Kristina M. Lybecker

Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States

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Publications (37)5.99 Total impact

  • Kristina M. Lybecker, Lachlan Watkins
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the extent to which product liability risk contributes to the high costs of pharmaceuticals in the United States relative to prices in the United Kingdom. Research on pharmaceutical prices rarely accounts for the impact of liability risk, and none that we are aware of compares the United States and United Kingdom. Drawing on a dataset of 77 brand name drugs sold in both the U.S. and the U.K., we analyze relative manufacturers’ factory prices in each nation. We utilize several proxies for liability risk including drug litigation history, the percentage of plaintiff wins, and controlled substance classification. Importantly, under U.S. law there are no caps on the amount that can be awarded to a plaintiff claiming economic losses in the U.S. However, payouts in the U.K. are limited. Accounting for market differences and regulatory environments, we find liability risk can account for a portion of the price differential that exists between the U.S. and U.K., warranting further investigation.
    The Social Science Journal 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.soscij.2014.03.010 · 0.40 Impact Factor
  • Kristina M. Lybecker
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    ABSTRACT: Colorado College uses an economic system to allocate scarce course seats: annually during a sealed-bid auction, each student receives nontransferrable, nonbankable currency with which to bid on courses. We estimate an instrumental variables probit model to determine whether particular student populations are a) implicitly wealthier, having the ability to afford more expensive electives, or b) more risk-averse, choosing to avoid ambiguity by bidding more strongly and/or remaining in a class rather than selecting another after pre-registration. Beyond the anticipated department-specific and instructor-specific effects attributable to popular majors or charismatic instructors, we find strong evidence that students bid more strongly for courses that have perceived scarcity of seats, courses that offer a higher expected grade, courses taught by an instructor similar to themselves, or courses with special attributes like limited enrollment or field trip components. We also find evidence of some populations being more willing to “shop around” for new class experiences after the pre-registration period.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 04/2013; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.2257921
  • Daniel K.N. Johnson, Jeffrey Moore, Kristina M. Lybecker
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the location of innovations within pharmaceutical technology, using U.S. patent citation data to trace the knowledge flows over time. It is clear that knowledge clustering is certainly present. Our study utilizes multivariate left-censored Tobit regression analysis to control for identifiable factors, to examine whether over time the distance between successive innovators has changed. We find the distance to be increasing significantly over time, both when considering all citations and only inter-city transfers.
    International Conference on Business and Economics; 08/2012
  • Daniel K.N. Johnson, Kristina M. Lybecker
    Electronic Green Journal 07/2012; 1(33):1-10.
  • Daniel K.N. Johnson, Kristina M. Lybecker, Jeffrey Moore
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the location of innovations within solar technology, using U.S. patent citation data to trace their diffusion over time. Knowledge clustering is clearly present. We employ multivariate left-censored Tobit regression analysis to control for identifiable factors, to examine whether the distance between successive innovators has changed over time. We find the distance to be increasing slightly over time, both when considering all citations and only inter-city transfers.
    IEEE Proceedings, International Conference on Management and Service Science; 07/2012
  • Daniel K.N. Johnson, Kristina M. Lybecker, Jeffrey Moore
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the evidence on the clustering of innovators within the telecommunications sector, using U.S. patent citation data to trace their locations over time. While clustering is clearly evident, we use multivariate left-censored Tobit regression analysis to control for identifiable factors, showing that the distance between successive innovators has been rising over time, perhaps even exponentially.
    IEEE International Technology Management Conference; 06/2012
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    Daniel K.N. Johnson, Jeffrey Moore, Kristina M. Lybecker
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the location of innovations within green technology, using U.S. patent citation data to trace their inter-generational knowledge flows over time. Clustering is clearly evident, and we use multivariate left-censored Tobit regression analysis to control for identifiable factors, to show that the distance between successive innovators has not been rising over time. The interesting exception is nuclear energy in which distance appears to be decreasing over time. If we consider only inter-city transfers, the waste management also becomes more concentrated over time, while transportation declusters.
    World Renewable Energy Forum; 05/2012
  • Daniel K.N. Johnson, Jeffrey Moore, Kristina M. Lybecker
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    ABSTRACT: Using over 200,000 U.S. patent citations, we test whether knowledge transfers in the transportation sector are sensitive to distance, and whether that sensitivity has changed over time. Controlling for self-citation by inventor, assignee and examiner, multivariate regression analysis shows that physical distance is becoming less important for spillovers with time, albeit in a nonlinear fashion.
    Innovation through Knowledge Transfer; 04/2012
  • D.K.N. Johnson, J. Moore, K.M. Lybecker
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the evidence on the clustering of innovators within the telecommunications sector, using U.S. patent citation data to trace their locations over time. While clustering is clearly evident, we use multivariate left-censored Tobit regression analysis to control for identifiable factors, showing that the distance between successive innovators has been rising over time, perhaps even exponentially.
    Technology Management Conference (ITMC), 2012 IEEE International; 01/2012
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of spatial factors on competition and the price of gasoline have been sparsely explored by previous studies. Existing work examines how gasoline prices differ based on distance from the distribution site as well as how cost factors influence gasoline prices. Using market data from six midsized U.S. metro areas with similar isolation from neighboring retail markets, this paper examines the effects of location on retail price, while controlling for brand effects. Spatial regression analysis accommodates the potential of spatially correlated errors, and sensitivity analysis tests for several measures of retail location concentration. Results point to reproducible brand premiums and some location-based price differences, but also show the counterintuitive finding that areas with more market competition do not show significantly lower retail gas prices.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 12/2011; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1970709
  • Kristina M. Lybecker
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT While pharmaceutical prices have always differed across countries, rising drug costs in the United States have increased interest in the potential for arbitrage and moved the issue to center stage. At first blush, parallel trade in pharmaceuticals appears to be the solution to rising drug prices. However, a more nuanced consideration of the issue reveals it to be more complicated and less straightforward. This paper examines the economic incentives involved in pharmaceutical reimportation with a particular focus on the risks of counterfeit pharmaceuticals and the role of patent protection in continued research and development. The public policy ramifications and quality implications are also considered. Reimportation is a complicated issue that has the potential to shape both health care policy and the look of the pharmaceutical industry.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing & Management 12/2011; 16(3):79-98. DOI:10.3109/J058v16n03_10
  • DANIEL K. N. JOHNSON, KRISTINA M. LYBECKER
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    ABSTRACT: In reaction to public dismay over the technological inadequacy of electoral equipment in the 2000 presidential elections, Congress quickly enacted the Help America Vote Act, legislation to fund the acquisition of advanced vote‐counting technology. The intention was to enable, rather than mandate, choices of new equipment. This paper utilizes a unique historical opportunity to test whether electoral equipment follows the pattern predicted by well‐established models of innovation diffusion, merging electoral data with census data on socio‐economic characteristics. We infer that fiscal constraints to acquisition are strong but not the only limitations to technology adoption, particularly within certain easily identifiable populations.
    Growth and Change 12/2011; 42(4). DOI:10.1111/j.1468-2257.2011.00569.x · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    Jeff Moore, Daniel K. N. Johnson, Kristina M. Lybecker
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    ABSTRACT: Using over 250,000 U.S. patent citations, we test whether knowledge transfers in the energy sector are sensitive to distance, and whether that sensitivity has changed over time. Controlling for self-citation by inventor, assignee and examiner, multivariate regression analysis shows that physical distance is becoming less important for spillovers with time.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 11/2011; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1970437
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    Amanda J. Felkey, Kristina M. Lybecker
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    ABSTRACT: Though linked, the relationship between legalized abortion and contraception use remains largely unexplored. This study seeks to fill this gap by examining young women’s contraceptive decisions and the additional costs, direct and indirect, imposed by restrictive abortion legislation and provider availability. Utilizing variation across U.S. state abortion restrictions on minors and different levels of provider availability we measure whether women under the age of 25 really are less careful in using contraception if abortions are less costly, in terms of both financial and opportunity cost. The effects of abortion restrictions for minors are largest and the most significant for women aged 18 and younger and the effect of these restrictions decrease in magnitude and significance gradually as women age. As expected, parental involvement increases the likelihood of young women using oral contraception. In the context of provider availability, we find results in the expected direction. As the percent of women in the state without a provider increases women are more likely to use the pill and when the provider to woman ratio increases costs of aborting are lower there is a negative effect on pill use. These results indicate that young women are forward thinking when making their contraceptive decisions, relative to the direct and indirect restrictions on abortion access. If individuals are forward thinking enough such that legislation and policy governing the consequences for today's actions can affect today's decisions, then there are important policy implications for increasing health outcomes.
    The Social Science Journal 08/2011; 51(1). DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1911992 · 0.40 Impact Factor
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    Amanda J. Felkey, Kristina M. Lybecker
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    ABSTRACT: Following the legalization of abortion in the United States, scholars have studied its impact on a wide variety of factors including women’s educational choices and labor force decisions, abortion rates, and most controversially, crime. Economists have also investigated the determinants of state abortion restrictions across the United States, exploring the importance of demographic characteristics, locational availability, and the strength of interest advocacy groups. Notably absent from the existing literature is an examination of the impact of legalized abortion and the restrictions of its use on the decision to use oral contraceptives. Earlier work has established that states with more lenient laws regarding access to contraceptive services by minors have greater pill use, but the impact of the legal framework surrounding abortion restrictions has not been examined. The focus of this paper is an analysis of the possibility that variation in state abortion availability, proxied by legislation restricting a woman’s reproductive rights, may generate variation in the use of birth control pills. It is reasonable to expect that without the option of terminating a pregnancy (or in states where the cost of doing so is higher), that oral contraceptives would be more widely utilized. Our findings reveal that restrictions on abortion funding have a significant and positive impact on a woman’s decision to use the pill. In addition, women who live in states with higher abortion rates, a likely representation of the ease of terminating an unwanted pregnancy and proxy for the entirety of abortion restrictions, are less likely to use the pill. These results indicate that women are forward thinking when making their contraceptive decisions, at least relative to abortion legislation. If individuals are forward thinking enough such that legislation and policy governing the consequences for today's actions can affect today's decisions, then there are important policy implications for increasing health outcomes.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 05/2011; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1864036
  • Daniel K. N. Johnson, Kristina M. Lybecker
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    ABSTRACT: Using patent citation data for the U.S., we test whether knowledge spillovers in biotechnology are sensitive to distance, and whether that sensitivity has changed over time. Controlling for self-citation by inventor, assignee, and examiner, cohort-based regression analysis shows that physical distance is becoming less important for spillovers with time. KeywordsBiotechnology–Citation–Distance–Patent–Spillover
    Review of Industrial Organization 02/2011; 40(1):21-35. DOI:10.1007/s11151-011-9316-6 · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    Hannah Brendan, Kristina M. Lybecker
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    ABSTRACT: The recent stagnation of electronic commerce highlights the need to understand contemporary online consumer behavior. E-commerce’s slow growth has coincided with an explosion in the usage of Web 2.0 activities. These novel online venues have created many new channels for online retailers to reach buyers, yet these online activities have gone largely unstudied. This study incorporates current user demographics and Web 2.0 activities to dynamically model the determinants of two key measurements of recent online shopping, a recent purchase and the novel dependent variable, percentage of income spent online. Regression analysis is applied to a nationally representative 2007 survey of the U.S. online population. Determinants of a recent online purchase include, ownership of a credit card, PayPalTM account, listening to podcasts, participating in online auctions, and for the first time, female gender. In a second regression, positive determinants for the percentage of income spent online include, male gender, educational attainment, online auctions, instant messaging, and online dating. Online spending increases with time online, and appears to compete with other forms of online entertainment and social networking. These results produce snapshots of contemporary online shoppers that can be used by electronic retailers to determine which product characteristics to highlight for greatest impact, and to efficiently target specific Web 2.0 activities, such as entertainment, podcast and social network websites, to develop new and robust marketing platforms.
    International Business Research 09/2010; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1413983 · 0.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Closely following the notion of innovative geographic clusters, this paper examines knowledge flows in the US agriculture industry for evidence of innovative agglomeration. The data indicate that a closer distance between any two agricultural patent origins increases the probability that one cites the other as prior art. Further, subtle inter-regional variations characterize the degree to which proximity advances agricultural innovation. Finally, the results show that older innovations in agriculture proliferate more readily than recently created knowledge.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 09/2010; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1674595
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    Daniel K. N. Johnson, Kristina M. Lybecker
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    ABSTRACT: While there is anecdotal evidence that home values decline when a big-box store (such as Wal-Mart) decides to locate in the area, there is a paucity of evidence on that effect. This paper uses a repeat sales model to compare residential property values, and the speed of sale of the property, to compare the impact that an arrival has. Results conclude that there is a ‘news effect’ surrounding the arrival, and that the total effect is small at most. For most specifications tested, the number of stores nearby, the arrival of new stores, and the distance to the nearest store all have insignificant impacts on both property resale value and the number of days that a property spends on the market prior to sale. In the worst-case scenario, the arrival of a Wal-Mart is associated with a decline equivalent to roughly one percent of the home’s square footage and is not absorbed by those closest to the new retailer but by rather more distant neighbors.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 09/2010; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1674598