[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are capable of synthesizing intracellular organelles, the magnetosomes, that are membrane-bounded magnetite or greigite crystals arranged in chains. Although MTB are widely spread in various ecosystems, few axenic cultures are available, and only freshwater Magnetospirillum spp. have been genetically analysed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a marine magnetotactic spirillum, Magnetospira sp. QH-2. The high number of repeats and transposable elements account for the differences in QH-2 genome structure compared with other relatives. Gene cluster synteny and gene correlation analyses indicate that the insertion of the magnetosome island in the QH-2 genome occurred after divergence between freshwater and marine magnetospirilla. The presence of a sodium-quinone reductase, sodium transporters and other functional genes are evidence of the adaptive evolution of Magnetospira sp. QH-2 to the marine ecosystem. Genes well conserved among freshwater magnetospirilla for nitrogen fixation and assimilatory nitrate respiration are absent from the QH-2 genome. Unlike freshwater Magnetospirillum spp., marine Magnetospira sp. QH-2 neither has TonB and TonB-dependent receptors nor does it grow on trace amounts of iron. Taken together, our results show a distinct, adaptive evolution of Magnetospira sp. QH-2 to marine sediments in comparison with its closely related freshwater counterparts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An anaerobic thermophilic bacterium designated CA9F1 was isolated from a thermal spring in France. Strain CA9F1 was observed to grow at temperatures between 55 and 70 °C (optimum 65 °C) and at pH between 6.8 and 9.5 (optimum pH 7.4). Strain CA9F1 does not require salt for growth (0-10 g l(-1) NaCl), with an optimum at 1 g l(-1). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 38.5 mol% (Tm). The major cellular fatty acids identified were C15:0, C16:0, C17:0 iso. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties, strain CA9F1 was identified as Thermovenabulum gondwanense and this species was studied in more detail. Strain CA9F1 is a Gram-positive bacterium which forms a complex and regular multilayered cell wall structure, here characterised as being due to the presence of an S-layer. The network covers the entire cell surface and forms a hexagonal structure resembling that observed for Deinococcus radiodurans. The main protein component of the S-layer possesses domains comparable to that of the S-layer protein of Halothermothrix orenii. The characteristics of the strain were compared to that of T. gondwanese R270(T) isolated from microbial mats thriving in the thermal waters of a Great Artesian Basin bore runoff channel at 66 °C, in Australia. Significant differences were observed between CA9F1 and the type strain. One of the major physiological differences is the inability of CA9F1 to reduce Fe(III). An emended description of T. gondwanense is given.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 06/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped mesophilic, halophilic bacterium staining Gram-negative, was isolated from sediments of Guaymas basin. The strain, designated Ra1766G1T, grew at 20-40 °C (optimum 30-35 °C) and at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 6.5-7.5). It required 0.5%-7.5% NaCl (optimum 2%-3%) for growth. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, fumarate, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain Ra1766G1T used cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, arabinose, raffinose, galactose, ribose, saccharose, pyruvate and xylose as electron donors. The main fermentation product from glucose metabolism was acetate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso DMA-C15:0 and C16:0. The main polar lipids consisted of diphosphatiglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, glycolipids and phospholipids.The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 31.2 mol%. The closest phylogenetic relatives of Ra1766G1T were Natranaerovirga pectinivoraT (92.4% similarity), Natranaerovirga hydrolytica (90.2% similarity) and Defluviitalea saccharophilaT (88.9% similarity). On the basis of phylogenetic inference and phenotypic properties, strain Ra1766G1T (= DSM 24848T = JCMT= 16313) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of a novel genus, Vallitalea guaymasensis gen. nov., sp. nov.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 02/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AM13 is a piezophilic, mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium collected from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney on the East Pacific Rise (2,600 m depth, 13°N). We report the genome sequence of this bacterium, which includes a 3,702,934-bp chromosome and a circular plasmid of 5,328 bp.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: pks genomic island of Escherichia coli is involved in the synthesis of the non-ribosomal peptide-type genotoxin colibactin, which has been suggesting as affecting the host immune response and having an impact on cancer development. The pks-encoded enzyme ClbP is an atypical peptidase that contributes to the synthesis of colibactin. In this work, we identified key features of ClbP. Bacterial fractionation and Western-blot analysis revealed the docking of ClbP to the bacterial inner membrane via a C-terminal domain harboring three predicted transmembrane helices. Whereas only one helix was necessary for the location in the inner membrane, the complete sequence of the C-terminal domain was necessary for ClbP bioactivity. In addition, the N-terminal sequence of ClbP allowed the SRP/Sec/YidC- and MreB-dependent translocation of the enzymatic domain in the periplasmic compartment, a feature also essential for ClbP bioactivity. Finally, the comparison of ClbP structure with that of the paralogs FmtA-like and AmpC revealed at an extremity of the catalytic groove a negative electrostatic potential surface characteristic of ClbP. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments identified in this zone two aspartic residues that were important for ClbP bioactivity. Overall, these results suggest a model for precolibactin activation by ClbP and pave a way for the design of inhibitors targeting colibactin production.
Journal of Molecular Biology 10/2012; · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pks genomic island of Escherichia coli encodes polyketide (PK) and nonribosomal peptide (NRP) synthases that allow assembly of a putative hybrid PK-NRP compound named colibactin that induces DNA double-strand breaks in eukaryotic cells. The pks-encoded machinery harbors an atypical essential protein, ClbP. ClbP crystal structure and mutagenesis experiments revealed a serine-active site and original structural features compatible with peptidase activity, which was detected by biochemical assays. Ten ClbP homologs were identified in silico in NRP genomic islands of closely and distantly related bacterial species. All tested ClbP homologs were able to complement a clbP-deficient E. coli mutant. ClbP is therefore a prototype of a new subfamily of extracytoplasmic peptidases probably involved in the maturation of NRP compounds. Such peptidases will be powerful tools for the manipulation of NRP biosynthetic pathways.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; 286(41):35562-70. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) mineralize nanosized magnetite or greigite crystals within cells and thus play an important role in the biogeochemical process. Despite decades of research, knowledge of MTB distribution and ecology, notably in areas subjected to oil industry activities, is still limited. In the present study, we investigated the presence of MTB in the Gulf of Fos, French Mediterranean coast, which is subjected to intensive oil industry activities. Microcosms containing sediments/water (1:2, v/v) from several sampling sites were monitored over several weeks. The presence of MTB was revealed in five of eight sites. Diverse and numerous MTB were revealed particularly from one site (named CAR), whilst temporal variations of a homogenous magnetotactic cocci population was shown within the LAV site microcosm over a 4-month period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, and a novel genus from the LAV site was evidenced. Among the physicochemical parameters measured, a correlation was shown between the variation of MTB abundance in microcosms and the redox state of sulphur compounds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are food-borne pathogens that can cause serious infections ranging from diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Translocation of Shiga-toxins (Stx) from the gut lumen to underlying tissues is a decisive step in the development of the infection, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Many bacterial pathogens target the follicle-associated epithelium, which overlies Peyer's patches (PPs), cross the intestinal barrier through M cells and are captured by mucosal macrophages. Here, translocation across M cells, as well as survival and proliferation of EHEC strains within THP-1 macrophages were investigated using EHEC O157:H7 reference strains, isogenic mutants, and 15 EHEC strains isolated from HC/HUS patients. We showed for the first time that E. coli O157:H7 strains are able to interact in vivo with murine PPs, to translocate ex vivo through murine ileal mucosa with PPs and across an in vitro human M cell model. EHEC strains are also able to survive and to produce Stx in macrophages, which induce cell apoptosis and Stx release. In conclusion, our results suggest that the uptake of EHEC by M cells and underlying macrophages in the PP may be a critical step in Stx translocation and release in vivo. A new model for EHEC infection in humans is proposed that could help in a fuller understanding of EHEC-associated diseases.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23594. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated C1TLV30(T), was isolated from wood falls at a depth of 1693 m in the Mediterranean Sea. Cells were motile vibrios (2-4 × 0.5 µm). Strain C1TLV30(T) grew at temperatures between 15 and 45 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5.4-8.6 (optimum 7.3). It required NaCl for growth (optimum at 25 g NaCl l(-1)) and tolerated up to 80 g NaCl l(-1). Strain C1TLV30(T) used as energy sources: lactate, fumarate, formate, malate, pyruvate and ethanol. The end products from lactate oxidation were acetate, H(2)S and CO(2) in the presence of sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. Besides sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite were also used as terminal electron acceptors, but not elemental sulfur, fumarate, nitrate or nitrite. Strain C1TLV30(T) possessed desulfoviridin and was piezophilic, growing optimally at 10 MPa (range 0-30 MPa). The membrane lipid composition of this strain was examined to reveal an increase in fatty acid chain lengths at high hydrostatic pressures. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.6 % and the genome size was estimated at 3.5 ± 0.5 Mb. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain C1TLV30(T) was affiliated to the genus Desulfovibrio with Desulfovibrio profundus being its closest phylogenetic relative (similarity of 96.4 %). On the basis of SSU rRNA gene sequence comparisons and physiological characteristics, strain C1TLV30(T) ( = DSM 21447(T) = JCM 1548(T)) is proposed to be assigned to a novel species of the genus Desulfovibrio, Desulfovibrio piezophilus sp. nov.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 02/2010; 61(Pt 11):2706-2711. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) from strains or stool specimens. This assay detected the virulence genes stx1, stx2, and eae, without the use of probes. The method, which was validated on a collection of 143 EHEC strains, is simple, rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The widespread magnetotactic bacteria have the peculiar capacity of navigation along the geomagnetic field. Despite their ubiquitous distribution, only few axenic cultures have been obtained worldwide. In this study, we reported the first axenic culture of magnetotactic bacteria isolated from the Mediterranean Sea. This magneto-ovoid strain MO-1 grew in chemically defined O(2) gradient minimal media at the oxic-anoxic transition zone. It is phylogenetically related to Magnetococcus sp. MC-1 but might represent a novel genus of Proteobacteria. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the genome size of the MO-1 strain is 5 ± 0.5 Mb, with four rRNA operons. Each cell synthesizes about 17 magnetosomes within a single chain, two phosphorous-oxygen-rich globules and one to seven lipid storage granules. The magnetosomes chain seems to divide in the centre during cell division giving rise to two daughter cells with an approximately equal number of magnetosomes. The MO-1 cell possesses two bundles of seven individual flagella that were enveloped in a unique sheath. They swam towards the north pole with a velocity up to 300 μm per second with frequent change from right-hand to left-hand helical trajectory. Using a magneto-spectrophotometry assay we showed that MO-1 flagella were powered by both proton-motive force and sodium ion gradient, which is a rare feature among bacteria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: beta-Lactamases represent the major resistance mechanism of gram-negative bacteria against beta-lactam antibiotics. The amino acid sequences of these proteins vary widely, but all are located in the periplasm of bacteria. In this study, we investigated the translocation mechanism of representative beta-lactamases in an Escherichia coli model. N-terminal signal sequence analyses, antibiotic activity assay, and direct measurement of translocation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter fused to beta-lactamases revealed that most were exported via the Sec pathway. However, the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia L2 beta-lactamase was exported via the E. coli Tat translocase, while the S. maltophilia L1 beta-lactamase was Sec dependent. These results show the possible Tat-dependent translocation of beta-lactamases in the E. coli model system. In addition, the mutation of the cytoskeleton-encoding gene mreB, which may be involved in the spatial organization of penicillin-binding proteins, decreased the MIC of beta-lactams for beta-lactamase-producing E. coli. These findings provide new knowledge about beta-lactamase translocation, a putative new target for addressing beta-lactamase-mediated resistance.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2008; 53(1):242-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has been associated with food-borne diseases ranging from uncomplicated diarrhea to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). While most outbreaks are associated with E. coli O157:H7, about half of the sporadic cases may be due to non-O157:H7 serotypes. To assess the pathogenicity of STEC isolated from dairy foods in France, 40 strains isolated from 1,130 raw-milk and cheese samples were compared with 15 STEC strains isolated from patients suffering from severe disease. The presence of genes encoding Shiga toxins (stx(1), stx(2), and variants), intimin (eae and variants), adhesins (bfp, efa1), enterohemolysin (ehxA), serine protease (espP), and catalase-peroxidase (katP) was determined by PCR and/or hybridization. Plasmid profiling, ribotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to further compare the strains at the molecular level. A new stx(2) variant, stx(2-CH013), associated with an O91:H10 clinical isolate was identified. The presence of the stx(2), eae, and katP genes, together with a combination of several stx(2) variants, was clearly associated with human-pathogenic strains. In contrast, dairy food STEC strains were characterized by a predominance of stx(1), with a minority of isolates harboring eae, espP, and/or katP. These associations may help to differentiate less virulent STEC strains from those more likely to cause disease in humans. Only one dairy O5 isolate had a virulence gene panel identical to that of an HUS-associated strain. However, the ribotype and PFGE profiles were not identical. In conclusion, most STEC strains isolated from dairy products in France showed characteristics different from those of strains isolated from patients.
Applied and environmental microbiology 05/2008; 74(7):2118-28. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of motile prokaryotes that are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and cosmopolitan
in distribution. In this study, we collected magnetotactic bacteria from the Mediterranean Sea. A remarkable diversity of
morphotypes was observed, including multicellular types that seemed to differ from those previously found in North and South
America. Another interesting organism was one with magnetosomes arranged in a six-stranded bundle which occupied one third
of the cell width. The magnetosome bundle was evident even under optic microscopy. These cells were connected together and
swam as a linear entire unit. Magnetosomes did not always align up to form a straight linear chain. A chain composed of rectangle
magnetosomes bent at a position with an oval crystal. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis of the crystal
at the pivotal position suggested uncompleted formation of the crystal. This is the first report of Mediterranean magnetotactic
bacteria, which should be useful for studies of biogeochemical cycling and geohistory of the Mediterranean Sea.
Journal of Ocean University of China 10/2007; 6(4):355-359.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shigella surface protein IcsA and its cytoplasmic derivatives are localized to the old pole of rod-shaped cells when expressed in Escherichia coli. In spherical mreB cells, IcsA is targeted to ectopic sites and close to one extremity of actin-like MamK filament. To gain insight into the properties of the sites containing polar material, we studied the IcsA localization in spherical cells. GFP was exported into the periplasm via the Tat pathway and used as a periplasmic space marker. GFP displayed zonal fluorescence in both mreB and rodA-pbpA spherical E. coli cells, indicating an uneven periplasmic space. Deconvolution images revealed that the cytoplasmic IcsA fused to mCherry was localized outside or at the edge of the GFP zones. These observations strongly suggest that polar material is restricted to the positions where the periplasm possesses particular structural or biochemical properties.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2007; 353(2):493-500. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetosomes comprise a magnetic nanocrystal surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. These unique prokaryotic organelles align inside magnetotactic bacterial cells and serve as an intracellular compass allowing the bacteria to navigate along the geomagnetic field in aquatic environments. Cryoelectron tomography of Magnetospirillum strains has revealed that the magnetosome chain is surrounded by a network of filaments that may be composed of MamK given that the filaments are absent in the mamK mutant cells. The process of the MamK filament assembly is unknown. Here we prove the authenticity of the MamK filaments and show that MamK exhibits linear distribution inside Magnetospirillum sp. cells even in the area without magnetosomes. The mamK gene alone is sufficient to direct the synthesis of straight filaments in Escherichia coli, and one extremity of the MamK filaments is located at the cellular pole. By using dual fluorescent labeling of MamK, we found that MamK nucleates at multiple sites and assembles into mosaic filaments. Time-lapse experiments reveal that the assembly of the MamK filaments is a highly dynamic and kinetically asymmetrical process. MamK bundles might initiate the formation of a new filament or associate to one preexistent filament. Our results demonstrate the mechanism of biogenesis of prokaryotic cytoskeletal filaments that are structurally and functionally distinct from the known MreB and ParM filaments. In addition to positioning magnetosomes, other hypothetical functions of the MamK filaments in magnetotaxis might include anchoring magnetosomes and being involved in magnetic reception.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 103(46):17485-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The marine Roseobacter clade comprises one of the largest fractions of heterotrophic marine bacteria and accounts for about 16% of 16S rRNA gene clones retrieved from marine bacterioplankton. Their global distribution seems to be related to oceanic water masses and their environmental and biogeochemical properties. In this study, we report isolation and characterization of novel Roseobacter clade members from the Yellow Sea, China. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences reveals that the new isolates (YSCB1, YSCB2, YSCB3 and YSCB4) are closely related to uncultured Arctic seawater bacterium R7967 (99.57-100% sequence identity) and to the cultured Roseobacter sp. DSS-1 (99.27-99.76% sequence identity) isolated from the southeastern coastal water of the USA. Interestingly, YSCB strains possess unique intracellular chromium-containing aggregates. Therefore, these novel Roseobacter clade members exhibit a peculiar property in mineral biogeneration.
Research in Microbiology 11/2006; 157(8):714-9. · 2.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The M13 phage Procoat protein is one of the best characterized substrates for the novel YidC pathway. It inserts into the membrane independent of the SecYEG complex but requires the 60 kDa YidC protein. Mutant Procoat proteins with alterations in the periplasmic region had been found to require SecYEG and YidC. In this report, we show that the membrane insertion of these mutants also strongly depends on SecDF that bridges SecYEG to YidC. In a cold-sensitive mutant of YidC, the Sec-dependent function of YidC is strongly impaired. We find that specifically the SecDF-dependent mutants are inhibited in the cold-sensitive YidC strain. Finally, we find that subtle changes in the periplasmic loop such as the number and location of negatively charged residues and the length of the periplasmic loop can make the Procoat strictly Sec-dependent. In addition, we successfully converted Sec-independent Pf3 coat into a Sec-dependent protein by changing the location of a negatively charged residue in the periplasmic tail. Protease mapping of Pf3 coat shows that the insertion-arrested proteins that accumulate in the YidC- or in the SecDF-deficient strains are not translocated. Taken together, the data suggest that the Sec-dependent mutants insert at the interface of YidC and the translocon with SecDF assisting in the translocation step in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colicin V (ColV) is a peptide antibiotic that kills sensitive cells by disrupting their membrane potential once it gains access to the inner membrane from the periplasmic face. Recently, we constructed a translocation suicide probe, RR-ColV, that is translocated into the periplasm via the TAT pathway and thus kills the host cells. In this study, we obtained an RR-ColV-resistant mutant by using random Tn10 transposition mutagenesis. Sequencing analysis revealed that the mutant carried a Tn10 insertion in the sdaC (also called dcrA) gene, which is involved in serine uptake and is required for C1 phage adsorption. ColV activity was detected both in the cytoplasm and in the periplasm of this mutant, indicating that RR-ColV was translocated into the periplasm but failed to interact with the inner membrane. The sdaC::Tn10 mutant was resistant only to ColV and remained sensitive to colicins Ia, E3, and A. Most importantly, the sdaC::Tn10 mutant was killed when ColV was anchored to the periplasmic face of the inner membrane by fusion to EtpM, a type II integral membrane protein. Taken together, these results suggest that the SdaC/DcrA protein serves as a specific inner membrane receptor for ColV.
Journal of Bacteriology 04/2005; 187(6):1945-50. · 3.19 Impact Factor