[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breeders in the allo-octoploid strawberry currently make little use of molecular marker tools. As a first step of a QTL discovery project on fruit quality traits and resistance to soil-borne pathogens such as Phytophthora cactorum and Verticillium we built a genome-wide SSR linkage map for the cross Holiday x Korona. We used the previously published MADCE method to obtain full haplotype information for both of the parental cultivars, facilitating in-depth studies on their genomic organisation.
The linkage map incorporates 508 segregating loci and represents each of the 28 chromosome pairs of octoploid strawberry, spanning an estimated length of 2050 cM. The sub-genomes are denoted according to their sequence divergence from F.vesca as revealed by marker performance. The map revealed high overall synteny between the sub-genomes, but also revealed two large inversions on LG2C and LG2D, of which the latter was confirmed using a separate mapping population. We discovered interesting breeding features within the parental cultivars by in-depth analysis of our haplotype data. The linkage map-derived homozygosity level of Holiday was similar to the pedigree-derived inbreeding level (33% and 29%, respectively). For Korona we found that the observed homozygosity level was over three times higher than expected from the pedigree (13% versus 3.6%). This could indicate selection pressure on genes that have favourable effects in homozygous states. The level of kinship between Holiday and Korona derived from our linkage map was 2.5 times higher than the pedigree-derived value. This large difference could be evidence of selection pressure enacted by strawberry breeders towards specific haplotypes.
The obtained SSR linkage map provides a good base for QTL discovery. It also provides the first biologically relevant basis for the discernment and notation of sub-genomes. For the first time, we revealed genomic rearrangements that were verified in a separate mapping population. We believe that haplotype information will become increasingly important in identifying marker-trait relationships and regions that are under selection pressure within breeding material. Our attempt at providing a biological basis for the discernment of sub-genomes warrants follow-up studies to streamline the naming of the sub-genomes among different octoploid strawberry maps.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Theoretical approaches predict that host quantitative resistance selects for pathogens with a high level of pathogenicity, leading to erosion of the resistance. This process of erosion has, however, rarely been experimentally demonstrated. To investigate the erosion of apple quantitative resistance to scab disease, we surveyed scab incidence over time in a network of three orchards planted with susceptible and quantitatively resistant apple genotypes. We sampled V. inaequalis isolates from two of these orchards at the beginning of the experiment and we tested their quantitative components of pathogenicity (i.e., global disease severity, lesion density, lesion size, latent period) under controlled conditions. The disease severity produced by the isolates on the quantitatively resistant apple genotypes differed between the sites. Our study showed that quantitative resistance may be subject to erosion and even complete breakdown, depending on the site. We observed this evolution over time for apple genotypes that combine two broad-spectrum scab resistance QTLs, F11 and F17, showing a significant synergic effect of this combination in favour of resistance (i.e., favourable epistatic effect). We showed that isolates sampled in the orchard where the resistance was inefficient presented a similar level of pathogenicity on both apple genotypes with quantitative resistance and susceptible genotypes. As a consequence, our results revealed a case where the use of quantitative resistance may result in the emergence of a generalist pathogen population that has extended its pathogenicity range by performing similarly on susceptible and resistant genotypes. This emphasizes the need to develop quantitative resistances conducive to trade-offs within the pathogen populations concerned.
Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 01/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A considerable number of individuals suffer from oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to apple, resulting in the avoidance of apple consumption. Apple cultivars differ greatly in their allergenic properties, but knowledge of the causes for such differences is incomplete. Mal d 1 is considered the major apple allergen. For Mal d 1, a wide range of isoallergens and variants exist, and they are encoded by a large gene family. To identify the specific proteins/genes that are potentially involved in the allergy, we developed a PCR assay to monitor the expression of each individual Mal d 1 gene. Gene-specific primer pairs were designed for the exploitation of sequence differences among Mal d 1 genes. The specificity of these primers was validated using both in silico and in vitro techniques. Subsequently, this assay was applied to the peel and flesh of fruits from the two cultivars 'Florina' and 'Gala'. RESULTS: We successfully developed gene-specific primer pairs for each of the 31 Mal d 1 genes and incorporated them into a qRT-PCR assay. The results from the application of the assay showed that 11 genes were not expressed in fruit. In addition, differential expression was observed among the Mal d 1 genes that were expressed in the fruit. Moreover, the expression levels were tissue and cultivar dependent. CONCLUSION: The assay developed in this study facilitated the first characterisation of the expression levels of all known Mal d 1 genes in a gene-specific manner. Using this assay on different fruit tissues and cultivars, we obtained knowledge concerning gene relevance in allergenicity. This study provides new perspectives for research on both plant breeding and immunotherapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progenies of ‘Schmidt's Antonovka’ (SA) have been widely used in Western breeding programs as a source of scab resistance. The identity of SA has remained obscure, especially due to the existence of a series of ‘Antonovka’ cultivars with different origins. In this paper we show Schmidt's Antonovka to be identical to Анто́новка обыкновенный or ‘Common Antonovka’ (CA), an old Russian cultivar of unknown origin, by comparing simple sequence repeat (SSR) and SNP genotyping data from several first-generation descendants of SA from two European collections and a CA accession from the germplasm collection held at VNIISPK (The All-Russian Research Institute of Horticultural Breeding, Orel, Russia). The use of CA in Russian breeding programs is also briefly reviewed.
Tree Genetics & Genomes 01/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an effort to implement marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae, many traits need to be characterized in diverse
germplasm. The USDA-NIFA Specialty Crop Research Initiative-funded RosBREED project includes breeding
programs of four Rosaceae crops (apple, peach, cherry and strawberry). Phenotyping each crop for specific horticultural
and commercial traits is an important process needed to translate genomic knowledge through marker-assisted
breeding into enhanced breeding efficiency. These data will directly aid in the identification of quantitative
trait loci or marker-trait associations that will be used to assist breeding programs in the future. Large-scale, standardized
phenotyping protocols have been set up for each crop. The standardized phenotyping protocol for strawberries
was agreed upon by the breeding teams in Oregon, Michigan, New Hampshire, California and Florida and
includes four trait categories: phenology and other flower-related traits, plant characteristics, fruit characteristics,
and fruit chemistry traits. We describe how each of the traits in the categories was evaluated. A summary of mean
values for 37 traits of the genotypes planted at the RosBREED locations in 2011 and 2012 is provided. The phenotypic
data for widely used founder germplasm that has contributed to current cultivars is available through the
“Breeders Toolbox” at the Genome Database for Rosaceae (http://www.rosaceae.org/breeders_toolbox).
Journal- American Pomological Society 01/2013; 67(4):205-216. · 0.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) is a subtropical evergreen tree originating in China. It has been cultivated in southern China for several thousand years, and annual production has reached 1.1 million tons. The taste and high level of health promoting characters identified in the fruit in recent years has stimulated its extension in China and introduction to Australia. A limited number of co-dominant markers have been developed and applied in genetic diversity and identity studies. Here we report, for the first time, a survey of whole genome shotgun data to develop a large number of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse the genetic diversity of the common cultivated Chinese bayberry and the relationship with three other Myrica species. RESULTS: The whole genome shotgun survey of Chinese bayberry produced 9.01Gb of sequence data, about 26x coverage of the estimated genome size of 323 Mb. The genome sequences were highly heterozygous, but with little duplication. From the initial assembled scaffold covering 255 Mb sequence data, 28,602 SSRs ([greater than or equal to]5 repeats) were identified. Dinucleotide was the most common repeat motif with a frequency of 84.73%, followed by 13.78% trinucleotide, 1.34% tetranucleotide, 0.12% pentanucleotide and 0.04% hexanucleotide. From 600 primer pairs, 186 polymorphic SSRs were developed. Of these, 158 were used to screen 29 Chinese bayberry accessions and three other Myrica species: 91.14%, 89.87% and 46.84% SSRs could be used in Myrica adenophora, Myrica nana and Myrica cerifera, respectively. The UPGMA dendrogram tree showed that cultivated Myrica rubra is closely related to Myrica adenophora and Myrica nana, originating in southwest China, and very distantly related to Myrica cerifera, originating in America. These markers can be used in the construction of a linkage map and for genetic diversity studies in Myrica species. CONCLUSION: Myrica rubra has a small genome of about 323 Mb with a high level of heterozygosity. A large number of SSRs were identified, and 158 polymorphic SSR markers developed, 91% of which can be transferred to other Myrica species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: European populations exhibit progressive sensitisation to food allergens, and apples are one of the foods for which sensitisation is observed most frequently. Apple cultivars vary greatly in their allergenic characteristics, and a better understanding of the genetic basis of low allergenicity may therefore allow allergic individuals to increase their fruit intake. Mal d 1 is considered to be a major apple allergen, and this protein is encoded by the most complex allergen gene family. Not all Mal d 1 members are likely to be involved in allergenicity. Therefore, additional knowledge about the existence and characteristics of the different Mal d 1 genes is required. In the present study, we investigated the genomic organisation of the Mal d 1 gene cluster in linkage group 16 of apple through the sequencing of two bacterial artificial chromosome clones. The results provided new information on the composition of this family with respect to the number and orientation of functional and pseudogenes and their physical distances. The results were compared with the apple and peach genome sequences that have recently been made available. A broad analysis of the whole apple genome revealed the presence of new genes in this family, and a complete list of the observed Mal d 1 genes is supplied. Thus, this study provides an important contribution towards a better understanding of the genetics of the Mal d 1 family and establishes the basis for further research on allelic diversity among cultivars in relation to variation in allergenicity. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9588-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic studies in allopolyploid plants are challenging because of the presence of similar sub-genomes, which leads to multiple alleles and complex segregation ratios. In this study, we describe a novel method for establishing the exact dose and configuration of microsatellite alleles for any accession of an allopolyploid plant species. The method, named Microsatellite Allele Dose and Configuration Establishment (MADCE), can be applied to mapping populations and pedigreed (breeding) germplasm in allopolyploids.
Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the power and robustness of the MADCE method. In the mapping case, five microsatellites were analysed. These microsatellites amplified 35 different alleles based on size. Using MADCE, we uncovered 30 highly informative segregating alleles. A conventional approach would have yielded only 19 fully informative and six partially informative alleles. Of the ten alleles that were present in all progeny (and thereby ignored or considered homozygous when using conventional approaches), six were found to segregate by dosage when analysed with MADCE. Moreover, the full allelic configuration of the mapping parents could be established, including null alleles, homozygous loci, and alleles that were present on multiple homoeologues. In the second case, 21 pedigreed cultivars were analysed using MADCE, resulting in the establishment of the full allelic configuration for all 21 cultivars and a tracing of allele flow over multiple generations.
The procedure described in this study (MADCE) enhances the efficiency and information content of mapping studies in allopolyploids. More importantly, it is the first technique to allow the determination of the full allelic configuration in pedigreed breeding germplasm from allopolyploid plants. This enables pedigree-based marker-trait association studies the use of algorithms developed for diploid crops, and it may increase the effectiveness of LD-based association studies. The MADCE method therefore enables researchers to tackle many of the genotyping problems that arise when performing mapping, pedigree, and association studies in allopolyploids. We discuss the merits of MADCE in comparison to other marker systems in polyploids, including SNPs, and how MADCE could aid in the development of SNP markers in allopolyploids.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh) is among the main sources of phenolic compounds in the human diet. The genetic basis of the quantitative variations of these potentially beneficial phenolic compounds was investigated. A segregating F₁ population was used to map metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTLs). Untargeted metabolic profiling of peel and flesh tissues of ripe fruits was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), resulting in the detection of 418 metabolites in peel and 254 in flesh. In mQTL mapping using MetaNetwork, 669 significant mQTLs were detected: 488 in the peel and 181 in the flesh. Four linkage groups (LGs), LG1, LG8, LG13, and LG16, were found to contain mQTL hotspots, mainly regulating metabolites that belong to the phenylpropanoid pathway. The genetics of annotated metabolites was studied in more detail using MapQTL®. A number of quercetin conjugates had mQTLs on LG1 or LG13. The most important mQTL hotspot with the largest number of metabolites was detected on LG16: mQTLs for 33 peel-related and 17 flesh-related phenolic compounds. Structural genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway were located, using the apple genome sequence. The structural gene leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1) was in the mQTL hotspot on LG16, as were seven transcription factor genes. The authors believe that this is the first time that a QTL analysis was performed on such a high number of metabolites in an outbreeding plant species.
Journal of Experimental Botany 02/2012; 63(8):2895-908. · 5.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As high-throughput genetic marker screening systems are essential for a range of genetics studies and plant breeding applications, the International RosBREED SNP Consortium (IRSC) has utilized the Illumina Infinium® II system to develop a medium- to high-throughput SNP screening tool for genome-wide evaluation of allelic variation in apple (Malus×domestica) breeding germplasm. For genome-wide SNP discovery, 27 apple cultivars were chosen to represent worldwide breeding germplasm and re-sequenced at low coverage with the Illumina Genome Analyzer II. Following alignment of these sequences to the whole genome sequence of 'Golden Delicious', SNPs were identified using SoapSNP. A total of 2,113,120 SNPs were detected, corresponding to one SNP to every 288 bp of the genome. The Illumina GoldenGate® assay was then used to validate a subset of 144 SNPs with a range of characteristics, using a set of 160 apple accessions. This validation assay enabled fine-tuning of the final subset of SNPs for the Illumina Infinium® II system. The set of stringent filtering criteria developed allowed choice of a set of SNPs that not only exhibited an even distribution across the apple genome and a range of minor allele frequencies to ensure utility across germplasm, but also were located in putative exonic regions to maximize genotyping success rate. A total of 7867 apple SNPs was established for the IRSC apple 8K SNP array v1, of which 5554 were polymorphic after evaluation in segregating families and a germplasm collection. This publicly available genomics resource will provide an unprecedented resolution of SNP haplotypes, which will enable marker-locus-trait association discovery, description of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, investigation of genetic variation (neutral and functional), and genomic selection in apple.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e31745. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the most important fruit trees grown in Europe and around the world for human consumption, and therefore
plant breeders aim at producing new apple varieties with high fruit quality. The availability of molecular markers suitable
for marker-assisted selection could greatly increase the efficiency and power of breeding. The recent release of the cv. Golden
Delicious genome sequence contributed to an exponential increase in the number of Malus sequences publicly available, while the successful achievement of two apple expressed sequence tag (EST) projects permitted
the development of molecular markers from coding sequences. Here we present the setting up and mapping of new EST-based markers
specific for fruit development and fruit quality traits. Since a large proportion of the ESTs used in our work were transcriptionally
characterized and some of them co-localize within quantitative trait locus regions controlling fruit quality traits, the data
reported will be effective in the identification of candidate genes. Due to the high level of polymorphism present in the
Malus genome, 70% of the entire set of ESTs analyzed were polymorphic and 80% of them were successfully located using the conventional
map-based approach. Fifty new EST-based markers were placed on the apple reference genetic map Fiesta×Discovery, thus enhancing
the saturation of some regions, and 17 on Prima×Fiesta. Finally, another 17 markers were located on the Golden Delicious
genome sequence using an in-silico approach.
KeywordsCandidate genes–ESTs–Fruit development–Functional molecular markers–
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of putative allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4) have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica), these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcis)Pru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize putative peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica).
Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage group 1 (G1). Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage groups, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B) were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01-3.03) containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02) were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2.
A total of 18 putative peach/almond allergen genes have been mapped on five linkage groups. Their positions confirm the high macro-synteny between peach/almond and apple. The insight gained will help to identify key genes causing differences in allergenicity among different cultivars of peach and other Prunus species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mal d 1 is a major apple allergen causing food allergic symptoms of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) in birch-pollen sensitised patients. The Mal d 1 gene family is known to have at least 7 intron-containing and 11 intronless members that have been mapped in clusters on three linkage groups. In this study, the allelic diversity of the seven intron-containing Mal d 1 genes was assessed among a set of apple cultivars by sequencing or indirectly through pedigree genotyping. Protein variant constitutions were subsequently compared with Skin Prick Test (SPT) responses to study the association of deduced protein variants with allergenicity in a set of 14 cultivars.
From the seven intron-containing Mal d 1 genes investigated, Mal d 1.01 and Mal d 1.02 were highly conserved, as nine out of ten cultivars coded for the same protein variant, while only one cultivar coded for a second variant. Mal d 1.04, Mal d 1.05 and Mal d 1.06 A, B and C were more variable, coding for three to six different protein variants. Comparison of Mal d 1 allelic composition between the high-allergenic cultivar Golden Delicious and the low-allergenic cultivars Santana and Priscilla, which are linked in pedigree, showed an association between the protein variants coded by the Mal d 1.04 and -1.06A genes (both located on linkage group 16) with allergenicity. This association was confirmed in 10 other cultivars. In addition, Mal d 1.06A allele dosage effects associated with the degree of allergenicity based on prick to prick testing. Conversely, no associations were observed for the protein variants coded by the Mal d 1.01 (on linkage group 13), -1.02, -1.06B, -1.06C genes (all on linkage group 16), nor by the Mal d 1.05 gene (on linkage group 6).
Protein variant compositions of Mal d 1.04 and -1.06A and, in case of Mal d 1.06A, allele doses are associated with the differences in allergenicity among fourteen apple cultivars. This information indicates the involvement of qualitative as well as quantitative factors in allergenicity and warrants further research in the relative importance of quantitative and qualitative aspects of Mal d 1 gene expression on allergenicity. Results from this study have implications for medical diagnostics, immunotherapy, clinical research and breeding schemes for new hypo-allergenic cultivars.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars.
Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars.
LTP was measured in apples from 53 cultivars grown in Italy and 35 grown in The Netherlands, using three different immunoassays: a competitive ELISA (cELISA), a sandwich ELISA (sELISA) and a RAST inhibition (RI). Selected cultivars were evaluated using the basophil histamine release test (BHR), skin prick test (SPT) and double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC).
LTP levels measured with the three immunoassays were significantly correlated, as judged by Pearson's correlation (0.61 < Rp < 0.65; p < 0.0001), but differed with respect to the actual quantities: 3.4-253.2 (sELISA), 2.7-120.2 (cELISA) and 0.4-47.3 microg/g tissue (RI). Between cultivars, LTP titers varied over about a two-log range. Pilot in vitro and in vivo biological testing (BHR, SPT and DBPCFC) with selected cultivars supported the observed differences in LTP levels.
Around 100-fold differences in LTP levels exist between apple cultivars. Whether the lowest observed levels of LTP warrant designation as hypo-allergenic requires more extensive confirmation by oral challenges. Determination of cultivar variation in LTP levels provides important information for growers and consumers. Comparison to earlier reported Mal d 1 levels in the same cultivars reveals that a designation as low allergenic does not always coincide for both allergens.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 01/2008; 146(1):19-26. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessment of allergenicity of foods is important for allergic consumers and regulators. Immunoassays to measure major food allergens are widely applied, often giving variable results. Using the major apple allergen Mal d 1 as a model, we aimed to establish at the molecular level why different immunoassays for assessing allergenicity of apple cultivars produce conflicting outcomes.
Mal d 1 was measured in 53 cultivars from Italy and 35 from The Netherlands, using four different immunoassays. Purified Mal d 1 standards were molecularly characterized by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and mass spectrometry (MS).
Three immunoassays using an identical standard gave similar results. Minor differences in sample preparation already resulted in significant loss of allergenicity. The fourth assay, using a different Mal d 1 standard, gave 10- to 100-fold lower outcomes. By SEC, this standard was shown to be almost fully aggregated. This aggregation was accompanied by a decrease of the mass of the Mal d 1 molecule by approximately 1 kDa as analyzed by MS. The deviating immunoassay was shown to selectively recognize this aggregated form of Mal d 1, whereas the other three assays, including the one based on IgE antibody recognition, preferentially bound non-aggregated allergen.
Variable and poorly controllable major allergen modification in both extracts and standards hamper accurate allergenicity assessments of fruits.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 02/2006; 141(3):230-40. · 2.25 Impact Factor