A. Maffucci

Università degli studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Cassino, Latium, Italy

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Publications (81)44.69 Total impact

  • A.G. Chiariello, Antonio Maffucci, Giovanni Miano
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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes an equivalent circuital model to describe the electrical propagation along nanoscale interconnects, made either by carbon nanotubes or graphene nanoribbons. The circuital models are derived from an electrodynamical model for the transport of conduction electrons, and are expressed in the frame of the classical transmission line theory. The per-unit-length parameters, despite their simple expressions, retain the main phenomena occurring at nanoscale, such as the kinetic and quantum effects. In addition, the circuit parameters are expressed as functions of the temperature and the transverse size of the interconnect, thus allowing a qualitative and quantitative analysis of their impact in the electrical performance of the interconnects. The models are used to study some challenging problems in nanopackaging, such as the degradation of electrical performance due to self-heating and the high-frequency current crowding problem because of the skin-effect. Interconnects and vias are analyzed, referring to the 14-nm technology node.
    IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology 11/2013; 3(11):1926-1937. DOI:10.1109/TCPMT.2013.2262213 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the electrical performance of innovative carbon‐based nano‐interconnects made by carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. The electronic transport in the carbon materials is modeled in the frame of the Transmission Line theory, where the classical per‐unit‐length circuital parameters are corrected by new terms arising from the quantistic nature of the transport. These parameters are related to the number of the conducting channels and the mean free path, which in turn, are expressed as functions of temperature and size. By coupling this model to the heat equation, a simple electro‐thermal model is derived. Case‐studies are carried out with reference to 22‐nm technology node applications. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Numerical Modelling Electronic Networks Devices and Fields 11/2013; 26(6). DOI:10.1002/jnm.1884 · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • Antonio Maffucci, Giovanni Miano
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    ABSTRACT: Nanowire-based circuits are candidates for future high-speed electronics. Signal propagation in nanowires can be studied by combining the semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory to the classical transmission line theory. In this paper, we apply this approach to model the signal propagation in graphene nanoribbon (GNR) interconnects. We express the kinetic inductance and the quantum capacitance in terms of the number of effective conducting channels. We study in detail the behavior of the number of effective conducting channels for both the armchair and zig-zag GNRs as their widths vary. This number is computed rigorously, taking into account the actual distribution of the energy spectrum and of the velocity of the conduction electrons. We found that the expressions for the number of conducting channels proposed in the literature give a significant overestimation of its values.
    IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 09/2013; 12(5):817-823. DOI:10.1109/TNANO.2013.2274901 · 1.62 Impact Factor
  • A. Maffucci, G. Miano
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    ABSTRACT: A simple but physically consistent model is presented to describe propagation of signals along interconnects made by graphene nanoribbons. The model is derived in the frame of the semi-classical theory. Its parameters are related to the effective number of conducting channels. Finally, a transmission line model is derived and the sensitivity of its parameters is analyzed with respect to the size and temperature change.
    Proceedings of International Conference Nanomeeting – 2013; 06/2013
  • A. Maffucci, G. Miano
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    ABSTRACT: This paper provides a transmission line (TL) model for the propagation of electric signals along graphene nanoribbon and carbon nanotubes interconnects in the sub-terahertz frequency range. The electrical parameters are written in terms of classical terms and quantum ones. The peculiar behavior of these parameters as a function of the transverse size and of the temperature is investigated, as well as the dispersion relation of the propagation velocity.
    Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), 2013 International Conference on; 01/2013
  • A. Maffucci, G. Miano
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    ABSTRACT: A general transmission line model is presented, able to describe a large class of nano-interconnects, made either by conventional metallic nanowires or by innovative carbon materials (carbon nanotubes or graphene nanoribbons). A common frame is presented here, which allows describing the electrodynamics of such nano-structures by means of a modified Boltzmann transport equation. This model leads to a non-local dispersive Ohm's law, which is then coupled to Maxwell equations, to obtain the transmission line model. The quantum effects arising in nano-interconnects are included in the per-unit-length parameters of the transmission line model, so allowing the embedding of nano-interconnects into standard circuit simulators. The propagation properties of interconnects made by nanowires, carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons are studied and a performance comparison is given, referring to the typical arrangements foreseen for the technology nodes of some nanometers.
    Signal and Power Integrity (SPI), 2013 17th IEEE Workshop on; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The scope of this Minireview is to provide an overview of the recent progress on carbon nanotube electrodes applied to organic thin film transistors. After an introduction on the general aspects of the charge injection processes at various electrode-semiconductor interfaces, we discuss the great potential of carbon nanotube electrodes for organic thin film transistors and the recent achievements in the field.
    Nanoscale 01/2013; 5:4638. DOI:10.1039/c3nr33727h · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The electromagnetic behavior of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), in the frequency range where only intraband transitions are allowed, depends on the combinations of different aspects: the number of effective conducting channels of each shell, the electron tunneling between adjacent shells, and the electromagnetic interaction between shells and the environment. This paper proposes a general transmission-line (TL) model for describing the propagation of electric signals along MWCNTs at microwave through terahertz frequencies that takes into account all these aspects. The dependence of the number of conducting channels of the single shell on the shell chirality and radius is described in the framework of the quasi-classical transport theory. The description of the intershell tunneling effects on the longitudinal transport of the π-electrons is carried on the basis of the density matrix formalism and Liouville's equation. The electromagnetic coupling between the shells and ground plane is described in the frame of the classical TL theory. The intershell tunneling qualitatively changes the form of the TL equations through the tunneling inductance and capacitance operators, which have to be added, respectively, in series to the (kinetic and magnetic) inductance matrix and in parallel to the (quantum and electrical) capacitance matrix. For carbon nanotube (CNT) lengths greater than 500 nm, the norm of the tunneling inductance operator is greater than 60% of the norm of the total inductance in the frequency range from gigahertz to terahertz. The tunneling inductance is responsible for a considerable coupling between the shells and gives rise to strong spatial dispersion. The model has been used to analyze the eigenmodes of a double-wall CNT above a ground plane. The intershell tunneling gives arise to strong anomalous dispersion in antisymmetrical modes.
    IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 05/2012; 11(3):554 - 564. DOI:10.1109/TNANO.2012.2183611 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the electrical behavior of vias made by bundles of either single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The electronic transport in the CNTs is modeled through the kinetic inductance, the quantum capacitance, and the electrical resistance, which depend on the equivalent number of the CNT conducting channels. The dependence of such a number on the CNT radius, chirality, and temperature is described by using the quasi-classical transport theory. Since for the common mode the effects of the intershell tunneling are negligible, the interaction between different shells is described by using the classical electromagnetic theory. A simple but accurate equivalent lumped model for vias made by CNT bundles is proposed. Vias of interest in nanoelectronic applications are here analyzed, with particular focus on the behavior of electrical parameters versus temperature and frequency.
    IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility 02/2012; 54(1):158-166. DOI:10.1109/TEMC.2011.2180024 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • A. G. Chiariello, A. Maffucci, G. Miano
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    ABSTRACT: The paper investigates the Signal Integrity performance of innovative on-chip interconnects made by carbon-based materials, such as Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and Graphene NanoRibbons (GNRs). The innovative solutions are compared to the conventional copper realization. A simple but physically meaningful equivalent circuital model is presented for these interconnects, which properly accounts for the quantistic and kinetic phenomena observed at nanoscale. The models also include effects of interconnect size and temperature. Using this model, a Signal Integrity analysis of the electrical performance of global level on-chip interconnects is carried out, referring to the 22nm technology node.
  • A.G. Chiariello, Antonio Maffucci, Giovanni Miano
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    ABSTRACT: The paper deals with the performance analysis of global-level on-chip interconnects. Two innovative solutions are presented, based on carbon solutions, and compared to conventional copper realization. These solutions involve the use of Carbon Nanotubes or Graphene Nanoribbons. A simple circuit equivalent model is presented for these interconnects, which can properly account for the geometrical properties of the carbon interconnects and for their temperature. Using this model, an analysis of the electrical performance of global level on-chip interconnects is carried out, referring to the 22nm technology node.
    Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO), 2012 12th IEEE Conference on; 01/2012
  • A. G. Chiariello, A. Maffucci
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    ABSTRACT: Inclusion of planar layered media Green's Functions (GFs) is a major issue in the computational efficiency of full-wave models derived from integral formulations. These GFs may be decomposed into quasi-dynamic and dynamic terms. In a wide range of practical applications, the quasi-dynamic terms may be given in closed form. This paper proposes two criteria to establish when the complete GFs may be approximated by the quasi-dynamic terms. These criteria are based on simple relations between frequency, line length, dielectric thickness and permittivity. If these criteria are satisfied, the inclusion of the GFs into full-wave integral models is straightforward and the overall computational cost is strongly reduced. The proposed criteria are verified through a benchmark test case. The model is then used to perform a full-wave analysis of the power lost in a microstrip, as a consequence of the excitation of parasitic modes, such as surface and leaky waves.
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    Andrea G Chiariello, Antonio Maffucci
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    ABSTRACT: Integral formulations are widely used for full-wave analysis of microstrip interconnects. A weak point of these formula-tions is the inclusion of the proper planar-layered Green's Functions (GFs), because of their computational cost. To overcome this problem, usually the GFs are decomposed into a quasi-dynamic term and a dynamic one. Under suitable approximations, the first may be given in closed form, whereas the second is approximated. Starting from a general cri-terion for this decomposition, in this paper we derive some simple criteria for using the closed-form quasi-dynamic GFs instead of the complete GFs, with reference to the problem of evaluating the full-wave current distribution along micro-strips. These criteria are based on simple relations between frequency, line length, dielectric thickness and permittivity. The layered GFs have been embedded into a full-wave transmission line model and the results are first benchmarked with respect to a full-wave numerical 3D tool, then used to assess the proposed criteria.
    Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications 01/2012; 4(02). DOI:10.4236/jemaa.2012.42009
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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a model for the electrical propagation along carbon nanotubes, based on a quasi-classical Boltzmann transport model. The model is accurate enough to include quantistic and kinetic effects involved at nanoscale, and simple enough to provide equivalent circuits with the physically meaningful parameters. These parameters are expressed in terms of the equivalent number of conducting channels, which takes into account CNT chiralities, temperature and diameter. This allows simulating realistic CNT bundles proposed as nano-interconnects for future VLSI applications.
    Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics 12/2011; 7(1):12-16. DOI:10.1166/jno.2012.1208 · 0.37 Impact Factor
  • Carlo Forestiere, Antonio Maffucci, Giovanni Miano
    IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 11/2011; 10(6):1221-1223. DOI:10.1109/TNANO.2011.2164263 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes the radiated emissions of a system consisting of an IC (a Flash memory device) and its package (PQFP80). The system is described by means of an IC emission model (ICEM). The radiated emissions are estimated by means of an electromagnetic model for the field emissions of current loops. Experimental characterization was conducted to measure the currents on the package and the far-field emitted fields. The models were experimentally validated and used to analyze case studies for different devices using 150nm and 110nm technologies.
    Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), 2011 International Conference on; 10/2011
  • A.G. Chiariello, A. Maffucci, G. Miano
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    ABSTRACT: The paper investigates the high-frequency distribution of the current density in Through-Silicon Vias made by bundles of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). These bundles are described by means of a recently proposed circuit model which, in spite of its simplicity, accounts for the kinetic and quantum phenomena involved in the electrical propagation along CNTs and includes the effects of size, temperature and chirality. The particular electrical properties of such a new material make the CNT-based TSVs quite insensitive to skin-effect and proximity effect. This is shown with reference to a case-study of a TSV pair for the technology node of 22 nm, for which the effects of frequency and temperature variation are analyzed.
    Signal Propagation on Interconnects (SPI), 2011 15th IEEE Workshop on; 06/2011
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    ABSTRACT: In carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with large radii, either metallic or semiconducting, several subbands contribute to the electrical conduction, while in metallic nonarmchair nanotubes with small radii the wall curvature induces a large energy gap. In this paper, we propose a model for the signal propagation along single wall CNTs (SWCNTs) of arbitrary chirality, at microwave through terahertz frequencies, which takes into account both these characteristics in a self-consistent way. We first study an SWCNT, disregarding the wall curvature, in the frame of a semiclassical treatment based on the Boltzmann equation in the momentum-independent relaxation time approximation. It allows expressing the longitudinal dynamic conductivity in terms of the number of effective conducting channels. Next, we study the behavior of this number as the nanotube radius varies and its relation with the kinetic inductance and quantum capacitance. Furthermore, we show that the effects of the spatial dispersion are negligible in the collision dominated regimes, whereas they may be important in the collisionless regimes, giving rise to sound waves propagating with the Fermi velocity. Then, we study the effects on the electron transport of the terahertz quantum transition induced by the wall curvature by using a quantum kinetic approach. The nanotube curvature modifies the kinetic inductance and gives arise to an additional RLC branch in the equivalent circuit, related to the terahertz quantum transition. The proposed model can be used effectively for analyzing the signal propagation in complex structures composed of SWCNTs with different chirality, such as bundles of SWCNTs and multiwall CNTs, providing that the tunneling between adjacent shells may be disregarded.
    IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 02/2011; DOI:10.1109/TNANO.2009.2034262 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper provides a transmission line (TL) model for the propagation of electric signals along multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) interconnects in the low frequency regime where interband transitions are forbidden. The electrical parameters of the TL model depend on the number of equivalent conducting channels and the intershell tunneling frequency. The tunneling current is responsible for a strong spatial dispersion and coupling between the shells.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we study the electrical and thermal behaviour of future on-chip interconnects, where carbon nanotube bundles are assumed to replace conventional materials in realizing vertical vias. The model adopted here describe the bundles through a circuit equivalent representation, whose parameters takes into account the effect of size, chirality and temperature of the carbon nanotubes. This allows modelling accurately the typical operating conditions for on-chip interconnects. A 12-layer on-chip interconnect is analysed here, referred to the 22 nm technology node, and three possible scenarios are compared: a conventional copper realization and two hybrid realizations, where the horizontal traces are made by copper or by graphene nanoribbons.
    01/2011; DOI:10.1109/EDAPS.2011.6213724

Publication Stats

421 Citations
44.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2013
    • Università degli studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale
      • • Department of Electrical and Information Engineering
      • • Department of Automation, Electromagnetism, Information Engineering and Industrial Mathematics - DAEIMI
      Cassino, Latium, Italy
  • 2007
    • Università degli Studi di Napoli L'Orientale
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1997–2007
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • Department of Physical Sciences
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1999
    • Policlinico Federico II di Napoli
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
    • Naples Eastern University
      • Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica
      Napoli, Campania, Italy