ABSTRACT: Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) has been proposed as physiological criterion to select C3 crops for yield and water use efficiency. The relationships between carbon isotope discrimination (Δ), water use efficiency
for grain and biomass production (WUEG and WUEB, respectively) and plant and leaf traits were examined in 20 Iranian wheat genotypes including einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L. subsp. monococcum) accessions, durum wheat (T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) landraces and bread wheat (T. aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) landraces and improved cultivars, grown in pots under well-watered conditions. Carbon isotope discrimination was higher
in diploid than in hexaploid and tetraploid wheats and was negatively associated with grain yield across species as well as
within bread wheat. It was also positively correlated to stomatal frequency. The highest WUEG and grain yield were noted in bread wheat and the lowest in einkorn wheat. Einkorn and bread wheat had higher WUEB and biomass than durum wheat. WUEG and WUEB were significantly negatively associated to Δ across species as well as within bread and durum wheat. The variation for WUEG was mainly driven by the variation for harvest index across species and by the variation for Δ within species. The quantity
of water extracted by the crop, that was closely correlated to root mass, poorly influenced WUEG. Environmental conditions and genetic variation for water use efficiency related traits appear to highly determine the relationships
between WUEG and its different components (water consumed, transpiration efficiency and carbon partitioning).
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 04/2012; 56(1):105-114. · 1.55 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Cultivated emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccon Schrank, a tetraploid species with hulled grain, has been largely cultivated during seven millennia in the Middle-East, Central
and West Asia, and Europe. It has been largely replaced by hulless species and is now a minor crop, with the exception of
some countries like India, Ethiopia and Yemen, where its grain is used for preparing traditional foods. Nutritional qualities
and specific taste and flavor of emmer wheat products have led to a recent development of the cultivation in some European
countries. Emmer wheat also possesses valuable traits of resistance to pests and diseases and tolerance to abiotic stresses
and is increasingly used as a reservoir of useful genes in wheat breeding. In the present article, a review concerning taxonomy,
diversity and history of cultivation of emmer wheat is reported. Grain characteristics and valuable agronomic traits are described.
Some successful examples of emmer wheat utilization for the development of durum or bread wheat cultivars are examined, and
the perspectives in using emmer wheat as health food and for the development of new breeding germplasm are discussed.
KeywordsBreeding-Distribution-Diversity-Emmer wheat-Nutritional value-
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 04/2012; 57(6):937-962. · 1.55 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The genus Aegilops has an important potential utilization in wheat improvement because of its resistance to different biotic and abiotic stresses and close relation with the cultivated wheat. Therefore, a better knowledge of the eco-geographical distribution of Aegilops species and their collection and conservation are required. A total of 297 Aegilops accessions representing nine (five tetraploid and four diploid) species were collected in different regions of Bulgaria, and the ecological characteristics of the 154 explored sites were recorded. The distribution of the diploid species (Ae. caudata L., Ae. speltoides Tausch, Ae. umbellulata Zhuk. and Ae. comosa Sibth. and Sm.) was limited to specific environments in south-central Bulgaria. Tetraploid species were present in harsher environments than diploid species and showed wider adaptation and distribution. Species–environment relationships were analysed by considering the worldwide distribution of the species and their physiological resistance to abiotic stress. Aegilops cylindrica Host was more frequently found in northern Bulgaria and at high altitudes. Its distribution was closely related to its tolerance to low temperatures. Aegilops geniculata Roth and Ae. neglecta Req. ex Bertol. were absent in the north of Bulgaria, but widely distributed in low rainfall areas. Aegilops neglecta, more frost resistant than Ae. geniculata, was present at higher altitude. Aegilops biuncialis Vis. and Ae. triuncialis L. showed adaptation to a wide range of climatic conditions. The study of Aegilops species ecology and distribution in Bulgaria provided useful information for the future collection and for the genetic resource management in this region.
Biodiversity and Conservation 01/2004; 13(12):2319-2337. · 2.24 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Genetic diversity among 49 naked barley accessions originating from three different breeding centers (International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria, Genetic Institute of Sofia, Bulgaria and Timiriazev Agricultural Academy of Moscow, Russia) was investigated using hordein polymorphism and agromorphological variation. The hordein electrophoresis revealed significant polymorphism: four different patterns (L, N, H1, H2) were distinguished for the D-, twelve for the C- and thirteen for the B-hordein groups. Among the 49 accessions, 30 distinct patterns were identified. A genetic distance matrix based on Jaccard coefficient was elaborated and converted to a dendrogram using UPGMA analysis. Four main clusters, and some distant accessions were identified. The widest range of genetic variability was found in ICARDA germplasm. A Principal Component Analysis based on agromorphological traits divided the whole collection in the three groups corresponding to the three different origins. The analysis of hordein polymorphism permitted the description of genetic relatedness within the naked barley collection while the evaluation of agromorphological traits permitted the identification of accessions with promising agronomical characteristics. The value of both approaches for the study of genetic resources and their subsequent use in breeding is discussed.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 07/2001; 48(4):353-360. · 1.55 Impact Factor