimentally. Calculated spectra are shown to be in good agreement with data. The calculated transition rates reveal the necessity of modifying the strength of the pairing interaction. The structure of mixedsymmetry 2+ states is analyzed in terms of seniority components and by decomposition into the Qphonon scheme.Physical Review C 11/2009; 80(5). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.80.054311 · 3.88 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neutroninduced reaction rates, including fission, are calculated in the temperature range 1.d8 <T (K) < 1.d10 within the framework of the statistical model for targets with atomic number 83 < Z < 119 (from Po to Uuo) from the neutron to the proton dripline. Four sets of rates have been calculated, utilizing  where possible  consistent nuclear data for neutron separation energies and fission barriers from ThomasFermi (TF), Extended ThomasFermi plus Strutinsky Integral (ETFSI), FiniteRange Droplet Model (FRDM) and HartreeFockBogolyubov (HFB) predictions. Tables of calculated values as well as analytic seven parameter fits in the standard REACLIB format are supplied. We also discuss the sensitivity of the rates to the input, aiming at a better understanding of the uncertainties introduced by the nuclear input.Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2009; 513(00046361). DOI:10.1051/00046361/200911967 · 4.48 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We propose a new method to calculate stellar weakinteraction rates. It is based on the ThermoFieldDynamics formalism and allows the calculation of the weakinteraction response of nuclei at finite temperatures. The thermal evolution of the GT$_+$ distributions is presented for the sample nuclei $^{54, 56}$Fe and ~$^{76,78,80}$Ge. For Ge we also calculate the strength distribution of firstforbidden transitions. We show that thermal effects shift the GT$_+$ centroid to lower excitation energies and make possible negative and lowenergy transitions. In our model we demonstrate that the unblocking effect for GT$_+$ transitions in neutronrich nuclei is sensitive to increasing temperature. The results are used to calculate electron capture rates and are compared to those obtained from the shell model. Comment: 16 pages, 9 figuresPhysical Review C 11/2009; 81(1). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.81.015804 · 3.88 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have performed hydrodynamical simulations of the longtime evolution of protoneutron stars to study the nucleosynthesis using the resulting wind trajectories. Although the conditions found in the present wind models are not favourable for the production of heavy elements, a small enhancement of the entropy results in the production of rprocess elements with A $\approx$ 195. This allows us to explore the sensitivity of their production to the hydrodynamical evolution (wind termination shock) and nuclear physics input used. Comment: Conference proceedings: Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics IVJournal of Physics Conference Series 09/2009; DOI:10.1088/17426596/202/1/012007  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Electron captures on nuclei play an important role in the dynamics of the collapsing core of a massive star that leads to a supernova explosion. Recent calculations of these capture rates were based on microscopic models which account for relevant degrees of freedom. Due to computational restrictions such calculations were limited to a modest number of nuclei, mainly in the mass range A=45–110. Recent supernova simulations show that this pool of nuclei, however, omits the very neutronrich and heavy nuclei which dominate the nuclear composition during the last phase of the collapse before neutrino trapping. Assuming that the composition is given by Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium we present here electron capture rates for collapse conditions derived from individual rates for roughly 2700 individual nuclei. For those nuclei which dominate in the early stage of the collapse, the individual rates are derived within the framework of microscopic models, while for the nuclei which dominate at high densities we have derived the rates based on the Random Phase Approximation with a global parametrization of the single particle occupation numbers. In addition, we have improved previous rate evaluations by properly including screening corrections to the reaction rates into account.Nuclear Physics A 09/2009; DOI:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.09.012 · 2.50 Impact Factor  Physical Review C 07/2009; 80(1). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.80.019905 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We calculate the lowlying spectra and several highspin states of zirconium isotopes (Z=40) with neutron numbers from N=50 to N=58 using a large valence space with the (78)Ni inert core, which a priori allows one to study the interplay between spherical and deformed configurations, necessary for the description of nuclides in this part of the nuclear chart. The effective interaction is derived by monopole corrections of the realistic G matrix. We reproduce essential nuclear properties, such as subshell closures in (96)Zr and (98)Zr. The sphericaltodeformed shape transition in (100)Zr is addressed as well. .Physical Review C 06/2009; 79(6). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.79.064310 · 3.88 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Coincidences between charged particles emitted in the βdecay of 11Li were observed using highly segmented detectors. The breakup channels involving three particles were studied in full kinematics allowing for the reconstruction of the excitation energy of the 11Be states participating in the decay. In particular, the contribution of a previously unobserved state at 16.3 MeV in 11Be has been identified selecting the channel. The angular correlations between the α particle and the center of mass of the 6He + n system favors spin and parity assignment of 3/2− for this state as well as for the previously known state at 18 MeV.Physics Letters B 06/2009; DOI:10.1016/j.physletb.2009.05.050 · 6.02 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The γray decay of isomeric states in the eveneven nucleus 128Cd has been observed. The nucleus of interest was produced both by the fragmentation of 136Xe and the fission of 238U primary beams. The level scheme was unambiguously constructed based on γγ coincidence relations in conjunction with detailed lifetime analysis employed for the first time on this nucleus. Largescale shellmodel calculations, without consideration of excitations across the N=82 shell closure, were performed and provide a consistent description of the experimental level scheme. The structure of the isomeric states and their decays exhibit coexistence of proton, neutron, and strongly mixed configurations due to πν interaction in overlapping orbitals for both proton and neutron holes.Physical Review C 05/2009; 79(1):011301(R). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.79.011301 · 3.88 Impact Factor
Publication Stats
6k  Citations  
792.05  Total Impact Points  
Top Journals
Institutions

2008–2014

Technical University Darmstadt
 Institute of Nuclear Physics
Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany


2007–2014

GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
 ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division
Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany


2004–2008

Autonomous University of Barcelona
Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain


1998–2007

Aarhus University
 Department of Physics and Astronomy
Aars, Region North Jutland, Denmark 
California Institute of Technology
 Department of Physics
Pasadena, California, United States


1993–2007

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
 Departamento de Física Teórica
Madrid, Madrid, Spain


2003–2006

IEEC Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia
Barcino, Catalonia, Spain


2000–2006

Universität Basel
 Department of Physics
Basel, BS, Switzerland


2003–2005

Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
