Timo Väisänen

Oulu University Hospital, Uleoborg, Oulu, Finland

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Publications (18)71.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) is a cellular receptor for bacterial and vertebrate DNA. In addition to cells of the immune system, it is also expressed in various human cancer cell lines, including prostate cancer. We demonstrated previously that synthetic TLR9 ligands induce matrix metalloproteinase-13-mediated invasion in TLR9-expressing prostate cancer cells in vitro. Other studies have suggested possible sex steroid regulation of the function of the various TLRs. The role of TLR9 in the pathophysiology of prostate or any cancer is, however, unknown. Expression of TLR9, androgen receptor (AR), or the estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) were studied with immunohistochemistry in prostate cancer (n = 62) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 45) specimens. TLR9 staining scores were compared with tumor stage, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations before tissue sampling and with the staining scores of AR, ERalpha, and ERbeta. TLR9 expression was statistically significantly increased in prostate cancer epithelium and stroma, as compared with the same cellular compartments in benign hyperplasia. Significantly increased (P = 0.04) TLR9 expression was detected in cancers with high Gleason score (>7, n = 23), as compared with lower Gleason scores (< or =7, n = 39). No statistically significant associations were detected between TLR9 expression scores and PSA concentrations or tumor staging. Prostate adenocarcinoma cells were all positive for TLR9, AR, and ERbeta but negative for ERalpha expression. In cancer stroma cells, increased TLR9 expression was associated with increased ERalpha expression. Expression of TLR9 is increased in prostate cancer specimens, especially in the most poorly differentiated forms.
    The Prostate 06/2010; 70(8):817-24. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sorbitol is an intermediate in the polyol pathway, which converts from glucose to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD). Androgens are essential for the development of prostate cancer. We studied castration-induced gene expression changes in the human prostate using the GeneChip array, and identified SORD as being androgen-regulated in the human prostate. A putative androgen-responsive regulatory region at the SORD 5' promoter was identified using promoter deletion constructs in a luciferase reporter assay in COS-7 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to assess the binding of androgen receptor to suggested androgen responsive regulatory region. Finally, the expression of SORD in the human prostate was evaluated in 29 prostate tissue samples by immunohistochemistry. The expression of SORD decreased after castration. Androgen supplementation to the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line led to a 7.5-fold increase in SORD mRNA expression. Furthermore, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay proved that the androgen receptor can bind to this putative androgen-responsive regulatory region. Finally, the expression of SORD in the human prostate was localised to epithelial cells of both benign and malignant prostate tissue by immunohistochemistry. In prostate cancer, increased immunostaining was associated with high Gleason patterns and high serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations. These results show that SORD is a novel androgen-regulated gene in the human prostate and suggest the need for more detailed analysis of the physiological role of SORD in the prostate.
    Oncology Reports 05/2010; 23(5):1233-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The angiogenesis inhibitor histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) constitutes one of several examples of molecules regulating both angiogenesis and hemostasis. The antiangiogenic properties of HRG are mediated via its proteolytically released histidine- and proline-rich (His/Pro-rich) domain. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry, we here provide biochemical evidence for the presence of a proteolytic peptide, corresponding to the antiangiogenic domain of HRG, in vivo in human tissue. This finding supports a role for HRG as an endogenous regulator of angiogenesis. Interestingly, the His/Pro-rich peptide bound to the vessel wall in tissue from cancer patients but not to the vasculature in tissue from healthy persons. Moreover, the His/Pro-rich peptide was found in close association with platelets. Relesate from in vitro-activated platelets promoted binding of the His/Pro-rich domain of HRG to endothelial cells, an effect mediated by Zn(2+). Previous studies have shown that zinc-dependent binding of the His/Pro-rich domain of HRG to heparan sulfate on endothelial cells is required for inhibition of angiogenesis. We describe a novel mechanism to increase the local concentration and activity of an angiogenesis inhibitor, which may reflect a host response to counteract angiogenesis during pathologic conditions. Our finding that tumor angiogenesis is elevated in HRG-deficient mice supports this conclusion.
    Molecular Cancer Research 11/2009; 7(11):1792-802. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myosin VI, one of the so-called unconventional myosins, is an actin-based molecular motor involved in intracellular vesicle and organelle transport. In human prostate, myosin VI is expressed in prostate epithelium. We examined the effect of myosin VI downregulation in the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line using an RNA interference approach. Further, the expression of myosin VI in human prostate tissue was examined using immunohistochemistry. The expression of androgen receptor (AR) and E-cadherin was examined in myosin VI knocked-down cells and control cells. We determined 3H-testosterone uptake in the myosin knocked-down LNCaP cells. Next, we cotransfected LNCaP cells with the myosin VI-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplex and an androgen-responsive luciferase reporter construct and then measured luciferase activity after androgen induction. To clarify whether myosin VI and the AR are interacting proteins, we performed immunoprecipitation studies using myosin VI and AR polyclonal antibodies in androgen-induced LNCaP cells. We confirmed previous results of myosin VI overexpression in human prostate cancer tissue, as in some cases malignant epithelium was more intensively stained than benign epithelium. We found that the expression of AR decreased as a result of myosin VI knock-down. Decreased myosin VI levels did not significantly influence the testosterone uptake of the LNCaP cell line. Instead, we noted a decreased activity of the androgen-regulated mouse mammary tumor virus promoter-reporter vector construct in LNCaP cells cotransfected with myosin VI siRNA duplexes. Finally, we detected the interaction between AR and myosin VI by immunoprecipitation. We propose that myosin VI is a modulator of androgen-dependent gene transcription via interaction with the AR. Thus, myosin VI is a potential therapeutic target for prostate cancer as it could be used as a modulator of AR-dependent gene expression.
    Oncology Reports 11/2009; 22(5):991-5. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type XIII collagen is a transmembrane protein that also exists as a soluble extracellular variant because of ectodomain shedding by proprotein convertases. Because ectodomain shedding in a growing number of transmembrane proteins has recently been shown to be dependent on their localization in cholesterol-enriched detergent-resistant membrane microdomains, this work aimed at analyzing this aspect of type XIII collagen ectodomain processing. In HT-1080 cells type XIII collagen and its cleaving proprotein convertase furin localized partially in detergent-resistant cholesterol-containing membrane microdomains. Disruption of these domains by lowering either the level or availability of the cellular cholesterol reduced ectodomain shedding, implying that, in such membrane domains correct cholesterol level is important for the regulation of type XIII collagen ectodomain processing. In addition, we show here that ectodomain of type XIII collagen is also shed intracellularly. HT-1080 cells released vesicles from the Golgi apparatus, which contained only the cleaved variant. Intracellular processing and the subsequent entry of the cleaved ectodomain into the vesicles was totally blocked by inhibition of the proprotein convertase function by cell-permeable chloromethylketone, but not with cell-impermeable alpha1-antitrypsin Portland. This supports the hypothesis of type XIII collagen ectodomain also being cleaved intracellularly in the Golgi and suggests that the intracellular cleavage may act as a gating event in the vesicle-mediated ectodomain secretion.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2006; 281(44):33352-62. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type XIII collagen (ColXIII) is a transmembrane protein thought to be involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. We report here on its presence in the normal human cornea and compare the results for keratoconus and scarred corneas. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were applied to human corneal samples obtained by penetrating keratoplasty. In the normal human cornea, ColXIII was immunolocalized to the corneal epithelial cells, and to a lesser degree to the stromal keratocytes. The keratoconus cases showed otherwise similar results, but in areas containing Bowman membrane disruptions showed thinned epithelial cells reduced immunostaining for ColXIII, whereas occasionally pronounced immunoreactivity was seen in the stromal keratocytes. The corneal scar samples contained highly increased ColXIII immunostaining by stromal cells in the fibrotic foci, whereas the peripheral areas showed less intense immunostaining. In situ hybridization confirmed that the corneal epithelium and keratocytes actively synthesize the transcript. Immunostaining with alphaSMA revealed that a substantial proportion of the ColXIII mRNA-expressing cells in the stromal scar tissues was myofibroblasts and that these areas lack CD34 immunoreactivity. The results indicate that ColXIII, which is predominantly confined to the basal corneal cells in the normal cornea, may have a role in the adhesion of corneal epithelial cells to each other and to the underlying basement membrane. Additionally, highly increased expression in scarred corneas suggests that it participates in the corneal wound healing process.
    Cornea 06/2006; 25(4):448-53. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type XIII collagen is a transmembrane collagen, which is known to exist also as a soluble variant due to ectodomain shedding. Earlier studies with the recombinant ectodomain have shown it to interact in vitro with a number of extracellular matrix proteins, e.g. Fn (fibronectin). In view of its strong binding to Fn, we examined in the present study whether the released soluble ectodomain can bind to the fibrillar Fn matrix under cell-culture conditions and, if so, influence its assembly. In this study, we demonstrate that the type XIII collagen ectodomain of mammalian cells can associate with Fn fibres and may eventually hamper incorporation of the fibrillar Fn meshwork. The association between type XIII collagen and Fn was implicated to be mediated by the C-terminal end of type XIII collagen and the N-terminal end of Fn. The results presented here imply that the shedding of the type XIII collagen ectodomain results in a biologically active molecule capable of remodelling the structure of the pericellular matrix.
    Biochemical Journal 02/2006; 393(Pt 1):43-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little information is available on the expression of transmembrane type XIII collagen in human diseases. The present study has investigated the expression of this collagen in cancer, in particular during malignant transformation. By combining the tissue microarray technique with in situ hybridization, a consistent pattern of clearly increased type XIII collagen mRNA expression was found in the stromal compartment of epithelial tumours and throughout mesenchymal tumours. Slightly elevated mRNA expression was observed in dysplastic samples and in malignant epithelial cells. It is also demonstrated that factors secreted into the culture medium by tumour cells, in particular the growth factor TGF-beta, contribute to the induction of type XIII collagen expression, and trigger concomitantly a profound phenotypic and morphological transition of cultured primary fibroblasts. Reciprocally, type XIII collagen may alter the growth milieu of malignant cells as the soluble type XIII collagen ectodomain influenced the adherence and spreading of cells cultured on vitronectin-rich matrix. It is proposed that malignant transformation stimulates the expression of type XIII collagen, particularly in the tumour stroma and to a lesser extent in the epithelium, and that this high type XIII collagen expression may contribute to tumour progression and behaviour by modulating cell-matrix interactions.
    The Journal of Pathology 12/2005; 207(3):324-35. · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transmembrane type XIII collagen resides in adhesive structures of cells and tissues, and has therefore been implicated in cell adhesion and in adhesion-dependent cell functions. This collagen also exists as a soluble protein in the pericellular matrix, as the ectodomain is released from the plasma membrane by proteolytic cleavage. Analysis with various protease inhibitors led to confirmation of the furin family of proprotein convertases as the protease group responsible for the shedding of the ectodomain, cleaving at a site conforming to the consensus sequence for the proprotein convertases at the stem of the ectodomain. Both the trans -Golgi network and the plasma membrane were used as cleavage locations. Mammalian cells employed various intracellular mechanisms to modulate shedding of the ectodomain, all resulting in a similar cleavage event. Cell detachment from the underlying substratum was also found to augment the excision. The released ectodomain rendered the pericellular surroundings less supportive of cell adhesion, migration and proliferation, as seen specifically on a vitronectin substratum. Type XIII collagen ectodomain shedding thus resulted in the formation of a soluble, biologically active molecule, which eventually modulated cell behaviour in a reciprocal and substratum-specific manner. The dual existence of membrane-bound and soluble variants widens our biological understanding of type XIII collagen.
    Biochemical Journal 07/2004; 380(Pt 3):685-93. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lack of type XV collagen in mice results in mild skeletal myopathy and increases vulnerability to exercise-induced skeletal muscle and cardiac injury [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98 (2001), 1194]. The expression of type XV collagen was studied during murine fetal development from 10.5 to 18.5 dpc using immunofluorescence. The first sign of type expression was seen in the capillaries of many tissues at 10.5 dpc, some of them showing developmental transitions in the expression. Interestingly, capillaries forming the blood-brain barrier and those of the sinusoidal type were essentially lacking in this collagen. Early expression was also detected in the skeletal muscle and peripheral nerves, while expression in the heart, kidney and lung appeared to be developmentally regulated. In addition, distinct staining was found in the perichondrium of the cartilage. Collectively, the dynamics of its expression during development, its localization in the basement membrane--fibrillar matrix interface and the consequences of its absence in mice suggest a structural role in providing stability at least in skeletal muscle and capillaries. The early prominent expression of type XV collagen in newly forming blood vessels could also indicate a possible role in angiogenic processes.
    Matrix Biology 02/2002; 21(1):89-102. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type XIII collagen is a type II transmembrane protein found at many sites of cell adhesion in tissues. Homologous recombination was used to generate a transgenic mouse line (Col13a1(N/N)) that expresses N-terminally altered type XIII collagen molecules lacking the short cytosolic and transmembrane domains but retaining the large collagenous ectodomain. The mutant molecules were correctly transported to focal adhesions in cultured fibroblasts derived from the Col13a1(N/N) mice, but the cells showed decreased adhesion when plated on type IV collagen. These mice were viable and fertile, and in immunofluorescence stainings the mutant protein was located in adhesive tissue structures in the same manner as normal alpha1(XIII) chains. In immunoelectron microscopy of wild-type mice type XIII collagen was detected at the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells whereas in the mutant mice the protein was located in the adjacent extracellular matrix. Affected skeletal muscles showed abnormal myofibers with a fuzzy plasma membrane-basement membrane interphase along the muscle fiber and at the myotendinous junctions, disorganized myofilaments, and streaming of z-disks. The findings were progressive and the phenotype was aggravated by exercise. Thus type XIII collagen seems to participate in the linkage between muscle fiber and basement membrane, a function impaired by lack of the cytosolic and transmembrane domains.
    American Journal Of Pathology 11/2001; 159(4):1581-92. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type XIII collagen is a type II transmembrane protein found in adhesive structures of mature tissues. We describe here its expression and spatio-temporal localization during mouse fetal development. Type XIII collagen mRNAs were expressed at a constant rate during development, with an increase of expression towards birth. Strong type XIII collagen expression was detected in the central and peripheral nervous systems of the developing mouse fetus in mid-gestation. Cultured primary neurons also expressed this collagen, and it was found to enhance neurite outgrowth. The results suggest that type XIII collagen is a new member among the proteins involved in nervous system development. Strong expression during early development was also detected in the heart, with localization to cell–cell contacts and accentuation in the intercalated discs perinatally. During late fetal development, type XIII collagen was observed in many tissues, including cartilage, bone, skeletal muscle, lung, intestine and skin. Clear developmental shifts in expression suggest a role in endochondral ossification of bone and the branching morphogenesis in the lung. Notable structures lacking type XIII collagen were the endothelia of most blood vessels and the endocardium. Its initially unique staining pattern began to concentrate in the same adhesive structures where it exists in adult tissues, and started to resemble that of the β1 integrin subunit and vinculin during late intrauterine development and in the perinatal period.
    Matrix Biology 08/2001; · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent analysis of type XIII collagen surprisingly showed that it is anchored to the plasma membranes of cultured cells via a transmembrane segment near its amino terminus. Here we demonstrate that type XIII collagen is concentrated in cultured skin fibroblasts and several other human mesenchymal cell lines in the focal adhesions at the ends of actin stress fibers, co-localizing with the known focal adhesion components talin and vinculin. This co-occurrence was also observed in rapidly forming adhesive structures of spreading and moving fibroblasts and in disrupting focal adhesions following microinjection of the Rho-inhibitor C3 transferase into the cells, suggesting that type XIII collagen is an integral focal adhesion component. Moreover, it appears to have an adhesion-related function since cell-surface expression of type XIII collagen in cells with weak basic adhesiveness resulted in improved cell adhesion on selected culture substrata. In tissues type XIII collagen was found in a range of integrin-mediated adherens junctions including the myotendinous junctions and costameres of skeletal muscle as well as many cell–basement membrane interfaces. Some cell–cell adhesions were found to contain type XIII collagen, most notably the intercalated discs in the heart. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that type XIII collagen has a cell adhesion-associated function in a wide array of cell–matrix junctions.
    Matrix Biology 02/2001; · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recombinant transmembrane protein type XIII collagen is shown to reside on the plasma membrane of insect cells in a 'type II' orientation. Expressions of deletion constructs showed that sequences important for the association of three alpha1(XIII) chains reside in their N- rather than C-terminal portion. In particular, a deletion of residues 63-83 immediately adjacent to the transmembrane domain abolished the formation of disulfide-bonded trimers. The results imply that nucleation of the type XIII collagen triple helix occurs at the N-terminal region and that triple helix formation proceeds from the N- to the C-terminus, in opposite orientation to that of the fibrillar collagens. Interestingly, a sequence homologous to the deleted residues was found at the same plasma membrane-adjacent location in other collagenous transmembrane proteins, suggesting that it may be a conserved association domain. The type XIII collagen was secreted into insect cell medium in low amounts, but this secretion was markedly enhanced when the cytosolic portion was lacking. The cleavage occurred in the non-collagenous NC1 domain after four arginines and was inhibited by a furin protease inhibitor.
    The EMBO Journal 11/2000; 19(19):5051-9. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The complete primary structure of the mouse type XIII collagen chain was determined by cDNA cloning. Comparison of the mouse amino acid sequences with the previously determined human sequences revealed a high identity of 90%. Surprisingly, the mouse cDNAs extended further in the 5' direction than the previously identified human clones. The 5' sequences contained a new in-frame ATG codon for translation initiation which resulted in elongation of the N-terminal noncollagenous domain by 81 residues. These N-terminal sequences lack a typical signal sequence but include a highly hydrophobic segment that clearly fulfills the criteria for a transmembrane domain. The sequence data thus unexpectedly suggested that type XIII collagen may be located on the plasma membrane, with a short cytosolic N-terminal portion and a long collagenous extracellular portion. These sequence data prompted us to generate antipeptide antibodies against type XIII collagen in order to study the protein and its subcellular location. Western blotting of human tumor HT-1080 cell extract revealed bands of over 180 kDa. These appeared to represent disulfide-bonded multimeric polypeptide forms that resolved upon reduction into 85-95-kDa bands that are likely to represent a mixture of splice forms of monomeric type XIII collagen chains. These chains were shown to contain the predicted N-terminal extension and thus also the putative transmembrane segment. Immunoprecipitation of biotinylated type XIII collagen from surface-labeled HT-1080 cells, subcellular fractionation, and immunofluorescence staining were used to demonstrate that type XIII collagen molecules are indeed located in the plasma membranes of these cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/1998; 273(25):15590-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Matrix Biology 01/1996; 15(3):160-160. · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • Matrix Biology 01/1996; 15(3):197-197. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    Timo. Väisänen
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    ABSTRACT: Diss. -- Oulun yliopisto.

Publication Stats

254 Citations
71.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • Oulu University Hospital
      • Department of Surgery
      Uleoborg, Oulu, Finland
  • 1998–2010
    • University of Oulu
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Oulu, Oulu, Finland