R. Houdré

École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, VD, Switzerland

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Publications (340)575.73 Total impact

  • Nature Communications 11/2014; 5:5625. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze and compare the effect of fabrication disorder on the quality factor of six well-known high-index photonic crystal cavity designs. The theoretical quality factors for the different nominal structures span more than three orders of magnitude, ranging from 5.4 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 7.5 × 10<sup>7</sup>, and the defect responsible for confining light is introduced in a different way for each structure. Nevertheless, among the different designs we observe similar behavior of the statistics of the disorder-induced light losses. In particular, we show that for high enough disorder, such that the quality factor is mainly determined by the disorder-induced losses, the measured quality factors differ marginally - not only on average as commonly acknowledged, but also in their full statistical distributions. This notably shows that optimizing the theoretical quality factor brings little practical improvement if its value is already much larger than what is typically measured, and if this is the case, there is no way to choose an alternative design more robust to disorder.
    Optics Express 11/2013; 21(23):28233-45. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavities are promising building blocks of future integrated photonic circuits. Owing to the high ratio between quality factor (Q) and modal volume (V), they can greatly enhance optical nonlinearities and radiation-matter interaction, establishing a new paradigm in cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, only few specific designs have reached measured Q-factors exceeding one million, mostly as a result of a heuristic optimization. Here, we develop a global optimization procedure based on an evolutionary algorithm that, if applied to simple moderate-Q nanocavities, can enhance their measured quality factor by over one decade, approaching the one-million range. In particular, we optimize and experimentally characterize a H0 PhC nanocavity, demonstrating a measured Q-factor reaching 418,000 combined with a modal volume $V=0.35(\lambda/n)^3$. This cavity ranks among those with the highest Q/V ratios ever demonstrated, while being spatially much more compact than ultrahigh-Q designs and thus optimal for integration in photonic circuits. It displays nonlinear effects in the microwatt power range, including high-contrast optical bistability at record-low threshold power in silicon. We highlight the versatility of the optimization procedure by further devising an alternate H0 design with a smaller modal volume of $V=0.26(\lambda/n)^3$ and a measured Q-factor of 260,000
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    ABSTRACT: Compact semiconductor light sources with high performance continuous-wave (CW) and single mode operation are highly demanded for many applications in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. Distributed feedback (DFB) and photonic crystal (PhC) quantum cascade (QC) lasers are amongst the leading candidates in this field. Absorbing boundary condition is a commonly used method to control the optical performance of a laser in double-metal confinement. However, this approach increases the total loss in the device and results in a large threshold current density, limiting the CW maximum output power and operating temperature. In this letter, a robust surface emitting continuous-wave terahertz QC laser is realized in a two-dimensional PhC structure by a second order Bragg grating extractor that simultaneously provides the boundary condition necessary for mode selection. This results in a 3.12 THz single mode CW operation with a 3 mW output power and a maximum operation temperature (Tmax) of 100 K. Also, a highly collimated far-field pattern is demonstrated, which is an important step towards real world applications.
    Laser & Photonics Review 09/2013; 7(5). · 7.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a resonant optical trapping mechanism based on two-dimensional hollow photonic crystal cavities. This approach benefits simultaneously from the resonant nature and unprecedented field overlap with the trapped specimen. The photonic crystal structures are implemented in a 30 mm × 12 mm optofluidic chip consisting of a patterned silicon substrate and an ultrathin microfluidic membrane for particle injection and control. Firstly, we demonstrate permanent trapping of single 250 and 500 nm-sized particles with sub-mW powers. Secondly, the particle induces a large resonance shift of the cavity mode amounting up to several linewidths. This shift is exploited to detect the presence of a particle within the trap and to retrieve information on the trapped particle. The individual addressability of multiple cavities on a single photonic crystal device is also demonstrated.
    Lab on a Chip 06/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exciton-polaritons are composite bosons (exciton-photon mixtures) in semiconductor microcavities. Relying on their strong interactions, we have demonstrated quantum optical effects in the microcavity emission, as well as quantum fluid properties in the polariton propagation.
    Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics; 06/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Exciton-polaritons are composite bosons (exciton-photon mixtures) in semiconductor microcavities. Relying on their strong interactions, we have demonstrated quantum optical effects in the microcavity emission, as well as quantum fluid properties in the polariton propagation.
    Quantum Information and Measurement; 06/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Surface emitting semiconductor lasers in the terahertz frequency range are highly demanded for spectroscopy, imaging, security and other applications. Due to their compactness and high power, Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are one of the most important laser sources in this region. The selection rule of intersubband transitions forces the radiation to be TM polarized and thus generated in-plane, consequently photonic structures have to be developed to extract the light vertically. Few approaches for surface emitting QCLs demonstrated the lasing of a second-order Bragg metallic grating patterned on top of a ridge or a surface emitting photonic crystal (PhC). PhC band-edge lasers with improved performance compared to Fabry-Perot lasers have already been reported. In this work a surface emitting band edge 2D PhC QCL is presented, using a second-order Bragg grating as a boundary condition. We show single mode devices operating around 3.1 THz with a maximum operating temperature of 125 K in pulsed operation, 100 K in CW, a farfield divergence of less than 20° or up to 12 mW of peak output power.
    The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics; 05/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Although optical technology provides the best solution for the transmission of information, all-optical devices must satisfy several qualitative criteria to be used as logic elements. In particular, cascadability is difficult to obtain in optical systems, and it is assured only if the output of one stage is in the correct form to drive the input of the next stage. Exciton-polaritons, which are composite particles resulting from the strong coupling between excitons and photons, have recently demonstrated huge non-linearities and unique propagation properties. Here we show that polariton fluids moving in the plane of the microcavity can operate as input and output of an all-optical transistor, obtaining up to 19 times amplification and demonstrating the cascadability of the system. Moreover, the operation as an AND/OR gate is shown, validating the connectivity of multiple transistors in the microcavity plane and opening the way to the implementation of polariton integrated circuits.
    Nature Communications 04/2013; 4:1778. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We show a technique that images the intensity distribution and local state of polarization of the optical field of high-quality factor optical modes confined in dielectric planar photonic crystal nanocavities. Based on energy-loss spectroscopy of swift electrons, the technique gives a spatial resolution improved by a factor of 30 compared to the optical diffraction limit. Moreover, because the energy loss is induced by coupling of the moving charges with the local density of states of the dielectric cavity, it is sensitive to the entire volume of the confined electric field, not just its evanescent contributions. This three-dimensional sensitivity paves the way for a highly resolved tomography of confined modes in dielectric photonic nanostructures.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 04/2013; 87(15). · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optomechanical coupling between a resonant optical field and a nanoparticle through trapping forces is demonstrated. Resonant optical trapping, when achieved in a hollow photonic crystal cavity is accompanied by cavity backaction effects that result from two mechanisms. First, the effect of the particle on the resonant field is measured as a shift in the cavity eigenfrequency. Second, the effect of the resonant field on the particle is shown as a wavelength-dependent trapping strength. The existence of two distinct trapping regimes, intrinsically particle specific, is also revealed. Long optical trapping (>10 min) of 500 nm dielectric particles is achieved with very low intracavity powers (<120 μW).
    Physical Review Letters 03/2013; 110(12). · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on GaN self-supported photonic structures consisting in freestanding waveguides coupled to photonic crystal waveguides and cavities operating in the near-infrared. GaN layers were grown on Si (111) by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. E-beam lithography and dry etching techniques were employed to pattern the GaN layer and undercut the substrate. The combination of low-absorption in the infrared range and improved etching profiles results in cavities with quality factors as high as ∼5400. The compatibility with standard Si technology should enable the development of low cost photonic devices for optical communications combining wide-bandgap III-nitride semiconductors and silicon.
    Applied Physics Letters 03/2013; 102(8). · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the first experimental demonstration of a resonant optical trap in a two-dimensional hollow photonic crystal cavity. Resonant trapping is implemented in an optofluidic silicon chip. Individual 250 and 500 nm polystyrene particles are trapped using optical powers of the order of 100 μW. Local refractive index perturbation associated with the particle presence lead to modifications of the cavity eigenfrequency. Back-action phenomena resulting from these perturbations are investigated. In particular, the existence of two distinct trapping regimes is demonstrated.
    Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013 15th International Conference on; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: We report the design and optical characterization of fully suspended wire waveguides and photonic crystal (PhC) membranes fabricated on a gallium nitride layer grown on silicon substrate operating at 1.5 μm. W1-type PhC waveguides are coupled with suspended wires and are investigated using a standard end-fire setup. The experimental and theoretical dispersion properties of the propagating modes in the wires and photonic-crystal waveguides are shown. Modified L3 cavities with quality factors of up to 2200 and heterostructure cavities with quality factors of up to 5400 are experimentally demonstrated.
    Optics Letters 11/2012; 37(22):4588-90. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A microfluidic-integrated single particle sensor based on hollow photonic crystal cavities is reported. The interaction relies on the reversible resonance frequency shift induced by a dielectric particle near the cavity.
  • C.weisbuch, H.benisty, R.houdrÉ
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    ABSTRACT: Photon confined systems in the form of microcavities and photonic crystals overcome the main stumbling block to high efficiency light emitters, i.e. the extraction of photons from high-index materials. On the more fundamental side, they lead to the modification of lifetime for sharp transitions (the Purcell effect), recently observed for quantum dots in micropillars, and to strong light-matter coupling for quantum wells embedded in planar microcavities.
    International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems 04/2012; 10(01).
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the achievement of freestanding GaN photonic crystal L7 nanocavities with embedded InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on Si (111). GaN was patterned by e-beam lithography, using a SiO2 layer as a hard mask, and usual dry etching techniques. The membrane was released by underetching the Si (111) substrate. Micro-photoluminescence measurements performed at low temperature exhibit a quality factor as high as 5200 at ∼420 nm, a value suitable to expand cavity quantum electrodynamics to the near UV and the visible range and to develop nanophotonic platforms for biofluorescence spectroscopy.
    Applied Physics Letters 02/2012; 100(7). · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While optical technology provides the best solution for the transmission of information, optical logics still calls for qualitative new concepts to be explored. Exciton-polaritons are composite particles, resulting from the strong coupling between excitons and photons, which have recently demonstrated exceptional properties like huge non-linearities, long range coherence and suppression of scattering. Here we demonstrate a switching scheme for polaritons moving in the plane of a microcavity which satisfy all the requirements for an all-optical transistor. Under resonant excitation, the power threshold for the nonlinear increase of the polariton density is varied by a weak control beam, obtaining up to 19 times amplification with switching energies in the range of attojoule per square micron. Polariton propagation in the plane of the microcavity is then used to control the switching of a second, spatially separated transistor, opening the way to the implementation of polariton integrated circuits.
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    ABSTRACT: We theoretically and experimentally investigate a band edge Photonic Crystal (PhC) Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) operating at 3.1 THz. The surface emission is achieved by using a second-order Bragg grating at the PhC tile boundaries. Highly directional surface emitting far-field patterns are observed.
    Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2012 Conference on; 01/2012
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a functional microfluidic hollow photonic crystal cavity chip for single particle detection and optical manipulation. The use of a very thin PDMS membrane atop hollow photonic crystal cavities devices allows accurate monitoring of in-situ cavity-particle interaction as well as particle manipulation simultaneously. The dynamic resonance frequency shift of a particle inside the cavity region is experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. Evidences of a self-trapping of the particle in the resonant field are presented.
    Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012 14th International Conference on; 01/2012

Publication Stats

5k Citations
575.73 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2013
    • École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
      • • Institute of Condensed Matter Physics
      • • Faculté des Sciences de Base
      • • Institute of Theoretical Physics
      Lausanne, VD, Switzerland
  • 2001–2011
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      • Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel (LKB)
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 2008
    • Université de Neuchâtel
      • Institut de physique (IPH)
      Neuenburg, Neuchâtel, Switzerland
  • 2007
    • National Research Council
      • Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies IFN
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1993–2005
    • École Polytechnique
      Paliseau, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998–2002
    • Institut de Chimie de la matière condensée de Bordeaux
      Pessac, Aquitaine, France
    • The University of Arizona
      • College of Optical Sciences
      Tucson, AZ, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Southampton
      • Physics and Astronomy
      Southampton, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • University of Glasgow
      • Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering
      Glasgow, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 1991–1998
    • Eawag: Das Wasserforschungs-Institut des ETH-Bereichs
      Duebendorf, Zurich, Switzerland