[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin B 12 contents in the edible cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme, also known as hair vegetable, were as-sayed using a microbiological method. We detected high vitamin B 12 contents in samples of naturally grown cells (109.2 ± 18.5 μg/100g dry weight) and cultured cells (120.2 ± 53.6 μg/100g dry weight). However, commercially available hair vegetable samples, which comprised fake substitutes and Nostoc, had variable contents (4.8 -101.6 μg/100g dry weight) because concomitant fake items contain very low vitamin B 12 contents. To evaluate whether natural and cultured N. flagelliforme samples contained vitamin B 12 or pseudovitamin B 12 , corrinoid compounds were purified and identified as pseudovitamin B 12 (approximately 72%) and vitamin B 12 (approximately 28%) using silica gel 60 TLC bioautography and LC/MS. The results suggested that N. flagelliforme contains substan-tial amounts of pseudovitamin B 12 , which is inactive in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyaluronidase is one of the most important enzymes in the development of many diseases. In this study, a series of xyloside analogues bearing a triazole and tetrazole at the anomeric position were prepared from xylosylthioureas and evaluated their inhibitory effects on the hyaluronidase. Triazole and tetrazole skeletons were formed via the Hg(OAc)2-mediated desulfurizative cyclization through carbodiimide intermediates. According to in vitro anti-hyaluronidase assay, tetrazole-xylosides having p-chloro- or p-nitro-substitution exhibited the high inhibition rates, whereas the compound having p-trifluoromethyl group on the structure did not show the potency. Our results demonstrated the importance of tetrazole-xylosides as hyaluronidase inhibitors.
Medicinal Chemistry Research 01/2014; 24(3). · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nostoc commune is a terrestrial benthic blue-green alga that often forms an extended mucilaginous layer on the soil, accumulates on stones and mud in aquatic environments. Reduced-scytonemin (R-scy), isolated from N. commune Vaucher, has been shown to suppress the human T-lymphoid Jurkat cell growth. To reveal the mechanisms underlying the R-scy-mediated inhibition of Jurkat cell growth, we examined cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, and microtubule-associated-protein light chain 3 (LC3) modification in these cells. We observed multiple vacuoles as well as the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II in R-scy-treated cells. These results suggest that the R-scy induced Jurkat cell growth inhibition is attributable to the induction of type II programmed cell death (PCD II; autophagic cell death or autophagy). We further examined the mechanisms underlying R-scy-induced PCDII. The cells treated with R-scy produced large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the elimination of R-scy-induced ROS by treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly opposed R-scy-induced PCDII. Based on these results, we conclude that ROS formation plays a critical role in R-scy-induced PCDII.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibitory effect of edible microalga, Nostochopsis sp. on the activation of hyaluronidase was evaluated. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the aqueous extract and the ethanol-insoluble fraction of aqueous extract was 0.0148 and 0.0178 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) used as the anti-allergic medicine was 0.120 mg/mL. The IC50 of Nostochopsis sp. was 8 times smaller than that of DSCG. The aqueous extract was ultrafiltered through a membrane having a molecular exclusion limit of 10 kDa. The IC50 of the residue was almost the same as that of aqueous extract. These results suggest that Nostochopsis sp. might have strong anti-allergic substance(s) which may be polysaccharides.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin B(12) content of an edible cyanobacterium, Nostochopsis sp. was determined to be 140.6±16.2 μg/100 g dry weight by a microbiological method. To evaluate whether the Nostochopsis cells contain vitamin B(12) or inactive corrinoid compounds, corrinoid compounds were purified from the cells and then identified as pseudovitamin B(12) (97.4±11.8 μg/100 g dry weight) and vitamin B(12) (43.2±6.0 μg/100 g dry weight) on the basis of silica gel 60 TLC bioautograms and LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. Vitamin B(12) content was significantly increased in the Nostochopsis cells (254.8±17.6 μg/100 g dry weight) grown in the vitamin B(12)-supplemented medium.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 01/2012; 58:50-58. · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extract of terrestrial alga Nostoc commune Vauch. has high antioxidative activity. Our study on N. commune Vauch. resulted in the isolation of two β-ionone derivatives, nostocionone and 3-oxo-β-ionone, together with four indole alkaloids, scytonemin, reduced scytonemin, N-(p-coumaroyl)tryptamine, and N-acetyltryptamine. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS analyses. Among these isolates, nostocionone and reduced scytonemin demonstrated strong antioxidative activities which were assessed by using a β-carotene oxidation assay.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 11/2011; 75(11):2175-7. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low activity (about 4 mU/mg protein) of 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM; EC 22.214.171.124) was found in a cell homogenate of a photosynthetic coccolithophorid alga, Pleurochrysis carterae. Most of the enzyme occurred as the apo-enzyme, which was labile during purification. The holo-enzyme, which was converted from the apo-enzyme by incubation with 10 microM 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin at 4 degrees C in the dark, was purified to homogeneity and partially characterized. An apparent molecular mass for the enzyme of 150+/-5 kDa was calculated by Superdex 200 pg gel filtration. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme gave a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 80+/-5 kDa, indicating that the P. carterae enzyme occurs as a homodimer. Some properties of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from P. carterae were studied.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 07/2004; 138(2):163-7. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibitory effects of seven microalgae, Nostoc flagelliforme, Spirulina platensis, Porphyridium purpureum, Rhodosorus marinus,Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Dunaliella salina and Pleurochrysiscarterae on the activation of hyaluronidase were evaluated. Theinhibitory effect of the ethanol-insoluble fraction of each water extract frommicroalgae was stronger than that of the ethanol-soluble fraction. The50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the ethanol-insolublefraction of S. platensis, P. purpureum, R. marinus, C.pyrenoidosa, D. salina and P. carterae was 0.15, 0.18, 0.26,0.94, 0.15 and 0.41 mg mL-1, respectively. The IC50 ofN .flagelliforme was not calculated, because there was no detectableinhibitory effect of this alga. The IC50 of disodium cromoglycate(DSCG) used as the anti-allergic medicine was 0.14 mg mL-1. The IC50 of S. platensis, P. purpureum and D. salinawere almost the same as that of DSCG. This suggests that theethanol-insoluble fraction of S. platensis, P. purpureum and D. salina might be an anti-allergic substance. The ethanol-insoluble fractionof S. platensis and D. salina was ultrafiltered through a membranehaving a molecular exclusion limit of 20 kDa. The IC50 of theresidue was stronger than that of the filtrate. These results suggest that theanti-allergic substance(s) of these microalgae may be polysaccharides.
Journal of Applied Phycology 11/2001; 13(6):489-492. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mutagenicity of the algaPleurochrysis carterae for use as human food was tested by the Ames method with the modification of pre-incubation, by usingSalmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 andEscherichia coli WP2uvrA. The freeze-dried powder ofP. carterae was not mutagenic to any strain either with or without S9 mix. In view of the absence of adverse effects ofP. carterae in this mutagenicity study, it is suggested thatP. carterae is safe for human consumption as a human food supplement.
Journal of Applied Phycology 12/1995; 8(1):1-3. · 2.49 Impact Factor