M R Bani

Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (37)262.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, affecting angiogenesis, have shown therapeutic efficacy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The increased overall survival is not fully explained by their anti-tumor activity, since these drugs frequently induce disease stabilization rather than regression. RCC patients frequently develop cachectic syndrome. We used the RXF393 human renal carcinoma xenograft that recapitulates the characteristics of the disease, including the growth in the mouse kidney (orthotopic implantation), and the induction of cachexia with subsequent premature death. Sunitinib prevents body weight loss and muscle wasting and significantly improves the survival of RXF393-bearing nude mice. The anti-cachectic effect was not associated to direct anti-tumor activity of the drug. Most relevant is the ability of sunitinib to reverse the cachectic phenotype and rescue the animals from the loss of fat tissue. Body weight loss is prevented also in mice bearing the C26 colon carcinoma, classically reported to induce cachexia in immunocompetent mice. Among the mechanisms, we herein show that sunitinib is able to restrain the overactivation of STAT3 and MuRF-1 pathways, involved in enhanced muscle protein catabolism during cancer cachexia. We suggest that off-target effects of angiogenesis inhibitors targeting STAT3 are worth considering as a therapeutic option for patients who develop cachexia, independently of their anti-tumor activity.
    Oncotarget 11/2014; · 6.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. On the basis of its histopathology and molecular-genomic changes ovarian cancer has been divided into subtypes, each with distinct biology and outcome. The aim of this study was to develop a panel of patient-derived EOC-xenografts that recapitulate the molecular and biological heterogeneity of human ovarian cancer. Thirty-four EOC-xenografts were successfully established, either subcutaneously or intraperitoneally, in nude mice. The xenografts were histologically similar to the corresponding patient tumor and comprised all the major ovarian cancer subtypes. After orthotopic transplantation in the bursa of the mouse ovary, they disseminate into the organs of the peritoneal cavity and produce ascites, typical of ovarian cancer. Gene expression analysis and mutation status indicated a high degree of similarity with the original patient and discriminate different subsets of xenografts. They were very responsive, responsive and resistant to cisplatin, resembling the clinical situation in ovarian cancer. This panel of patient-derived EOC-xenografts that recapitulate the recently type I and type II classification serves to study the biology of ovarian cancer, identify tumor-specific molecular markers and develop novel treatment modalities.
    Cancer research. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Differently from most transformed cells, cutaneous melanoma express the pleiotropic factor thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). Herein we show that TSP-1 (RNA and protein), undetectable in four cultures of melanocytes and a RGP melanoma, was variously present in 13 cell lines from advanced melanomas or metastases. Moreover, microarray analysis of 55 human lesions showed higher TSP-1 expression in primary melanomas and metastases than in common and dysplastic nevi. In a functional enrichment analysis, the expression of TSP-1 correlated with motility-related genes. Accordingly, TSP-1 production was associated with melanoma cell motility in vitro and lung colonization potential in vivo. VEGF/VEGFR-1 and FGF-2, involved in melanoma progression, regulated TSP-1 production. These factors were co-expressed with TSP-1 and correlated negatively with Slug (SNAI2), a cell migration master gene implicated in melanoma metastasis. We conclude that TSP-1 cooperates with FGF-2 and VEGF/VEGFR-1 in determining melanoma invasion and metastasis, as part of a Slug-independent motility program.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 09/2014; · 5.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The selective delivery of bioactive agents to tumors reduces toxicity and enhances the efficacy of anticancer therapies. In this study, we show that the antibody F8, which recognizes perivascular and stromal EDA-fibronectin (EDA-Fn), when conjugated to interleukin-2 (F8-IL2) can effectively inhibit the growth of EDA-Fn-expressing melanomas in combination with paclitaxel. We obtained curative effects with paclitaxel administered before the immunocytokine. Coadministration of paclitaxel increased the uptake of F8 in xenografted melanomas, enhancing tumor perfusion and permeability. Paclitaxel also boosted the recruitment of F8-IL2-induced natural killer (NK) cells to the tumor, suggesting a host response as part of the observed therapeutic benefit. In support of this likelihood, NK cell depletion impaired the antitumor effect of paclitaxel plus F8-IL2. Importantly, this combination reduced both the tumor burden and the number of pulmonary metastatic nodules. The combination did not cause cumulative toxicity. Together, our findings offer a preclinical proof that by acting on the tumor stroma paclitaxel potentiates the antitumor activity elicited by a targeted delivery of IL2, thereby supporting the use of immunochemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic melanoma.
    Cancer Research 03/2012; 72(7):1814-24. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, placenta growth factor (PlGF) and their corresponding membrane receptors are involved in autocrine and paracrine regulation of melanoma growth and metastasis. Besides the membrane receptors, a soluble form of the VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1 (sVEGFR-1) has been identified, that behaves both as a decoy receptor, sequestering VEGF-A and PlGF, and as an extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule, promoting endothelial cell adhesion and migration through the interaction with α5β1 integrin. To analyse whether sVEGFR-1 plays a role during melanoma progression. sVEGFR-1 expression was evaluated in a panel of 36 melanoma cell lines and 11 primary human melanocyte cultures by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and in specimens of primary or metastatic melanoma lesions from 23 patients by immunohistochemical analysis. sVEGFR-1 expression was highly upregulated in melanoma cell lines with respect to human melanocytes. Interestingly, cell lines obtained from cutaneous metastases showed a significant reduction of sVEGFR-1 expression, as compared with cell lines derived from primary tumours. These results were confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of sections from primary skin melanomas and the corresponding cutaneous metastases, suggesting that modulation of sVEGFR-1 expression influences ECM invasion by melanoma cells and metastasis localization. Moreover, we provide evidence that adhesion of melanoma cells to sVEGFR-1 is favoured by the activation of a VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 autocrine loop. Our data strongly suggest that sVEGFR-1 plays a role in melanoma progression and that low sVEGFR-1/VEGF-A and sVEGFR-1/transmembrane VEGFR-1 ratios might predict a poor outcome in patients with melanoma.
    British Journal of Dermatology 12/2010; 164(5):1061-70. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We showed previously that GnRH receptors are expressed in melanoma cells; their activation reduces cell growth and metastatic behavior. Here, we investigated whether GnRH agonists might affect the expression of genes involved in melanoma progression. By genome-wide transcriptomic and real-time PCR analysis, we first observed that GnRH agonists decrease the expression of the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (all isoforms) in BLM melanoma cells. Then, we demonstrated that GnRH agonists specifically decrease the expression of the VEGF165 isoform as well as its secretion from BLM cells. These data suggested that activation of GnRH receptors might reduce the pro-angiogenic behavior of melanoma cells. To verify this hypothesis, we treated BLM cells with a GnRH agonist; the conditioned medium from these cells was tested to assess its capability to stimulate human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) motility. The migration of HUVECs towards the conditioned medium of GnRH agonist-treated BLM cells was significantly lower than the migration of HUVECs toward the conditioned medium of untreated cells. Thus, GnRH agonists reduce the pro-angiogenic behavior of melanoma cells through a decreased production of bioactive VEGF. We then found that GnRH receptors are also expressed on HUVECs and that GnRH agonists reduce their ability to proliferate and to form capillary-like tubes when stimulated by VEGF. These findings suggest that GnRH agonists exert an anti-angiogenic activity indirectly by decreasing VEGF secretion from tumor cells and directly by counteracting the pro-angiogenic activity of the growth factor. These data might lead to the development of novel targeted approaches for melanoma.
    Endocrinology 10/2010; 151(10):4643-53. · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2010; 8(5):94-95.
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    ABSTRACT: Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is a unique G-protein-coupled receptor belonging to the protease-activated receptor family. Its activation leads to downstream signaling events that launch a variety of cellular responses related to tumor progression. PAR-1 expression has been associated to a variety of human cancers, and our previous studies reveal a high PAR-1 expression in melanoma specimens as compared to common nevi. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of PAR-1 to the malignant phenotype of human melanoma cell lines obtained from cutaneous primary lesions, capable of different metastatic behaviors in the patients from which they have been derived. We found that melanoma cells isolated from lesions giving rise to metastases in patients (WM115, WM278A, WM1361A, WM983A), had higher PAR-1 mRNA and protein expression, as compared to those obtained from lesions that did not develop metastatic disease (WM793, WM35). The cells isolated from metastatic primary lesions were able to colonize the lungs of immunodeficient SCID mice while those isolated from non-metastatic lesions were not. Additionally, cells expressing elevated PAR-1 had higher migratory and invasive abilities than those holding minimal PAR-1 expression. The migration and invasion capabilities of the melanoma cells expressing high PAR-1 were hampered by genetic and pharmacological interventions. The reduction of PAR-1 expression by siRNA and the inhibition of PAR-1 function by the SCH79797 specific antagonist significantly decreased the melanoma cell motility and invasiveness, down to an extent similar to that of the non-metastatic and low PAR-1 expressing cells. Our results provide strong evidence supporting the implication of PAR-1 in the malignant progression of human melanoma.
    Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 01/2010; 27(1):43-53. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Targeting of the tumor stroma, including the tumor vasculature, represents a new frontier in the treatment of malignancy. Preclinical studies and clinical experiences have established that stroma-directed novel agents must be combined with conventional therapies in order to achieve relevant therapeutic efficacy. Here we review our preclinical experience on combinations of paclitaxel with a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor of angiogenesis (SU6668) and a vascular disrupting agent (VDA, ZD6126), and discuss the critical factors that determine the outcome of these treatments. We also analyze the relevance of the intrinsic sensitivity of the tumor to the drugs, as well as the possibility that the two combined agents synergistically affect the vasculature or independently target the host and the tumor compartments. Finally, we discuss the need to carefully optimize scheduling and sequencing, through the use of reliable end points, in order to avoid negative pharmacological interactions and to improve the antineoplastic efficacy of paclitaxel-based combination treatments.
    Cancer and metastasis reviews 01/2008; 26(3-4):481-8. · 7.79 Impact Factor
  • Thrombosis Research - THROMB RES. 01/2007; 120.
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    ABSTRACT: Different antiangiogenic approaches have been proposed in cancer treatment where therapeutic efficacy has been shown with the addition of cytotoxic agents. Here, we used SU6668, a small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, to investigate the combinatorial effect with paclitaxel on the cellular populations of the developing vasculature. The effect of this combination was evaluated in vitro in a 72-hour proliferation assay on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human microvascular endothelial cells derived from lungs, endothelial cells, aortic smooth muscle cells, and human ovarian carcinoma cells sensitive (1A9) and resistant (1A9-PTX22) to paclitaxel. Combination data were assessed by isobologram analysis. Cell survival was determined by terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated nick-end labeling and Annexin V staining. The activity of the combination in vivo was evaluated in fibroblast growth factor-2-induced angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs s.c. implanted in mice. The 1A9-PTX22, paclitaxel-resistant xenograft model was used to evaluate tumor response. Combination index values and isobologram analysis showed synergy in inhibition of proliferation of HUVEC, human microvascular endothelial cells derived from lungs, and aortic smooth muscle cells. The combination induced greater apoptosis in HUVEC than the single agents. The addition of paclitaxel to the treatment with SU6668 significantly decreased the hemoglobin content and the number of CD31-positive vessels in Matrigel plugs in vivo. The combination of the drugs was more active than either single agent against 1A9-PTX22 xenografts; the tumor growth delay was accompanied by a significant reduction of vascular density. These findings show that the activity of angiogenesis inhibitors on vascular cells could be potentiated when administered in combination with chemotherapeutic agents that themselves have vascular targeting properties.
    Clinical Cancer Research 04/2006; 12(6):1839-49. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated gene expression profiles of human ovarian carcinomas in vivo during Taxol(R) (paclitaxel) treatment and observed a difference in expression. Nude mice bearing 1A9 or 1A9PTX22 xenografts were given 60 mg/kg of paclitaxel. Therapeutic efficacy was achieved for 1A9, while 1A9PTX22 did not respond. Tumor tissues harvested 4 and 24 h after treatment were evaluated by cDNA microarray against untreated tumors. Paclitaxel caused the modulation of more genes in 1A9 than in 1A9PTX22 tumors, in accordance to their therapeutic response. Most gene expression alterations were detected 24 h after paclitaxel administration and affected genes involved in various biological functions including cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation (CDC2, CDKN1A, PLAB, and TOP2A), apoptosis (BNIP3 and PIG8), signal transduction and transcriptional regulation (ARF1, ATF2, FOS, GNA11, HDAC3, MADH2, SLUG, and SPRY4), fatty acid biosynthesis and sterol metabolism (FDPS, IDI1, LIPA, and SC5D), and IFN-mediated signaling (G1P3, IFI16, IFI27, IFITM1, and ISG15). The modulation of two representative genes, CDKN1A and TOP2A, was validated by Northern analyses on a panel of seven ovarian carcinoma xenograft models undergoing treatment with paclitaxel. We found that the changes in expression level of these genes was strictly associated with the responsiveness to paclitaxel. Our study shows the feasibility of obtaining gene expression profiles of xenografted tumor models as a result of drug exposure. This in turn might provide insights related to the drugs' action in vivo that will anticipate the response to treatment manifested by tumors and could be the basis for novel approaches to molecular pharmacodynamics.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 03/2004; 3(2):111-21. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor neovascularization is controlled by a balance between positive and negative effectors, whose production can be regulated by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the angiogenic potential of tumors could also be controlled by p73, a gene homologous to the tumor suppressor p53, whose involvement in tumor angiogenesis is known. We have studied the production of proangiogenic (VEGF, FGF-2, PIGF and PDGF) and antiangiogenic (TSP-1) factors in two p73 overexpressing clones obtained from the human ovarian carcinoma cells A2780. TSP-1 was downregulated in both clones compared to mock transfected cells, both at mRNA and protein level. Conversely, both clones showed an increased production of VEGF mRNA and protein. For both TSP-1 and VEGF, regulation of expression was partially due to modulation of the promoter activity, and was dependent on p53 status. Production of the other angiogenic factors FGF-2, PIGF and PDGF-B was also increased in p73 overexpressing clones. The two clones were more angiogenic than parental cells, as shown in vitro by their increased chemotactic activity for endothelial cells, and in vivo by the generation of more vascularized tumors. These findings suggest a potential role of p73 in tumor angiogenesis.
    Oncogene 12/2001; 20(50):7293-300. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a pleiotropic heparin-binding growth factor endowed with a potent angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the impact of the modulation of FGF2 expression on the neovascularization at different stages of tumor growth, we generated stable transfectants (Tet-FGF2) from the human endometrial adenocarcinoma HEC-1-B cell line in which FGF2 expression is under the control of the tetracycline-responsive promoter (Tet-off system). After transfection, independent clones were obtained in which FGF2 mRNA and protein were up-regulated compared with parental cells. Also, the conditioned medium of Tet-FGF2 transfectants caused proliferation, urokinase-type plasminogen activator up-regulation, migration, and sprouting of cultured endothelial cells. A 3-day treatment of Tet-FGF2 cell cultures with tetracycline abolished FGF2 overexpression and the biological activity of the conditioned medium without affecting their proliferative capacity. Tet-FGF2 cells formed tumors when nude mice received s.c. injections. The administration of 2.0 mg/ml tetracycline in the drinking water before cell transplantation, continued throughout the whole experiment, inhibited FGF2 expression in Tet-FGF2 tumor lesions. This was paralleled by a significant decrease in the rate of tumor growth and vascularization to values similar to those observed in lesions generated by parental HEC-1-B cells. Tetracycline administration 20 days after tumor cell implant, although equally effective in reducing FGF2 expression and inhibiting tumor vascularity, only minimally impaired the growth of established Tet-FGF2 tumors. The results indicate that FGF2 expression deeply affects the initial tumor growth and neovascularization of HEC-1-B human endometrial adenocarcinoma in nude mice. On the contrary, the growth of established tumors appears to be independent of the inhibition of FGF2 expression and decreased vascular density. The possibility that a significant reduction of angiogenesis may not affect the progression of large tumors points to the use of antiangiogenic therapy in early tumor stage.
    Cancer Research 02/2001; 61(1):309-17. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of proteases prevent tumor-associated matrix degradation, affecting tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Our study was designed to investigate the effect of inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) on the growth of experimental hemangiomas, using the model of murine endothelioma eEnd.1 cells. In nude mice, these cells generate hemangiomas, consisting mostly of host-recruited endothelial cells, whose growth requires the activity of MMPs. In vitro, eEnd.1 cells produce factors that recruit endothelial cells and stimulate them to release MMPs. Over-expression of TIMP-2, following retrovirus-mediated gene transfer, decreased tumor growth in vivo. The infected clone CR1, which produces high levels of TIMP-2 (as assessed by Northern blot, ELISA and reverse zymography), formed slow-growing tumors that did not grow beyond 0.4 g, while clone 1H, which produces little TIMP-2, grew not dissimilarly to mock-infected cells and parental e.End.1 cells. Histologically, control tumors presented the features of cavernous hemangiomas, while CR1 tumors had a more solid pattern, showing foci of apoptotic cells. In vitro, TIMP-2 over-expression had no autocrine anti-proliferative effect on endothelioma cells but reduced their ability to recruit endothelial cells. CR1 cells lacked the capacity of mock-infected or parental eEnd.1 cells to stimulate endothelial cell motility and invasiveness. Antibodies against TIMP-2 restored the ability of CR1 to induce endothelial cell invasion. We conclude that, in this model, genetic increase of TIMP-2 inhibits tumor growth, apparently by affecting the recruitment and organization of host endothelial cells by the transformed cells.
    International Journal of Cancer 02/2001; 91(2):241-7. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a critical role in the development of hemangioma-like vascular tumors in mice injected with murine eEnd.1 endothelioma cells. The current study was designed to (a) characterize the presence of MMPs in the vascular tumor, (b) define whether these MMPs originate from the transformed cells or from the recruited stromal cells and (c) study the stimulatory effect of eEnd.1 cells on the production of MMPs by endothelial cells. Several gelatinases were present in the eEnd.1 tumor extract, including latent and activated MMP-2 (72-kDa gelatinase A, EC 3.4.24. 24) and MMP-9 (92-kDa gelatinase B, EC 3.4.24.35). Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor revealed focal reactivity for MMP-2. No gelatinase was produced by cultured eEnd.1 cells, or by six of nine related endothelioma cell lines, suggesting that stroma cells, particularly endothelial cells recruited by the tumor cells, rather than eEnd.1 cells themselves, are the source of the gelatinases observed in the tumors in vivo. The conditioned medium of eEnd.1 cells stimulated the release of MMP-2 and MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase, EC 3.4.24.7) by endothelial cells, but not of the inhibitor TIMP-2. The increased production of MMP-2 and MMP-1, observed at the protein level (zymogram and Western blot analysis), occurred through a posttranscriptional mechanism, since no increase in mRNA was observed and the stimulation was not prevented by inhibitors of protein synthesis. The inhibitory effects of monensin and brefeldin A, inhibitors of protein secretion, and the decrease in cell-associated MMP-2 in stimulated endothelial cells indicated that regulation occurred mostly at the level of protease secretion. MMPs are known to be regulated at different levels; this study indicates that, in endothelial cells, the stimulation of MMPs can also occur at the level of secretion, a mechanism that provides a rapid mobilization of these crucial enzymes in the early phases of angiogenesis.
    Experimental Cell Research 09/2000; 258(2):384-94. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gene amplification is frequently present in human tumors, although specific target genes relevant to many amplified loci remain unidentified. An expression cloning assay enabled identification of a candidate oncogene derived from human chromosome 3p14.1. The cDNA retrieved from morphologically transformed cells contained the full-length protein coding region and detected an abundant transcript in the same cells. Sequence analysis revealed identity with the wild-type sequence of p44S10, a highly conserved subunit of the 26S proteasome that exhibits similarity to the Arabidopsis fus6/cop11 family of signaling molecules. p44S10 gene copy number and mRNA expression were increased in association with segmental 1.8 - 11-fold chromosomal gains in cutaneous malignant melanoma cell lines (5/13; 40%) and tumors (2/40; 5%), and in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Likewise, malignant progression of human radial growth phase WM35 melanoma cells was associated with amplification and increased expression of endogenous p44S10, and increased expression of p44S10 was sufficient to induce proliferation of WM35 cells in vivo. The results demonstrate segmental copy number gains within chromosome 3p in cutaneous malignant melanoma and suggest that deregulation of a proteasome regulatory particle subunit may contribute to the malignant phenotype.
    Oncogene 04/2000; 19(11):1419-27. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A major obstacle in the systemic treatment of advanced malignant melanoma is its intrinsic resistance to conventionally used chemotherapeutic agents. In order to investigate the mechanisms of this intrinsic resistance, we have previously utilized retroviral insertional mutagenesis on an early-stage, drug sensitive human melanoma cell line (WM35) to establish mutated cell lines that exhibited increased resistance to cis-diammi-nedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP). Here, we demonstrate that this increased resistance to CDDP is mediated by the over-expression of tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TYRP2), an enzyme that normally functions in the biosynthesis of the pigment, melanin. Northern and Western blot analyses revealed that the expression of TYRP2 in the virally-derived cell lines as well as in a panel of human melanoma cell lines positively correlated with their levels of resistance to CDDP. Furthermore, enforced expression of TYRP2 in WM35 cells by transfection elevated their resistance to CDDP. The increased CDDP resistance in the virally-derived clones and TYRP2 transfectants was accompanied by a reduction in CDDP-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the virally-derived CDDP-resistant clones also showed cross resistance to carboplatin and methotrexate, but not taxol, suggesting that TYRP2 over-expression may confer resistance specifically to DNA damaging agents. Overall, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism of drug resistance in human melanoma cells that is mediated by the over-expression of TYRP2. Since TYRP2 is expressed only in cells of melanocytic lineage, this may represent the first report of a lineage-specific mechanism of drug resistance. In summary, these findings suggest a significant role for TYRP2 in the intrinsic drug resistance phenotype of human melanoma cells and may have important implications in the development of chemosensitization strategies for the clinical management of this disease.
    Oncogene 02/2000; 19(3):395-402. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-Tat, the transactivating gene product of HIV-1, has been shown to interact with different cell types, inducing gene expression, altering their growth and migratory behavior. In this study we examined whether Tat might affect functions of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), relevant to the in vivo dissemination. Our results show that Tat significantly augmented the motility of the two AIDS-related Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines (AS283 and PA682PB) and AIDS-primary effusion lymphoma cell line (HBL-6-AIDS-PEL). Mutations in RGD or basic domain of Tat (KGE-MBP and LxI-MBP, respectively) sharply reduced migration compared with wild type, suggesting that both domains are required for migration. In contrast, a Tat protein mutation outside the active domains (NH(2)-TAT-GST) did not reduce lymphoma cell migration. The treatment of lymphoma cells with Tat did not influence their adhesion to matrix proteins or to human vascular endothelial cells, but endothelial cells treated with Tat became more adhesive to lymphoma cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that treatment of endothelial cells with Tat induced the cell surface expression of the adhesion molecules vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin and increased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Only antibodies against VCAM-1 on endothelial cells or against the VLA-4 integrin expressed on AS283 cells inhibited the increment of adhesion, indicating the relevance of this pathway in the adhesion of lymphoma cells to vascular endothelium. In our work, we show for the first time that Tat can enhance the migration of lymphoma cells and their adhesion to endothelial cells, two processes that may contribute to the malignant behavior of NHL in patients with AIDS.
    Blood 10/1999; 94(5):1747-54. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although it is generally accepted that proteolytic degradation is an important mechanism used by malignant cells in the process of metastasis, comparatively little is known about the regulation of molecules responsible for proteolysis and how they become de-regulated during human tumour progression. Using a genetically related pair of human melanoma cell lines, derived from the same patient at different stages of disease, we analysed differences in the cytokine-mediated regulation of gelatinase B (MMP-9), an enzyme thought to play an important role in cellular invasiveness, and TIMP-1, a physiological inhibitor of this enzyme. Whereas the advanced stage (i.e. metastatic) partner of this pair (WM 239) could produce gelatinase B upon induction with interleukin (IL)-1beta or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), the early stage (i.e. primary) partner (WM 115) could not. In sharp contrast, we found that TIMP-1 displayed an opposite pattern of induction in these cell lines. Specifically, the early stage cell line, WM 115, demonstrated a marked increase in the production of TIMP-1 when treated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha whereas the advanced cell line, WM 239, showed no such increase. Treatment with the DNA demethylating agent, 2-deoxy-5-azacytidine, resulted in a marked up-regulation of both gelatinase B and TIMP-1 in both cell lines. It was further found that constitutive overexpression of gelatinase B in WM 239 cells and an additional melanoma cell line (MeWo), derived from a metastatic lesion, was able to greatly enhance lung colonization in an experimental metastasis assay while we did not observe differences in tumorigenicity. From these results we conclude that an altered responsiveness of gelatinase B and TIMP-1 to induction by similar agents is associated with disease progression in human melanoma and that this altered responsiveness can have consequences to the aggressive nature of the disease.
    British Journal of Cancer 06/1999; 80(3-4):504-12. · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
262.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2014
    • Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Laboratory of Biology and Therapy of Metastasis
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1999
    • Università degli Studi di Brescia
      • Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences
      Brescia, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1995–1996
    • University of Toronto
      • • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      • • Department of Medical Biophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1994–1996
    • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      • Division of Cancer Research
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada