Hanna Kaduszkiewicz

University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf, Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

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Publications (75)199.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Dementia is a main reason for nursing home admission. Information on institutionalization is often based on studies of limited methodological quality. We aimed to analyze time until nursing home admission since first coding of dementia diagnosis and factors associated with institutionalization in incident dementia patients compared to non-demented controls.
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 06/2014; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the prevalence of dementia in nursing home residents and community-dwelling older adults . Using health insurance claims data for the year 2009, we estimated the prevalence of at least three of four quarters with a diagnosis of dementia in persons aged ≥65 years. Of 213,694 persons aged 65+ years, 4,584 (2.2 %) lived in nursing homes. The prevalence of dementia was 51.8 % (95 % CI 50.4-53.3) in nursing home residents and 2.7 % (95 % CI 2.6-2.8) in community-dwelling elderly. Increasing prevalences with age were found in both sexes in community-dwelling elderly. These trends were not seen in nursing home residents where prevalences were already high for the age group 65-69 years (35.7 % in males and 40.9 % in females, respectively). More than half of nursing home residents suffer from dementia, which is about 19-fold higher than the prevalence in insured living in the community.
    Aging - Clinical and Experimental Research 03/2014; · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evidence of undertreatment of pain in patients with dementia is inconsistent. This may largely be due to methodological differences and shortcomings of studies. In a large cohort of patients with incident dementia and age- and sex-matched controls we examined (1) how often they receive diagnoses indicating pain, (2) how often they receive analgesics and (3) in which agents and formulations. Using health insurance claims data we identified 1,848 patients with a first diagnosis of dementia aged >= 65 years and 7,385 age- and sex-matched controls. We analysed differences in diagnoses indicating pain and analgesic drugs prescribed between these two groups within the incidence year. We further fitted logistic regression models and stepwise adjusted for several covariates to study the relation between dementia and analgesics. On average, patients were 78.7 years old (48% female). The proportions receiving at least one diagnosis indicating pain were similar between the dementia and control group (74.4% vs. 72.5%; p = 0.11). The proportion who received analgesics was higher in patients with dementia in the crude analysis (47.5% vs. 44.7%; OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.24), but was significantly lower when adjusted for socio-demographic variables, care dependency, comorbidities and diagnoses indicating pain (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68-0.88). Analgesics in liquid form such as metamizole and tramadol were more often used in dementia. Our findings show a comparable documentation of diagnoses indicating pain in persons with incident dementia compared to those without. However, there still seems to be an undertreatment of pain in patients with dementia. Irrespective of dementia, analgesics seem to be more often prescribed to sicker patients and to control pain in the context of mobility.
    BMC Geriatrics 02/2014; 14(1):20. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Working memory, the capacity of actively maintaining task-relevant information during a cognitive task, is a heritable trait. Working memory deficits are characteristic for many psychiatric disorders. We performed genome-wide gene set enrichment analyses in multiple independent data sets of young and aged cognitively healthy subjects (n = 2,824) and in a large schizophrenia case-control sample (n = 32,143). The voltage-gated cation channel activity gene set, consisting of genes related to neuronal excitability, was robustly linked to performance in working memory-related tasks across ages and to schizophrenia. Functional brain imaging in 707 healthy participants linked this gene set also to working memory-related activity in the parietal cortex and the cerebellum. Gene set analyses may help to dissect the molecular underpinnings of cognitive dimensions, brain activity, and psychopathology.
    Neuron 02/2014; · 15.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the differences in morbidity patterns of chronic diseases between long-term care dependent persons in nursing homes compared to those dwelling in the community. We also investigated morbidity differences between long-term care need stages in Germany. The study included claims data of one nationwide operating statutory health insurance in 2006. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 65 years, minimum 1 out of 46 diagnoses in at least 3 quarters of the year (n = 8,670). A comparison population was formed with n = 114,962. Prevalences, relative risks, and odds ratios for the risk of nursing home care were calculated. In the bivariate analysis, only three chronic diseases - dementia, urinary incontinence, and chronic heart failure - showed a higher risk for nursing home care. Regression analysis revealed that only dementia showed higher odds related to the stage of nursing needs. Among the chronic diseases, only dementia shows a substantially elevated risk for nursing home care. Risk studies on other chronic diseases associated with higher risks of long-term care dependency and specific intervention strategies aiming at delaying or preventing nursing home admission should be developed.
    Zeitschrift für Gerontologie + Geriatrie 02/2014; · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1) Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2) Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3) Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4) Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if they have slightly increased blood sugar values only and no risk for harmful consequences or if they already have sufficient knowledge on diabetes.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e95035. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the beginning of the 21st century, serious adverse events and an increased risk of mortality have been documented in patients with dementia treated with antipsychotics. The aim of this study was to assess antipsychotic prescribing in patients with incident dementia compared with a non-demented control group. We analysed the claims data of a German health insurance company for incident dementia patients and age-matched and sex-matched non-demented controls aged 65 years and older in 2004 to 2006. The data were used to analyse the prescribing patterns of antipsychotics in the year of dementia incidence. We estimated odds ratios stratified by age, sex, care setting and care dependence and in a multivariate logistic regression. The 1848 patients with and 7385 persons without dementia were on average 78.8 years old (standard deviation: 7.4), and 47.6% were women. A total of 25.4% of the dementia patients received antipsychotics compared with 4.3% of the controls (ORcrude : 7.61; 95%CI: 6.52-8.87). An increase in care level, age, female gender and living in a nursing home is associated with a considerably higher prevalence of at least one prescription for antipsychotics. After adjusting for all these variables, a significant influence of age could no longer be found. The results show that antipsychotics play an important role in dementia care-despite the risk of adverse events. Further research is needed with regard to safe pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 10/2013; · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: On the basis of data from one German Sickness Fund we analyzed which medical discipline coded the incident diagnosis of dementia in ambulatory medical care in Germany, which type of dementia was coded and how the initial code eventually changed during the year of incidence.Methods: Claims data of 1,848 insured people aged ≥ 65 years in 2004 with incident dementia were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics.Results: The diagnosis within the first quarter of the incidence year was coded by the GP in 71 %, by a psychiatrist or neurologist in 14 %, by both in 6 % and by other disciplines in 9 % of the cases. The percentage of unspecified diagnoses was 62 % among GPs and 46 % among psychiatrists or neurologists, a number differing largely from epidemiological studies. In 27 % of the cases patients received two or more different dementia diagnoses during the incidence year.Conclusion: Studies and care concepts regarding dementia on the basis of diagnosis codes in ambulatory claims data should be interpreted with great caution.
    Psychiatrische Praxis 09/2013; · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • The American journal of managed care 06/2013; 19:499-506. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dementia patients suffering from behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) are often treated with antipsychotics. Trial results document an increased risk for serious adverse events and mortality in dementia patients taking these agents. Furthermore, the efficacy of treating BPSD with antipsychotics seems to be only modest. Using data of a German statutory health insurance company, we examined prescription trends of antipsychotics in prevalent dementia patients in the context of official warnings. The study period is 2004-2009. We studied trends in demographics, age and sex, as well as need of care and the intake of typical and atypical antipsychotics. Seeking for linear trends adjusted for age, sex and level of care between 2004 and 2009, we obtained p-values from a multivariate logistic regression. Prescription volumes were calculated by number of packages as well as defined daily doses (DDDs) using multiple linear regressions for trends in prescriptions amount. We included 3460-8042 patients per year (mean age 80 years). The prescription prevalence of antipsychotics decreased from 35.5% in 2004 to 32.5% in 2009 (multivariate analysis for linear trend: p=0.1645). Overall prescriptions for typical antipsychotics decreased (from 27.2% in 2004 to 23.0% in 2009, p<0.0001) and prescriptions for atypical antipsychotics increased from 17.1% to 18.9% (p<0.0001). The mean DDD per treated patient increased from 80.5 to 91.2 (2004-2009; p=0.0047). Our findings imply that warnings of international drug authorities and manufacturers against adverse drug events in dementia patients receiving antipsychotics did not impact overall prescription behavior.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 03/2013; · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia in late mild cognitive impairment (LMCI), early MCI (EMCI), and subjective memory impairment (SMI) with normal test performance. METHODS: The baseline sample (n = 2892) of the prospective cohort study in nondemented individuals (German Study on Aging, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients) was divided into LMCI, EMCI, SMI, and control subjects by delayed recall performance. These groups were subdivided by the presence of self-reported concerns associated with experienced memory impairment. AD dementia risk was assessed over 6 years. RESULTS: Across all groups, risk of AD dementia was greatest in LMCI. In those with self-reported concerns regarding their memory impairment, SMI and EMCI were associated with a similarly increased risk of AD dementia. In those subgroups without concerns, SMI was not associated with increased risk of AD dementia, but EMCI remained an at-risk condition. CONCLUSIONS: SMI and EMCI with self-reported concerns were associated with the same risk of AD dementia, suggesting that pre-LMCI risk conditions should be extended to SMI with concerns.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 01/2013; · 14.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors report the results of a study on frequent attenders in ambulatory medical care among elderly people in Germany and on the factors related to frequent attendance such as age, sex, multi-morbidity and long-term care dependency. The study was based on claims data of all policy holders aged 65 and over of a statutory health insurance company operating nationwide in Germany in 2004 (n=123,224). Utilisation was analysed by the number of contacts with practices of physicians working in the ambulatory medical care sector and by the number of different practices contacted. The criteria for frequent attendance included greater than or equal to 50 contacts and/or greater than or equal to 10 different practices contacted and/or greater than or equal to 3 practices of the same discipline contacted within one year. Descriptive statistical analysis and logistic regression were used. 19% of the elderly were identified as frequent attenders, which corresponds to some 3.5 million people in Germany. Two main types of frequent attendance were identified: one is characterised by very many contacts, old age, frequent presence of multi-morbidity, and/or long-term care dependency. The other type is the younger, less frequently multi-morbid attender who is considerably less often dependent on long-term care, and characterised by large numbers of contacted practices and/or practices of the same discipline. Frequent attendance is due to several factors. The problem of frequent attendance needs further research that is not exclusively based on claims data. We found a high rate of frequent attendance. Further research should clarify if this is to the benefit of elderly people.
    Zeitschrift für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen. 01/2013; 107(7):435-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The authors report the results of a study on frequent attenders in ambulatory medical care among elderly people in Germany and on the factors related to frequent attendance such as age, sex, multi-morbidity and long-term care dependency. Methods The study was based on claims data of all policy holders aged 65 and over of a statutory health insurance company operating nationwide in Germany in 2004 (n = 123,224). Utilisation was analysed by the number of contacts with practices of physicians working in the ambulatory medical care sector and by the number of different practices contacted. The criteria for frequent attendance included greater than or equal to 50 contacts and/or greater than or equal to 10 different practices contacted and/or greater than or equal to 3 practices of the same discipline contacted within one year. Descriptive statistical analysis and logistic regression were used. Results 19% of the elderly were identified as frequent attenders, which corresponds to some 3.5 million people in Germany. Two main types of frequent attendance were identified: one is characterised by very many contacts, old age, frequent presence of multi-morbidity, and/or long-term care dependency. The other type is the younger, less frequently multi-morbid attender who is considerably less often dependent on long-term care, and characterised by large numbers of contacted practices and/or practices of the same discipline. Conclusion Frequent attendance is due to several factors. The problem of frequent attendance needs further research that is not exclusively based on claims data. We found a high rate of frequent attendance. Further research should clarify if this is to the benefit of elderly people.
    Zeitschrift für Evidenz Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen 01/2013; 107(7):435–441.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Frequent attenders utilise a high proportion of medical services and therefore produce relatively high costs. Questions of utility and adequacy and, also, about the reasons for high use arise. The authors report the results of a study on the association between morbidity of the elderly and various forms of frequent attendance in ambulatory medical care in Germany. Methods The study is based on claims data of all policyholders aged 65 and over of a statutory health insurance company operating nationwide in Germany in 2004 (n = 123,224). Utilisation was analysed by the number of contacts with practices of physicians working in the ambulatory medical care sector and by the number of different practices contacted. Criteria for frequent attendance were ≥ 50 contacts with practices or contacts with ≥ 10 individual practices or ≥ 3 practices of the same discipline per year. We analysed prevalences and relative risks for frequent attendance for 46 chronic diseases. Results Frequent attendance in ambulatory medical care among the elderly is related to both severe somatic and psychic diagnoses. Five chronic diseases showed the highest relative risks for all types of frequent attendance in general: urinary incontinence, anaemia, neuropathies, renal insufficiency, and cancer. Psychic syndromes mainly led to the utilisation of many different physicians. Conclusion Frequent attendance in ambulatory medical care among the elderly is related to a large number of diseases, both somatic and psychic. Frequent attendance is a complex phenomenon which cannot be addressed by mono-dimensional approaches.
    Zeitschrift für Evidenz Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen 01/2013; 107(7):442–450.
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    ABSTRACT: Frequent attenders utilise a high proportion of medical services and therefore produce relatively high costs. Questions of utility and adequacy and, also, about the reasons for high use arise. The authors report the results of a study on the association between morbidity of the elderly and various forms of frequent attendance in ambulatory medical care in Germany. The study is based on claims data of all policyholders aged 65 and over of a statutory health insurance company operating nationwide in Germany in 2004 (n = 123,224). Utilisation was analysed by the number of contacts with practices of physicians working in the ambulatory medical care sector and by the number of different practices contacted. Criteria for frequent attendance were ≥ 50 contacts with practices or contacts with ≥ 10 individual practices or ≥ 3 practices of the same discipline per year. We analysed prevalences and relative risks for frequent attendance for 46 chronic diseases. Frequent attendance in ambulatory medical care among the elderly is related to both severe somatic and psychic diagnoses. Five chronic diseases showed the highest relative risks for all types of frequent attendance in general: urinary incontinence, anaemia, neuropathies, renal insufficiency, and cancer. Psychic syndromes mainly led to the utilisation of many different physicians. Frequent attendance in ambulatory medical care among the elderly is related to a large number of diseases, both somatic and psychic. Frequent attendance is a complex phenomenon which cannot be addressed by mono-dimensional approaches.
    Zeitschrift für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen. 01/2013; 107(7):442-50.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study investigates the efficacy of a complex multifaceted intervention aiming at increasing the quality of care of GPs for patients with multimorbidity. In its core, the intervention aims at enhancing the doctor-patient-dialogue and identifying the patient's agenda and needs. Also, a medication check is embedded. Our primary hypothesis is that a more patient-centred communication will reduce the number of active pharmaceuticals taken without impairing the patients' quality of life. Secondary hypotheses include a better knowledge of GPs about their patients' medication, a higher patient satisfaction and a more effective and/or efficient health care utilization.Methods/designMulti-center, parallel group, cluster randomized controlled clinical trial in GP surgeries. Inclusion criteria: Patients aged 65--84 years with at least 3 chronic conditions. Intervention: GPs allocated to this group will receive a multifaceted educational intervention on performing a narrative doctor-patient dialogue reflecting treatment targets and priorities of the patient and on performing a narrative patient-centred medication review. During the one year intervention GPs will have a total of three conversations a 30 minutes with the enrolled patients. Control: Care as usual. Follow-up per patient: 14 months after baseline interview. Primary efficacy endpoints: Differences in medication intake and health related quality of life between baseline and follow-up in the intervention compared to the control group. Randomization: Computer-generated by an independent institute. It will be performed successively when patient recruitment in the respective surgery is finished. Blinding: Participants (GPs and patients) will not be blinded to their assignment but will be unaware of the study hypotheses or outcome measures. DISCUSSION: There is growing evidence that the phenomenon of polypharmacy and low quality of drug use is substantially due to mis-communication (or non-communication) in the doctor patient interaction. We assume that the number of pharmaceutical agents taken can be reduced by a communicational intervention and that this will not impair the patients' health-related quality of life. Improving communication is a core issue of future interventions, especially for patients with multimorbidity.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN46272088.
    BMC Family Practice 12/2012; 13(1):118. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases on initial cognitive test performance and rate of change in three cognitive measures. Prospective cohort study. General practices in six towns throughout Germany. Three thousand three hundred twenty-seven participants aged 75 and older (average 79.7 ± 3.6). Data were collected during home visits every 18 months and included sociodemographic variables, depression, disease status, drug intake, and cognition. Although the presence of transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke and diabetes mellitus was related to poor initial cognitive test performance, the presence of those and other far-reaching chronic diseases or a higher disease burden were not related to the rate of change in cognition over time. Diabetes mellitus, stroke and TIA affect cognitive test performance beyond well-known sociodemographic variables and depressive symptoms, although none of these diseases contributed to cognitive decline over time. In practical terms, prevention and diagnosis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases may be essential to cognitively healthy aging.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 06/2012; 60(7):1286-91. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comparatively few studies address the problems related to multimorbidity. This is surprising, since multimorbidity is a particular challenge for both general practitioners and patients. This study focuses on the latter, analyzing the way patients aged 65-85 cope with multimorbidity. 19 narrative in-depth interviews with multimorbid patients were conducted. The data was analysed using grounded theory. Of the 19 interviewed patients 13 were female and 6 male. Mean age was 75 years. Participating patients showed a relatively homogeneous socio-economic status. Patients were recruited from the German city of Hamburg and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Despite suffering from multimorbidity, interviewees held positive attitudes towards life: At the social level, patients tried to preserve their autonomy to the most possible extent. At the emotional level, interviewees oscillated between anxiety and strength - having, however, a positive approach to life. At the practical level, patients aimed at keeping their diseases under control. The patients tended to be critical in regards to medication. These findings might have implications for the treatment of multimorbid patients in primary care and further research: The generally presumed passivity of older individuals towards medical treatment, which can be found in literature, is not evident among our sample of older patients. In future, treatment of these patients might take their potential for pro-active cooperation more strongly into account than it is currently the case.
    BMC Family Practice 05/2012; 13:45. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dementia is an important disease in older age. Existing studies on dementia mortality face limitations. For instance, they are based on prevalent, small, or geographically limited samples or do not include controls. We aimed to study survival after the first diagnosis of dementia compared with a control group. We analyzed claims data of a German health insurance company, including 1,818 incident dementia cases and 7,235 age- and sex-matched non-dementia controls (53% male; mean age 78.8 years). The follow-up was five years. We assessed survival with the Kaplan-Meier curves and performed Cox proportional hazard regression, also including nursing care dependency and comorbidities. The cumulative five-year mortality was 53.5% in the dementia cases and 31.1% in the control group (hazard ratio: 2.1). Even after adjusting for comorbidities and nursing care, the mortality risk was 1.5 times higher for patients with incident dementia than for controls. Nursing care dependency showed high influence on mortality, likewise in dementia patients and controls. Although some factors, such as education or the type and severity of dementia, could not be included in the analyses, our study shows a clear influence of dementia on mortality irrespective of age, sex, care dependency, and comorbidities. The strongest influence on mortality was found for dementia patients with nursing care dependency. Taking into account their mortality of around 70% in care level 1 and up to 80% in care levels 2 and 3, healthcare delivery to these patient groups should strongly consider elements of palliative care focusing on the quality of life.
    International Psychogeriatrics 03/2012; 24(9):1522-30. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data on prevalence of chronic diseases are important for planning health care services. Such prevalence data are mostly based on patient self-reports, claims data, or other research data-with limited validity and reliability partially due to their cross-sectional character. Currently, only claims data of statutory health insurance offer longitudinal information. In Germany, these data show a loss of diagnoses of chronic health conditions over time. This study investigated whether there is a similar tendency of loss in the documentation of chronic diseases in data specifically collected for a longitudinal cohort study by general practitioners. In addition, the explanatory power of patient or GP characteristics regarding these losses is investigated. A total of 3,327 patients aged 75 years and older were recruited for the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). For 1,765 patients, GP diagnoses of four chronic conditions at three time points were available for a total period of 4.5 years. In order to explain the loss of chronic diagnoses, a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression was performed. Over the course of 4.5 years, 18.6% of the diagnoses of diabetes mellitus, 34.5% of the diagnoses of coronary heart disease, and 44.9% of the diagnoses of stroke disappeared in the GP documentation for the longitudinal study. The diagnosis of coronary heart disease was less often lost in men than in women. The risk of losing the diagnosis of diabetes was higher in patients who were well known by the GP for a long time. An essential part of the variance of the losses can be explained by practice (owner) effects. Data on morbidity collected in epidemiological studies and reported by physicians should always be checked for validity and reliability. Appropriate options (e.g., an investigator collecting the data directly in the field or the comparison of the data with health insurance companies' claims data) are presented and discussed.
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz 02/2012; 55(2):260-9. · 0.72 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

736 Citations
199.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
      • Department of Primary Medical Care
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • Central Institute of Mental Health
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2011–2013
    • Universität Bremen
      Bremen, Bremen, Germany
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2008–2013
    • University of Bonn
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2004–2012
    • University of Hamburg
      • Department of Primary Medical Care
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2010
    • Hannover Medical School
      • Institute for Biometry
      Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2009
    • Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf
      • Abteilung für Pränatalmedizin
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • University of Leipzig
      • Institute for Social Medicine, Occupational Health and Public Health
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany