T. A. Perera

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (91)199.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the results from a 1.1 mm imaging survey of the SSA22 field, known for having an overdensity of z=3.1 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs), taken with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We imaged a 950 arcmin$^2$ field down to a 1 sigma sensitivity of 0.7-1.3 mJy/beam to find 125 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with a signal to noise ratio >= 3.5. Counterpart identification using radio and near/mid-infrared data was performed and one or more counterpart candidates were found for 59 SMGs. Photometric redshifts based on optical to near-infrared images were evaluated for 45 SMGs of these SMGs with Spitzer/IRAC data, and the median value is found to be z=2.4. By combining these estimation with estimates from the literature we determined that 10 SMGs might lie within the large-scale structure at z=3.1. The two-point angular cross-correlation function between LAEs and SMGs indicates that the positions of the SMGs are correlated with the z=3.1 protocluster. These results suggest that the SMGs were formed and evolved selectively in the high dense environment of the high redshift universe. This picture is consistent with the predictions of the standard model of hierarchical structure formation.
    03/2014; 440(4).
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    ABSTRACT: We performed deep and wide-field surveys at 1.1 mm using AzTEC camera mounted on ASTE. We calculate the two-point angular autocorrelation functions in seven deep survey fields: AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S), COSMOS, GOODS-N, GOODS-S, Lockman Hole East, SSA 22, and SXDF. We detect evidence for clustering signals in all the fields. By averaging the results on the bright sources measured in the ADF-S, the SSA 22, and the SXDF fields, we derived a more significant correlation function of 1.1 mm sources. A comparison of the correlation length with a bias evolution model of dark halos suggests that dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources evolve into galaxy clusters in the present-day universe.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A new technique for reliably identifying point sources in millimeter/submillimeter wavelength maps is presented. This method accounts for the frequency dependence of noise in the Fourier domain as well as nonuniformities in the coverage of a field. This optimal filter is an improvement over commonly-used matched filters that ignore coverage gradients. Treating noise variations in the Fourier domain as well as map space is traditionally viewed as a computationally intensive problem. We show that the penalty incurred in terms of computing time is quite small due to casting many of the calculations in terms of FFTs and exploiting the absence of sharp features in the noise spectra of observations. Practical aspects of implementing the optimal filter are presented in the context of data from the AzTEC bolometer camera. The advantages of using the new filter over the standard matched filter are also addressed in terms of a typical AzTEC map.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 07/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In sub-millimeter and longer-wavelength observations, identification of point sources is important, either as the primary goal, or for the removal of foregrounds. A popular technique used in point source searches is to convolve the sky map with a "Mexican-hat" kernel, also known as a matched filter, that takes into account the Fourier-domain noise properties of a map. In the process, variations in noise level across the map, usually represented by a coverage map, are either ignored or the sky map is truncated to include only a sub-region with near-uniform coverage. Simultaneously accounting for noise in the Fourier domain as well in map-space is traditionally considered a complex and computationally time-intensive problem. For the analysis of data from AzTEC, we have developed a new algorithm that accounts for both forms of noise in a mathematically sound, yet computationally efficient way. The basis of this method is a generalized least-squares fit of the PSF to every location (pixel) of the map. Computational efficiency is achieved by (1) exploiting the absence of sharp features in the noise power spectra of well designed observations and (2) the use of FFTs (Fast Fourier Transforms) for many of the calculations. We use results from AzTEC to demonstrate the advantages of such an analysis over the conventional matched-filter technique.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We imaged a 2800 arcmin2 field centred at right ascension RA(J2000.0)=10:00:30.00 and declination DE(J2000.0)=2:14.00 with AzTEC mounted on the 10-m ASTE, located at 4800m in the Atacama Desert of Chile. The survey was carried out from 2008 October 20 to November 30. (1 data file).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present 1.1 mm observations of the dust continuum emission from the MBM12 high-latitude molecular cloud observed with the Astronomical Thermal Emission Camera (AzTEC) mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We surveyed a 6.34 deg$^2$ centered on MBM12, making this the largest area that has ever been surveyed in this region with submillimeter and millimeter telescopes. Eight secure individual sources were detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of over 4.4. These eight AzTEC sources can be considered to be real astronomical objects compared to the other candidates based on calculations of the false detection rate. The distribution of the detected 1.1 mm sources or compact 1.1 mm peaks is spatially anti-correlated with that of the 100 micronm emission and the $^{12}$CO emission. We detected the 1.1 mm dust continuum emitting sources associated with two classical T Tauri stars, LkHalpha262 and LkHalpha264. Observations of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) indicate that LkHalpha262 is likely to be Class II (pre-main-sequence star), but there are also indications that it could be a late Class I (protostar). A flared disk and a bipolar cavity in the models of Class I sources lead to more complicated SEDs. From the present AzTEC observations of the MBM12 region, it appears that other sources detected with AzTEC are likely to be extragalactic and located behind MBM12. Some of these have radio counterparts and their star formation rates are derived from a fit of the SEDs to the photometric evolution of galaxies in which the effects of a dusty interstellar medium have been included.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2011; 746(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have mapped the nearby face-on spiral galaxy M 33 in the 1.1 mm dust continuum using AzTEC on Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). The preliminary results are presented here. The observed dust has a characteristic temperature of ~ 21 K in the central kpc, radially declining down to ~ 13 K at the edge of the star forming disk. We compare the dust temperatures with KS band flux and star formation tracers. Our results imply that cold dust heating may be driven by long-lived stars even nearby star forming regions.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 12/2011; 6(S277):26-29.
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    ABSTRACT: The 0.72 sq. deg. contiguous 1.1mm survey in the central area of the COSMOS field, carried out to a 1σ≍1.26 mJy beam-1 depth with the AzTEC camera mounted on the 10m Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), shows number counts with a significant excess of sources when compared to the number counts derived from the ˜0.5 sq. deg. area sampled at similar depths in the Scuba HAlf Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES, Austermann et al. 2010). They are, however, consistent with those derived from fields that were considered too small to characterize the overall blank-field population. We identify differences to be more significant in the S1.1mm ˜> 5 mJy regime, and demonstrate that these excesses in number counts are related to the areas where galaxies at redshifts ˜< 1.1 are more densely clustered. The positions of optical-IR galaxies in the redshift interval 0.6 ˜< z ˜< 0.75 are the ones that show the strongest correlation with the positions of the 1.1mm bright population (S1.mm ˜>5 mJy), a result which does not depend exclusively on the presence of rich clusters within the survey sampled area. The most likely explanation for the observed excess in number counts at 1.1mm is galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-group lensing at moderate amplification levels, that increases in amplitude as one samples larger and larger flux densities.
    10/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the results of the counterpart identification and a detailed analysis of the physical properties of the 48 sources discovered in our deep 1.1mm wavelength imaging survey of the GOODS-South field using the AzTEC instrument on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). One or more robust or tentative counterpart candidate is found for 27 and 14 AzTEC sources, respectively, by employing deep radio continuum, Spitzer MIPS & IRAC, and LABOCA 870 micron data. Five of the sources (10%) have two robust counterparts each, supporting the idea that these galaxies are strongly clustered and/or heavily confused. Photometric redshifts and star formation rates (SFRs) are derived by analyzing UV-to-optical and IR-to-radio SEDs. The median redshift of z~2.6 is similar to other earlier estimates, but we show that 80% of the AzTEC-GOODS sources are at z>2, with a significant high redshift tail (20% at z>3.3). Rest-frame UV and optical properties of AzTEC sources are extremely diverse, spanning 10 magnitude in the i- and K-band photometry with median values of i=25.3 and K=22.6 and a broad range of red colour (i-K=0-6). These AzTEC sources are some of the most luminous galaxies in the rest-frame optical bands at z>2, with inferred stellar masses of (1-30) x 10^{10} solar masses and UV-derived star formation rates of SFR(UV) > 10-1000 solar masses per year. The IR-derived SFR, 200-2000 solar masses per year, is independent of redshift or stellar mass. The resulting specific star formation rates, SSFR = 1-100 per Gyr, are 10-100 times higher than similar mass galaxies at z=0, and they extend the previously observed rapid rise in the SSFR with redshift to z=2-5. These galaxies have a SFR high enough to have built up their entire stellar mass within their Hubble time. We find only marginal evidence for an AGN contribution to the near-IR and mid-IR SEDs. (abridged)
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2011; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The centre region of the ADF-S was observed with AzTEC on the ASTE. The observations were made from 2007 September 16 to October 14 and from 2008 August 4 to December 21. The operations were carried out remotely from the ASTE operation rooms in San Pedro de Atacama, Chile, and in Mitaka, Japan, through the network observation system N-COSMOS3 developed by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). (1 data file).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 09/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a 0.72 deg2 contiguous 1.1-mm survey in the central area of the Cosmological Evolution Survey field carried out to a 1σ≈ 1.26 mJy beam−1 depth with the AzTEC camera mounted on the 10-m Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. We have uncovered 189 candidate sources at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) ≥ 3.5, out of which 129, with S/N ≥ 4, can be considered to have little chance of being spurious (≲2 per cent). We present the number counts derived with this survey, which show a significant excess of sources when compared to the number counts derived from the ∼0.5 deg2 area sampled at similar depths in the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) HAlf Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES). They are, however, consistent with those derived from fields that were considered too small to characterize the overall blank-field population. We identify differences to be more significant in the S1.1mm≳ 5 mJy regime, and demonstrate that these excesses in number counts are related to the areas where galaxies at redshifts z≲ 1.1 are more densely clustered. The positions of optical–infrared galaxies in the redshift interval 0.6 ≲z≲ 0.75 are the ones that show the strongest correlation with the positions of the 1.1-mm bright population (S1.1mm≳ 5 mJy), a result which does not depend exclusively on the presence of rich clusters within the survey sampled area. The most likely explanation for the observed excess in number counts at 1.1-mm is galaxy–galaxy and galaxy–group lensing at moderate amplification levels, which increases in amplitude as one samples larger and larger flux densities. This effect should also be detectable in other high-redshift populations.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2011; 415(4):3831 - 3850. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the detection of an extremely bright (∼37 mJy at 1100 μm and ∼91 mJy at 880 μm) submillimetre galaxy (SMG), AzTEC-ASTE-SXDF1100.001 (hereafter referred to as SXDF1100.001 or Orochi), discovered in the 1100 μm observations of the Subaru/XMM–Newton Deep Field using AzTEC on ASTE. Subsequent CARMA 1300-μm and SMA 880-μm observations successfully pinpoint the location of Orochi and suggest that it has two components, one extended [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ∼4 arcsec] and one compact (unresolved). Z-Spec on CSO has also been used to obtain a wide-band spectrum from 190 to 308 GHz, although no significant emission/absorption lines were found. The derived upper limit to the line-to-continuum flux ratio is 0.1–0.3 (2σ) across the Z-Spec band.Based on the analysis of the derived spectral energy distribution from optical to radio wavelengths of possible counterparts near the SMA/CARMA peak position, we suggest that Orochi is a lensed, optically dark SMG lying at z ∼ 3.4 behind a foreground, optically visible (but red) galaxy at z ∼ 1.4. The deduced apparent (i.e., no correction for magnification) infrared luminosity (LIR) and star formation rate (SFR) are 6 × 1013 L⊙ and 11 000 M⊙ yr−1, respectively, assuming that the LIR is dominated by star formation. These values suggest that Orochi will consume its gas reservoir within a short time-scale (3 × 107 yr), which is indeed comparable to those in extreme starbursts like the centres of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2011; 415(4):3081 - 3096. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present 1.1 mm observations for a sample of 16 powerful radio galaxies at 0.5<z<5.2 and a radio quiet quasar at z=6.3, obtained using the AzTEC bolometer array mounted on the ASTE or the JCMT. This paper more than doubles the number of high-z radio galaxies imaged at millimetre/sub-millimetre wavelengths. We detect probable millimetre-wave counterparts for 11 of the active galaxies. The 6 active galaxies which do not have a probable millimetre counterpart in our images nevertheless have one or more likely associated millimetric source. Thus, we conclude that powerful (radio-loud) active galaxies at high-z are beacons for finding luminous millimetre/sub-millimetre galaxies at high-z. The flux densities of our AzTEC counterparts imply star formation rates ranging from <200 to ~1300 M./yr. In addition, we find that for the radio galaxoes the 1.1 mm flux density is anticorrelated with the largest angular size of the radio source. We also present new Spitzer imaging observations of several active galaxies in our sample. Combining these with archival data, we examine the mid-infrared colours of our sample. We find that radio galaxies for which we have detected a probable 1.1 mm counterpart have mid-infrared colours consistent with dusty starbursts, and are usually bluer than high-z Spitzer-selected active galaxies. In addition, we find arcs of 24 micron sources extending across ~200-500 kpc, apparently associated with three of the radio galaxies.
    07/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the angular two-point correlation function of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from 1.1 mm imaging of the COSMOS field with the AzTEC camera and ASTE 10 m telescope. These data yield one of the largest contiguous samples of SMGs to date, covering an area of 0.72 deg2 down to a 1.26 mJy beam–1 (1σ) limit, including 189 (328) sources with S/N ≥3.5 (3). We can only set upper limits to the correlation length r 0, modeling the correlation function as a power law with pre-assigned slope. Assuming existing redshift distributions, we derive 68.3% confidence level upper limits of r 0 6-8h –1 Mpc at 3.7 mJy and r 0 11-12 h –1 Mpc at 4.2 mJy. Although consistent with most previous estimates, these upper limits imply that the real r 0 is likely smaller. This casts doubts on the robustness of claims that SMGs are characterized by significantly stronger spatial clustering (and thus larger mass) than differently selected galaxies at high redshift. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that even strongly clustered distributions of galaxies can appear unclustered when sampled with limited sensitivity and coarse angular resolution common to current submillimeter surveys. The simulations, however, also show that unclustered distributions can appear strongly clustered under these circumstances. From the simulations, we predict that at our survey depth, a mapped area of 2 deg2 is needed to reconstruct the correlation function, assuming smaller beam sizes of future surveys (e.g., the Large Millimeter Telescope's 6'' beam size). At present, robust measures of the clustering strength of bright SMGs appear to be below the reach of most observations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2011; 733(2):92. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a 0.72 sq. deg. contiguous 1.1mm survey in the central area of the COSMOS field carried out to a 1sigma ~ 1.26 mJy/beam depth with the AzTEC camera mounted on the 10m Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We have uncovered 189 candidate sources at a signal-to-noise ratio S/N >= 3.5, out of which 129, with S/N >= 4, can be considered to have little chance of being spurious (< 2 per cent). We present the number counts derived with this survey, which show a significant excess of sources when compared to the number counts derived from the ~0.5 sq. deg. area sampled at similar depths in the Scuba HAlf Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES, Austermann et al. 2010). They are, however, consistent with those derived from fields that were considered too small to characterize the overall blank-field population. We identify differences to be more significant in the S > 5 mJy regime, and demonstrate that these excesses in number counts are related to the areas where galaxies at redshifts z < 1.1 are more densely clustered. The positions of optical-IR galaxies in the redshift interval 0.6 < z < 0.75 are the ones that show the strongest correlation with the positions of the 1.1mm bright population (S > 5 mJy), a result which does not depend exclusively on the presence of rich clusters within the survey sampled area. The most likely explanation for the observed excess in number counts at 1.1mm is galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-group lensing at moderate amplification levels, that increases in amplitude as one samples larger and larger flux densities. This effect should also be detectable in other high redshift populations.
    05/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We present 1.1-mm observations for a sample of 16 powerful radio galaxies at 0.5 < z < 5.2 and a radio-quiet quasar at z = 6.3, obtained using the AzTEC bolometer array mounted on the Atacama Submillimetre Telescope Experiment (ASTE) or the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This paper more than doubles the number of high-z radio galaxies imaged at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths. We detect probable millimetre-wave counterparts for 11 of the active galaxies. The six active galaxies that do not have a probable millimetre counterpart in our images nevertheless have one or more likely associated millimetric source. Thus, we conclude that powerful (radio-loud) active galaxies at high-z are beacons for finding luminous millimetre/submillimetre galaxies at high-z. The flux densities of our AzTEC counterparts imply star formation rates ranging from
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2011; 418:74-89. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of a cold massive dust disk around the T Tauri star V1094 Sco in the Lupus molecular cloud from the 1.1 mm continuum observations with AzTEC on ASTE. A compact (r 320 AU) continuum emission coincides with the stellar position having a flux density of 272 mJy, which is the largest among T Tauri stars in Lupus. We also present the detection of molecular gas associated with the star in the five-point observations in 12CO J = 3-2 and 13CO J = 3-2. Since our 12CO and 13CO observations did not show any signature of a large-scale outflow or a massive envelope, the compact dust emission is likely to come from a disk around the star. The observed spectral energy distribution (SED) of V1094 Sco shows no distinct turnover from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, can be well described by a flattened disk for the dust component, and no clear dip feature around 10 μm suggestive of the absence of an inner hole in the disk. We fit a simple power-law disk model to the observed SED. The estimated disk mass ranges from 0.03 M ☉ to 0.12 M ☉, which is one or two orders of magnitude larger than the median disk mass of T Tauri stars in Taurus. The resultant temperature is lower than that of a flared disk with well-mixed dust in hydrostatic equilibrium and is probably attributed to the flattened disk geometry for the dust which the central star cannot illuminate efficiently. From these results, together with the fact that there is no signature of an inner hole in the SED, we suggest that the dust grains in the disk around V1094 Sco sank into the midplane with grain growth by coalescence and are in the evolutional stage just prior to or at the formation of planetesimals.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2010; 726(1):45. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the cosmic infrared background, which is a measure of the dust obscured activity in all galaxies in the Universe. We venture to isolate the galaxies responsible for the background at 1 mm; with spectroscopic and photometric redshifts we constrain the redshift distribution of these galaxies. We create a deep 1.16 mm map (σ ∼ 0.5 mJy) by combining the AzTEC 1.1 mm and MAMBO 1.2 mm datasets in GOODS-N. This combined map contains 41 secure detections, 13 of which are new. By averaging the 1.16 mm flux densities of individually undetected galaxies with 24 µm flux densities > 25 µJy, we resolve 31–45 per cent of the 1.16 mm background. Repeating our analysis on the SCUBA 850 µm map, we resolve a higher percentage (40–64 per cent) of the 850 µm background. A majority of the background resolved (attributed to individual galaxies) at both wavelengths comes from galaxies at z > 1.3. If the ratio of the resolved submillimeter to millimeter background is applied to a reasonable scenario for the origins of the unresolved submillimeter background, 60–88 per cent of the total 1.16 mm background comes from galaxies at z > 1.3.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2010; 000:0-0. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results of a 1.1 mm deep survey of the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) with AzTEC mounted on the Atacama Submillimetre Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We obtained a map of 0.25 sq. deg area with an rms noise level of 0.32-0.71 mJy. This is one of the deepest and widest maps thus far at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. We uncovered 198 sources with a significance of 3.5-15.6 sigma, providing the largest catalog of 1.1 mm sources in a contiguous region. Most of the sources are not detected in the far-infrared bands of the AKARI satellite, suggesting that they are mostly at z ~ 1.5 given the detection limits. We constructed differential and cumulative number counts in the ADF-S, the Subaru/XMM Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and the SSA 22 field surveyed by AzTEC/ASTE, which provide currently the tightest constraints on the faint end. The integration of the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S find that the contribution of 1.1 mm sources with fluxes >=1 mJy to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.1 mm is 12-16%, suggesting that the large fraction of the CIB originates from faint sources of which the number counts are not yet constrained. We estimate the cosmic star-formation rate density contributed by 1.1 mm sources with >=1 mJy using the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S and find that it is lower by about a factor of 5-10 compared to those derived from UV/optically-selected galaxies at z ~ 2-3. The fraction of stellar mass of the present-day universe produced by 1.1 mm sources with >=1 mJy at z >= 1 is ~20%, calculated by the time integration of the star-formation rate density. If we consider the recycled fraction of >0.4, which is the fraction of materials forming stars returned to the interstellar medium, the fraction of stellar mass produced by 1.1 mm sources decrease to <~10%. Comment: 15 pages, 12 figure, accepted for publication in MNRAS
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2010; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of an extremely bright ($\sim$37 mJy at 1100 $\mu$m and $\sim$91 mJy at 880 $\mu$m) submillimeter galaxy (SMG), AzTEC-ASTE-SXDF1100.001 (hereafter referred to as SXDF1100.001 or Orochi), discovered in 1100 $\mu$m observations of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field using AzTEC on ASTE. Subsequent CARMA 1300 $\mu$m and SMA 880 $\mu$m observations successfully pinpoint the location of Orochi and suggest that it has two components, one extended (FWHM of $\sim$ 4$^{\prime\prime}$) and one compact (unresolved). Z-Spec on CSO has also been used to obtain a wide band spectrum from 190 to 308 GHz, although no significant emission/absorption lines are found. The derived upper limit to the line-to-continuum flux ratio is 0.1--0.3 (2 $\sigma$) across the Z-Spec band. Based on the analysis of the derived spectral energy distribution from optical to radio wavelengths of possible counterparts near the SMA/CARMA peak position, we suggest that Orochi is a lensed, optically dark SMG lying at $z \sim 3.4$ behind a foreground, optically visible (but red) galaxy at $z \sim 1.4$. The deduced apparent (i.e., no correction for magnification) infrared luminosity ($L_{\rm IR}$) and star formation rate (SFR) are $6 \times 10^{13}$ $L_{\odot}$ and 11000 $M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, respectively, assuming that the $L_{\rm IR}$ is dominated by star formation. These values suggest that Orochi will consume its gas reservoir within a short time scale ($3 \times 10^{7}$ yr), which is indeed comparable to those in extreme starbursts like the centres of local ULIRGs.
    09/2010;

Publication Stats

712 Citations
199.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Astronomy
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Illinois Wesleyan University
      • Physics
      Bloomington, Indiana, United States
  • 2008
    • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 1998–2007
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Physics
      Cleveland, OH, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Chicago
      • Enrico Fermi Institute
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2000
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Physics
      Stanford, CA, United States