D. Holleville

Observatoire de Paris, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (66)53.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We propose a constructive polarization modulation scheme for atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). In this scheme, the polarization of a bichromatic laser beam is modulated between two opposite circular polarizations to avoid trapping the atomic populations in the extreme Zeeman sublevels. We show that if an appropriate phase modulation between the two optical components of the bichromatic laser is applied synchronously, the two CPT dark states which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations add constructively. Measured CPT resonance contrasts up to 20% in one-pulse CPT and 12% in two-pulse Ramsey-CPT experiments are reported, demonstrating the potential of this scheme for applications to high performance atomic clocks.
    Applied Physics Letters 11/2014; 105(23):231106 (1-5). DOI:10.1063/1.4903862 · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the dual-frequency and dual-polarization emission of an optically-pumped vertical external-cavity semiconductor laser. Our laser source provides a high-purity optically-carried RF signal tunable in the GHz range, and is specifically designed for the coherent population trapping (CPT) of Cs atoms in compact atomic clocks. The laser spectrum is stabilized onto a Cs atomic transition at 852.1 nm, and the frequency difference is locked to a local oscillator at 9.2 GHz. Special attention has been paid to the evaluation of the frequency, intensity and phase noise properties. A maximum phase noise of $-{hbox {90}} ;{hbox {dBrad}^2}$ /Hz has been measured. Finally, we estimate the contribution of the laser noise on the short-term frequency stability of a CPT atomic clock, and predict that a value below $hbox {3} times hbox {10}^{-13}$ over one second is a realistic target.
    Journal of Lightwave Technology 10/2014; 32(20):3817-3823. DOI:10.1109/JLT.2014.2318179 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coherent population trapping (CPT) is an interesting technique for the development of compact atomic frequency references. We describe an innovating laser source for the production of the two cross-polarized coherent laser fields which are necessary in CPT-based atomic clocks. It relies on the dual-frequency and dual-polarization operation of an optically-pumped vertical external-cavity semiconductor laser. This particular laser emission is induced by intracavity birefringent components which produce a controllable phase anisotropy within the laser cavity and force emission on two cross-polarized longitudinal modes. The laser emission is tuned at the Cs D2 line (λ = 852.14 nm), and the frequency difference Δν between the two laser modes is tunable in the microwave range. The laser line wavelength is stabilized onto an atomic hyperfine transition, and concurrently the frequency difference is locked to an ultra-low noise RF oscillator at 9.2 GHz. The high spectral purity of the optically-carried microwave signal resulting from the beatnote of the two cross-polarized laser lines is assessed through its narrow spectral linewidth (<30 Hz) as well as its low phase noise (≤ -100 dBrad2/Hz). The performance of this laser source is already adequate for the interrogation of atoms in a CPT atomic clock, and should result in an estimated relative stability of 3.10-13τ-1/2 - one order of magnitude better than commercial atomic clocks.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 02/2014; DOI:10.1117/12.2041669 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a tunable high-purity microwave signal generation from a cross- polarized dual-frequency diode-pumped vertical external-cavity semiconductor laser operating at 852 nm for the coherent population trapping of cesium atoms in compact atomic frequency references.
    Advanced Solid State Lasers; 10/2013
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the dual-frequency emission of a diode-pumped vertical external-cavity semiconductor laser operating at 852 nm, dedicated to the coherent population trapping of cesium atoms for compact atomic frequency references. It is based on a single laser cavity sustaining the oscillation of two adjacent, cross-polarized, modes. The output power reaches 10 mW on each frequency. The frequency difference and the absolute laser frequencies are simultaneously precisely tuned and stabilized on external references, resulting in the generation of a high-purity optically-carried microwave signal. The laser design has focused on stability and compactness.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 02/2013; DOI:10.1117/12.2014240 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the frequency stabilization of an infrared (IR) laser emitting at 1.5 μm onto molecular iodine hyperfine transitions at 514 nm. Third harmonic generation process based on Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate non linear crystals (PPLN) is used to link the IR emission to the green region. We have developed and tested a compact experimental setup using a multi-pass iodine cell in order to meet transportable/spatial requirements. Narrow hyperfine iodine lines (FWHM ∼ 300 kHz) corresponding to a quality factor Q > 109 are already detected and used for the IR sources stabilization purpose.
    European Frequency and Time Forum & International Frequency Control Symposium (EFTF/IFC), 2013 Joint; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the dual-frequency and dual-polarization emission of a diode-pumped vertical external-cavity semiconductor laser at 852 nm dedicated to the coherent population trapping of cesium atoms. The output power reaches ${\sim}{\rm 20}~{\rm mW}$ on each frequency, with a frequency difference in the gigahertz range.
    IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 07/2012; 24(14):1218-1220. DOI:10.1109/LPT.2012.2199103 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HORACE (HOrloge à Refroidissement d’Atomes en Cellule = clock based on atoms cooled from vapour cell) is a compact cold caesium atom clock developed in SYRTE at Paris Observatory. This clock can operate both on ground and in microgravity environment. Design of HORACE is based on isotropic light cooling, allowing performing the whole clock sequence (cooling, atomic preparation, Ramsey interrogation and detection) at the same place. Compared to more conventional cold atom clocks such as atomic fountains, the use of isotropic light cooling simplifies both the optical part of the setup and the detection sequence, and leads to a drastic size reduction of the physics package. Very good short-term performances have been demonstrated at SYRTE since relative frequency instability of 2.2 × 10−13 τ−1/2 has been obtained. Optimization of the long term stability is still under progress and current results show relative frequency instability around 3 × 10−15 in 104 s of integration. With these performances, HORACE appears as a good candidate both for Galileo’s ground segment clock and for onboard Galileo clock.
    Advances in Space Research 03/2011; 47(5-47):854-858. DOI:10.1016/j.asr.2010.12.012 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HORACE is a compact cold caesium (Cs) atom clock using isotropic light cooling technique directly inside the spherical microwave cavity. It has been designed for onboard and space applications. Ultimate stability as low as 2.2 10 -13 τ had been demonstrated, limited by atomic shot noise and quantum projection noise. Influence of Dick effect has been studied and a compact and simple frequency synthesizer using off the shelf quartz has been realized and characterized. As atoms remain in the cavity during Ramsey sequence, long term stability evaluation focused on cavity pulling effect. This proceeding presents both the microwave synthesizer development and cavity pulling study using a tricky technique to tune the microwave cavity.
    01/2011; DOI:10.1109/FCS.2011.5977902
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    ABSTRACT: We present a compact cold-atom clock configuration where isotropic laser cooling, microwave interrogation, and clock signal detection are successively performed inside a spherical microwave cavity. For ground operation, a typical Ramsey fringe width of 20 Hz has been demonstrated, limited by the atom cloud's free fall in the cavity. The isotropic cooling light's disordered properties provide a large and stable number of cold atoms, leading to a high signal-to-noise ratio limited by atomic shot noise. A relative frequency stability of 2.2x10{sup -13{tau}-1/2} has been achieved, averaged down to 4x10{sup -15} after 5x10{sup 3} s of integration. Development of such a high-performance compact clock is of major relevance for on-board applications, such as satellite-positioning systems. As a cesium clock, it opens the door to a new generation of compact primary standards and timekeeping devices.
    Physical Review A 09/2010; 82(3). DOI:10.1103/PHYSREVA.82.033436 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present work in progress at SYRTE, APC and ARTEMIS aiming at stabilizing the frequency of a Nd:YAG laser using saturated absorption spectroscopy of molecular iodine 127I2. The novel design of the LASIC project allows for robustness and compacity while achieving high-performance phase noise suppression. The project is a follow-up of the laser stabilization work started at Artemis and continued at APC. The use of a low-finesse bow-tie optical cavity around the iodine absorber, combined with an adapted high-frequency modulation of the laser phase -NICE-OHMS technique-yields shot-noise limited saturated absorption signals with cavity-enhanced signal-to-noise ratios. Residual fractional frequency instability in terms of Allan Std. Deviation is expected below 10-14 @1s integration time and down to 10-15 over several hours. The compact iodine / cavity design, and performance well above LISA requirements make this project an interesting candidate for the space-based Gravitational Waves detector. We discuss the scientific background and outline of this project within the LISA framework, as well as its potential impact on other stringent technical requirements of the LISA project (e.g. U.S.O. clock-stability, arm-length measurements. . . ). We also present other possible applications for space projects involving interferometry, laser ranging or onboard ultrastable oscillators.
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a diode-pumped vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting around 852 nm for Cesium atomic clocks experiments. We have designed a 7-quantum-well semiconductor structure optimized for low laser threshold. An output power of 330 mW was achieved for 1.1 W of incident pump power. Furthermore a compact setup was built for low-power single-requency emission. We obtained an output power of 17 mW in a single longitudinal mode, exhibiting both broad (9 nm) and continuous (14 GHz) tunability around the Cesium D2 line. The laser frequency has been stabilized on an atomic transition with residual frequency fluctuations ~ 300 kHz. Through a beatnote experiment the -3 dB laser linewidth has been measured to < 500 kHz over 10 ms.
    Applied Physics B 05/2009; DOI:10.1007/s00340-008-3361-3 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HORACE is a compact cold cesium atomic clock designed for space applications and onboard systems. The operation of this clock is different from fountains since the laser cooling, the microwave interrogation and the detection are sequentially performed inside the spherical microwave cavity. A short term relative frequency stability of 2.2 · 10-13 tau-1/2 is reported. Preliminary results on mid term show that a level of 4 · 10-15 is reached after 5 · 103 s integration time. Limitations are investigated.
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the design and characterization of a single-frequency diode-pumped vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting at 852 nm for Caesium atomic clock experiments. Up to 120 mW under 1.1 W pumping is achieved.
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    ABSTRACT: We transferred the frequency of an ultra-stable laser over 172 km of urban fiber. The link is composed of two cascaded 43-km fibers connecting two laboratories, LNE-SYRTE and LPL in Paris area. By implementing a recirculation loop we extend the link length up to 172 km. The link is fed with a 1542-nm cavity stabilized fiber laser having a sub-Hz linewidth. The fiber-induced phase noise is measured and cancelled with an all-fiber-based interferometer using commercial off-the-shelf pigtailed telecommunication components. The compensated link shows an Allan deviation of a few 10 -16 at 1 s and a few 10 -19 at 10,000 seconds.
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    ABSTRACT: We transferred the frequency of an ultra-stable laser over 86 km of urban fiber. The link is composed of two cascaded 43-km fibers connecting two laboratories, LNE-SYRTE and LPL in Paris area. In an effort to realistically demonstrate a link of 172 km without using spooled fiber extensions, we implemented a recirculation loop to double the length of the urban fiber link. The link is fed with a 1542-nm cavity stabilized fiber laser having a sub-Hz linewidth. The fiber-induced phase noise is measured and cancelled with an all fiber-based interferometer using commercial off the shelf pigtailed telecommunication components. The compensated link shows an Allan deviation of a few 10-16 at one second and a few 10-19 at 10,000 seconds.
    Journal of the Optical Society of America B 07/2008; DOI:10.1364/JOSAB.25.002029 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the design of two different geometries of optical cavities (vertically and horizontally mounted). The Finite Element Modeling analysis is used to predict and decrease the influence of vibrations on the cavity stabilized lasers. Inspired by the results of simulation, two cavities have been constructed. Vibration sensitivity coefficients measured are equal or better than 1.4x10<sup>-11</sup>/(m.s<sup>-2</sup>) for all spatial directions. A preliminary measurement of the two independent cavity stabilized lasers shows a relative frequency stability of about 10<sup>-15</sup> @ 1s.
    Frequency Control Symposium, 2008 IEEE International; 06/2008
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    ABSTRACT: HORACE is a compact cold cesium atom clock which is being developed in LNE-SYRTE for space applications and onboard systems. The operation of this clock is different from fountains since the laser cooling, the microwave interrogation and the detection are sequentially performed inside the spherical microwave cavity. The entire simplified operation sequence is described. A short term relative frequency stability of 2.2 10<sup>-13</sup> tau<sup>-1/2</sup> is achieved. Preliminary results on mid term show that a level of 4 10<sup>-15</sup> is reached after 5 10<sup>3</sup>s of integration. Limitations are investigated.
    Frequency Control Symposium, 2008 IEEE International; 06/2008
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    ABSTRACT: We present the architecture of a A4 size optical bench developed for the compact cold atom clock HORACE. This proceeding focuses on two original sub systems as compact extended cavity laser diode with optical isolator places inside the laser cavity, and very compact saturated absorption systems.
    Frequency Control Symposium, 2008 IEEE International; 06/2008
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    ABSTRACT: There is a growing demand for precise gyroscopes and atomic clocks for positioning, flight navigation systems and aerospatial applications. One of the prerequisites for atomic optical pumps is a laser diode with high power (a few 10mW), narrow linewidth (<2MHz), and beam qualities (M-2<1.5). Another important factor for aerospatial applications is a very high reliability performance of the laser devices. With an aim to address these issues, we have laid down the technological foundation and further developed ridge waveguide distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 852nm corresponding to the D2 cesium transition in atomic clocks. The epitaxy is based on an Al free active region with a GaInP large optical cavity and a single compressive strained GaInAsP quantum well. Fabricated DFB uncoated lasers have shown wavelength emission at 852.12nm with an output optical power of 40mW, a SMSR >300 at the D2 line, at 37 degrees C. Low self-heterodyne linewidths of 0.8MHz and 1.2MHz were measured respectively at 20mW 12 degrees C and 40mW 37 degrees C. With this uncoated diode, we have realized saturation spectra of cesium atoms to determine the resolution and the stability of the laser diode working on Cs. The saturation spectrum of the D, line of Cs-133 was recorded with a resolution close to the natural line width. Preliminary studies of reliability were the measurement of catastrophical optical mirror damage (COMD) for different anti-reflection (AR) coatings. We obtained a COMD density of 19MW/cm(2).
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 05/2008; DOI:10.1117/12.781280 · 0.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

563 Citations
53.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • Observatoire de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999–2014
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2012
    • Polytech Paris-UPMC
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France