Gary F Bouloux

Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States

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Publications (12)16.73 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of treating mandibular fractures with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) using small titanium plates and monocortical screws is well established. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of semirigid (small) titanium plates results in lower treatment charges. Consecutive patients with mandibular fractures were randomly allocated to ORIF with small or large titanium plates. The primary predictor variable for this secondary subset analysis was plate size. The primary outcome variable was total treatment charges. Other outcomes included length of stay (LOS), operating room charges, hardware charges, LOS charge, and charges related to the treatment of complications. A total of 127 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Fifty-two patients completed the required 6-week follow-up and had data available for analysis. Adjusted total treatment charges suggested a significant difference, with a mean total treatment charge of $15,308 in the semirigid group and a mean total treatment charge of $16,557 in the rigid group (P = .04). Total treatment charges were 8% higher in the rigid group compared with the semirigid group. The findings of this study suggest that the overall charges associated with treating mandibular fractures with ORIF are significantly lower when semirigid plates are used.
    Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 10/2013; · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that changes in serum phosphate levels influence pathological states associated with aging such as cancer, bone metabolism, and cardiovascular function, even in individuals with normal renal function. The causes are only beginning to be elucidated but are likely a combination of endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, and cell autonomous effects. We have used an integrated quantitative biology approach, combining transcriptomics and proteomics to define a multi-phase, extracellular phosphate-induced, signaling network in pre-osteoblasts as well as primary human and mouse mesenchymal stromal cells. We identified a rapid mitogenic response stimulated by elevated phosphate that results in the induction of immediate early genes including c-fos. The mechanism of activation requires FGF receptor signaling followed by stimulation of N-ras and activation of AP-1 and serum response elements. A distinct long-term response also requires FGF receptor signaling and results in N-ras activation and expression of genes and secretion of proteins involved in matrix regulation, calcification, and angiogenesis. The late response is synergistically enhanced by addition of FGF23 peptide. The intermediate phase results in increased oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production and is necessary for the late response providing a functional link between the phases. Collectively, the results define elevated phosphate, as a mitogen and define specific mechanisms by which phosphate stimulates proliferation and matrix regulation. Our approach provides a comprehensive understanding of the cellular response to elevated extracellular phosphate, functionally connecting temporally coordinated signaling, transcriptional, and metabolic events with changes in long-term cell behavior. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 12/2012; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thiazolidinedione (TZD) therapy has been associated with an increased risk of bone fractures. Studies in rodents have led to a model in which decreased bone quality in response to TZDs is due to a competition of lineage commitment between osteoblasts (OBs) and adipocytes (ADs) for a common precursor cell, resulting in decreased OB numbers. Our goal was to investigate the effects of TZD exposure on OB-AD lineage determination from primary human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) both in vitro and in vivo from nondiabetic subjects and patients with type 2 diabetics. Our experimental design included 2 phases. Phase 1 was an in vitro study of TZD effects on the differentiation of hBMSCs into OBs and ADs in nondiabetic subjects. Phase 2 was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effects of 6-month pioglitazone treatment in vivo on hBMSC differentiation using AD/OB colony forming unit assays in patients with type 2 diabetes. In vitro, TZDs (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) enhanced the adipogenesis of hBMSCs, whereas neither altered OB differentiation or function as measured by alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression, and mineralization. The ability of TZDs to enhance adipogenesis occurred at a specific time/stage of the differentiation process, and pretreating with TZDs did not further enhance adipogenesis. In vivo, 6-month TZD treatment decreased OB precursors, increased AD precursors, and increased total colony number in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our results indicate that TZD exposure in vitro potently stimulates adipogenesis but does not directly alter OB differentiation/mineralization or lineage commitment from hBMSCs. However, TZD treatment in type 2 diabetic patients results in decreased osteoblastogenesis from hBMSCs compared with placebo, indicating an indirect negative effect on OBs and suggesting an alternative model by which TZDs might negatively regulate bone quality.
    Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The use of small titanium plates for the management of mandibular fractures continues to be a source of controversy because of their load-sharing properties. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the use of small plates for mandibular fractures is as efficacious as large plates in a large level I trauma center. Consecutive subjects presenting with mandibular fractures were randomly allocated to the use of either small plates (group 1) or large plates (group 2). The primary predictor variable was the plate size. The primary outcome variable was fracture union. The secondary outcomes included complications and operative time. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for ordinal and continuous variables and the χ(2) test or Fisher exact test for proportions. A total of 127 consecutive subjects with a fracture of the mandible were enrolled in the study. Of the 127 subjects, 53 completed the required follow-up of at least 6 weeks. There was no difference in the rate of fracture union between the 2 groups (P = .95). The study findings suggest that the use of small plates and monocortical screws for mandibular fractures results in favorable outcomes compared with using larger plates and bicortical screws.
    Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 07/2012; 70(7):1613-21. · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • Gary F Bouloux, Jeffrey Wallace, Wenqiong Xue
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The need to irrigate surgical drains in the postoperative period in patients with odontogenic infections is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of irrigating surgical drains postoperatively in patients with severe odontogenic infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with severe odontogenic infections who required incision and drainage were randomized to irrigating drains (red rubber catheters) or nonirrigating drains (Penrose drains). The primary predictor variable was the type of drain and the use of postoperative irrigation. The primary outcome variable was length of stay. Secondary outcomes included postoperative temperature, need for additional procedures, and complications. The t test was used for the primary outcome, and a P value lower than .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Forty-six patients completed the study. There was no statistically significant difference in overall length of stay, length of stay after surgery, temperature, or need for additional procedures between the 2 treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of nonirrigating drains appears to be equally efficacious as irrigating drains in the management of severe odontogenic infection.
    Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 06/2012; · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • Gary F Bouloux
    Atlas of the oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics of North America 09/2011; 19(2):169-75.
  • Gary F Bouloux
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term treatment of patients with chronic temporomandibular joint dysfunction has been challenging. The long-term use of opioids in these patients can be neither supported nor refuted based on current evidence. However, evidence is available to support the long-term use of opioids in other chronic noncancer pain states with reduced pain, improved function, and improved quality of life. One group of patients with chronic temporomandibular joint pain, for whom both noninvasive and invasive treatment has failed, might benefit from long-term opioid medication. The choices include morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone, tramadol, hydrocodone, and methadone. Adjunct medication, including antidepressant and anticonvulsant drugs, can also be used. The safety of these medications has been well established, but the potential for adverse drug-related behavior does exist, requiring appropriate patient selection, adequate monitoring, and intervention when needed.
    Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 03/2011; 69(7):1885-91. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    Amy Kuhmichel, Gary F Bouloux
    Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 01/2010; 68(1):208-12. · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • Gary F Bouloux
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    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of temporomandibular joint pain is not well understood. A significant amount of research has been conducted to evaluate synovial fluid in these patients and in healthy controls. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the synovial fluid have shown a significant difference between these groups. A multitude of inflammatory mediators and degradation products have been identified. The concentration of these products has been shown to correlate with several clinical parameters including pain, chronicity, severity of degenerative change, and response to treatment. A common inflammatory pathway would appear to be involved in most patients. At the present time, synovial fluid analysis does not have the sensitivity or specificity to allow specific diagnoses and targeted treatment. Continued research with the specific aim of establishing more appropriate therapeutic modalities based on the biochemical pathways is warranted.
    Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 11/2009; 67(11):2497-504. · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • Gary F Bouloux, Vincent J Perciaccante
    Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 08/2009; 67(7):1547-51. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article addresses the incidence of specific complications and, where possible, offers a preventive or management strategy. Injuries of the inferior alveolar and lingual nerves are significant issues that are discussed separately in this text. Surgical removal of third molars is often associated with postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus. Factors thought to influence the incidence of complications after third molar removal include age, gender, medical history, oral contraceptives, presence of pericoronitis, poor oral hygiene, smoking, type of impaction, relationship of third molar to the inferior alveolar nerve, surgical time, surgical technique, surgeon experience, use of perioperative antibiotics, use of topical antiseptics, use of intra-socket medications, and anesthetic technique. Complications that are discussed further include alveolar osteitis, postoperative infection, hemorrhage, oro-antral communication, damage to adjacent teeth, displaced teeth, and fractures.
    Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America 03/2007; 19(1):117-28, vii. · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • Sam E Farish, Gary F Bouloux
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    ABSTRACT: The most commonly performed surgical procedure in most oral and maxillofacial surgery practices is the removal of impacted third molars. Extensive training, skill, and experience allow this procedure to be performed in an atraumatic fashion with local anesthesia, sedation, or general anesthesia. The decision to remove symptomatic third molars is not usually difficult, but the decision to remove asymptomatic third molars is sometimes less clear and requires clinical experience. A wide body of literature (discussed elsewhere in this issue) attempts to establish clinical practice guidelines for dealing with impacted teeth. Data is beginning to accumulate from third molar studies, which hopefully will provide surgeons and their patients with evidence-based guidelines regarding elective third molar surgery.
    Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America 03/2007; 19(1):23-43, v-vi. · 0.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

89 Citations
16.73 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2013
    • Emory University
      • Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
      Atlanta, GA, United States
    • Center For Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
      Georgia, United States