Toru Yamada

Tohoku University, Japan

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Publications (131)505.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a new method of analysis for determining the surface geometry of five protoplanetary disks observed with near-infrared imaging polarimetry using Subaru-HiCIAO. Using as inputs the observed distribution of polarized intensity (PI), disk inclination, assumed properties for dust scattering, and other reasonable approximations, we calculate a differential equation to derive the surface geometry. This equation is numerically integrated along the distance from the star at a given position angle. We show that, using these approximations, the local maxima in the PI distribution of spiral arms (SAO 206462, MWC 758) and rings (2MASS J16042165-2130284, PDS 70) is associated with local concave-up structures on the disk surface. We also show that the observed presence of an inner gap in scattered light still allows the possibility of a disk surface that is parallel to the light path from the star, or a disk that is shadowed by structures in the inner radii. Our analysis for rings does not show the presence of a vertical inner wall as often assumed in studies of disks with an inner gap. Finally, we summarize the implications of spiral and ring structures as potential signatures of ongoing planet formation.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We conduct a deep narrow-band imaging survey of 13 Ly$\alpha$ blobs (LABs) located in the SSA22 proto-cluster at z~3.1 in the CIV and HeII emission lines in an effort to constrain the physical process powering the Ly$\alpha$ emission in LABs. Our observations probe down to unprecedented surface brightness limits of 2.1 $-$ 3.4 $\times$ 10$^{-18}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ arcsec$^{-2}$ per 1 arcsec$^2$ aperture (5$\sigma$) for the HeII$\lambda$1640 and CIV$\lambda$1549 lines, respectively. We do not detect extended HeII and CIV emission in any of the LABs, placing strong upper limits on the HeII/Ly$\alpha$ and CIV/Ly$\alpha$ line ratios, of 0.11 and 0.16, for the brightest two LABs in the field. We conduct detailed photoionization modeling of the expected line ratios and find that, although our data constitute the deepest ever observations of these lines, they are still not deep enough to rule out a scenario where the Ly$\alpha$ emission is powered by the ionizing luminosity of an obscured AGN. Our models can accommodate HeII/Ly$\alpha$ and CIV/Ly$\alpha$ ratios as low as $\simeq$0.05 and $\simeq$0.07 respectively, implying that one needs to reach surface brightness as low as 1 $-$ 1.5 $\times$ 10$^{-18}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ arcsec$^{-2}$ (at 5$\sigma$) in order to rule out a photoionization scenario. These depths will be achievable with the new generation of image-slicing integral field units such as VLT/MUSE or Keck/KCWI. We also model the expected HeII/Ly$\alpha$ and CIV/Ly$\alpha$ in a different scenario, where Ly$\alpha$ emission is powered by shocks generated in a large-scale superwind, but find that our observational constraints can only be met for shock velocities $v_{\rm s} \gtrsim$ 250 km s$^{-1}$, which appear to be in conflict with recent observations of quiescent kinematics in LABs.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present wide-field Lya imaging observations of the field around TN J1338-1942, a powerful radio galaxy associated with an extended Lya nebula (>100 kpc) at z=4.11, with Subaru Prime-focus Camera to probe the environment of the radio galaxy. We used a sample of Lya emitters (LAEs) down to the Lya luminosity of $\log(L_{\rm Lya}\rm [erg\, s^{-1}])\sim 42.8$ to measure the galaxy density of this field, calibrating by direct comparison with a control sample in a blank field taken with the same instrument. We found that the radio galaxy resides in a region with a peak overdensity of $\delta_{\rm LAE}=3.1\pm 0.5$, after being smoothed on $8\, h^{-1}$ Mpc scales on the sky and $160\, h^{-1}$ Mpc along the line of sight (both in comoving coordinates). Adjacent to this overdense region, we found a highly underdense region where virtually no LAEs are detected. We used a semi-analytical model of LAEs derived from the Millennium Simulation to compare our results with theoretical predictions. This comparison suggests that, while the density distribution of the simulation is consistent with that of the blank field, overdense regions such as the one found in the radio galaxy field are very rare, with the number density of $2\times 10^{-7}h^{3}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ (comoving), corresponding to the densest <0.1 percentile at these redshifts. We also found a difference in the Lya luminosity function in the radio galaxy field compared with the blank field: the number of bright LAEs ($\log(L_{\rm Lya}\rm [erg\, s^{-1}])<43.3$) is enhanced, while the number of fainter LAEs is relatively suppressed. These results suggest that some powerful radio galaxies associated with Lya nebulae reside in extreme overdensities on $\sim 10-20\, h^{-1}$ Mpc scales, where star-formation and AGN activities may be enhanced via more frequent galaxy mergers or higher rates of gas accretion from the surroundings.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To reveal the structures of a transition disk around a young stellar object in Lupus, Sz 91, we have performed aperture synthesis 345 GHz continuum and CO(3--2) observations with the Submillimeter Array ($\sim1\arcsec$--3$\arcsec$ resolution), and high-resolution imaging of polarized intensity at the $K_s$-band by using the HiCIAO instrument on the Subaru Telescope ($0\farcs25$ resolution). Our observations successfully resolved the inner and outer radii of the dust disk to be 65 AU and 170 AU, respectively, which indicates that Sz 91 is a transition disk source with one of the largest known inner holes. The model fitting analysis of the spectral energy distribution reveals an H$_2$ mass of $2.4\times10^{-3}$ $M_\sun$ in the cold ($T<$30 K) outer part at $65<r<170$ AU by assuming a canonical gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100, although a small amount ($>3\times10^{-9}$ $M_\sun$) of hot ($T\sim$180 K) dust possibly remains inside the inner hole of the disk. The structure of the hot component could be interpreted as either an unresolved self-luminous companion body (not directly detected in our observations) or a narrow ring inside the inner hole. Significant CO(3--2) emission with a velocity gradient along the major axis of the dust disk is concentrated on the Sz 91 position, suggesting a rotating gas disk with a radius of 420 AU. The Sz 91 disk is possibly a rare disk in an evolutionary stage immediately after the formation of protoplanets because of the large inner hole and the lower disk mass than other transition disks studied thus far.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the angular clustering of 33 415 extremely red objects (EROs) in the Elais-N1 field covering 5.33 deg2, which cover the redshift range z = 0.8 to 2. This sample was made by merging the UKIDSS Deep eXtragalactic Survey (DXS) with the optical Subaru and Pan-STARRS PS1 data sets. We confirm the existence of a clear break in the angular correlation function at ̃0.02° corresponding to 1 h-1 Mpc at z ̃ 1. We find that redder or brighter EROs are more clustered than bluer or fainter ones. Halo occupation distribution (HOD) model fits imply that the average mass of dark matter haloes which host EROs is over 1013 h-1 M☉ and that EROs have a bias ranging from 2.7 to 3.5. Compared to EROs at z ̃ 1.1, at z ̃ 1.5 EROs have a higher bias and fewer are expected to be satellite galaxies. Furthermore, EROs reside in similar dark matter haloes to those that host 1011.0 M☉ < M* < 1011.5 M☉ galaxies. We compare our new measurement and HOD fits with the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytical galaxy formation model. Overall, the clustering predicted by GALFORM gives an encouraging match to our results. However, compared to our deductions from the measurements, GALFORM puts EROs into lower mass haloes and predicts that a larger fraction of EROs are satellite galaxies. This suggests that the treatment of gas cooling may need to be revised in the model. Our analysis illustrates the potential of clustering analyses to provide observational constraints on theoretical models of galaxy formation.
    01/2014; 438(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The unprecedentedly bright optical afterglow of GRB 130606A at a redshift close to the reionization era (z = 5.913) provides a new opportunity to probe the ionization status of intergalactic medium (IGM). Here we present a high-precision analysis of the red Ly alpha damping wing of the afterglow spectrum taken by Subaru/FOCAS during 10.4-13.2 hr after the burst. We find that the minimal model including only the baseline power-law and HI absorption in the host galaxy does not give a good fit, leaving residuals showing concave curvature in 8400-8900 A with an amplitude of about 0.6% of the flux. Such a curvature in the short wavelength range cannot be explained either by extinction at the host with standard extinction curves or by the known systematic uncertainties in the observed spectrum. The red damping wing by intervening HI gas outside the host can reduce the residual by about 3 sigma statistical significance. We find that a damped Ly alpha system is not favored as the origin of this intervening HI absorption, from the observed Ly beta and metal absorption features. Therefore absorption by diffuse IGM remains as a plausible explanation. A fit by a simple uniform IGM model requires HI neutral fraction of f_{HI} ~ 0.1-0.5 depending on the distance to the GRB host, implying high f_{HI} IGM associated with the observed dark Gunn-Peterson (GP) troughs. This gives a new evidence that the reionization is not yet complete at z ~ 6. Further investigations using more GRB afterglows to various sightlines, in comparison with realistic theoretical simulations, are desirable.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the angular clustering of 33 415 extremely red objects (EROs) in the Elais-N1 field covering 5.33 deg$^{2}$, which cover the redshift range $z=0.8$ to $2$. This sample was made by merging the UKIDSS Deep eXtragalactic Survey (DXS) with the optical Subaru and Pan-STARRS PS1 datasets. We confirm the existence of a clear break in the angular correlation function at $\sim 0.02^{\circ}$ corresponding to $1 h^{-1}$ Mpc at $z\sim1$. We find that redder or brighter EROs are more clustered than bluer or fainter ones. Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model fits imply that the average mass of dark matter haloes which host EROs is over $10^{13} h^{-1} M_{\odot}$ and that EROs have a bias ranging from 2.7 to 3.5. Compared to EROs at $z\sim1.1$, at $z\sim1.5$ EROs have a higher bias and fewer are expected to be satellite galaxies. Furthermore, EROs reside in similar dark matter haloes to those that host $10^{11.0} M_{\odot}<M_{*}<10^{11.5} M_{\odot}$ galaxies. We compare our new measurement and HOD fits with the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytical galaxy formation model. Overall, the clustering predicted by GALFORM gives an encouraging match to our results. However, compared to our deductions from the measurements, GALFORM puts EROs into lower mass haloes and predicts that a larger fraction of EROs are satellite galaxies. This suggests that the treatment of gas cooling may need to be revised in the model. Our analysis illustrates the potential of clustering analyses to provide observational constraints on theoretical models of galaxy formation.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The properties of K-band selected galaxies (K_AB<24) in the z = 3.09 SSA22 protocluster field are studied. 430 galaxies at 2.6 < z_phot < 3.6 are selected as potential protocluster members in a 112 arcmin^2 area based on their photometric redshifts. We find that \approx 20% of the massive galaxies with stellar masses >10^11 M_sun at z_phot \sim 3.1 have colors consistent with those of quiescent galaxies with ages > 0.5 Gyr. This fraction increases to \approx 50% after correcting for unrelated foreground/background objects. We also find that 30% of the massive galaxies are heavily reddened dusty star-forming galaxies. Few such quiescent galaxies at similar redshifts are seen in typical survey fields. An excess surface density of 24\mu m sources at z_phot \sim 3.1 is also observed, implying the presence of dusty star-formation activity in the protocluster. Cross-correlation with the X-ray data indicates that the fraction of K-band selected protocluster galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) is also high compared with the field. The sky distribution of the quiescent galaxies, the 24\mu m sources, and the X-ray AGNs show clustering around a density peak of z=3.1 Ly\alpha emitters (LAEs). A significant fraction of the massive galaxies have already become quiescent, while the dusty star-formation is still active in the SSA22 protocluster. These findings indicate that we are witnessing the formation epoch of massive early-type galaxies at the center of predecessors to present-day rich galaxy clusters.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 778(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a discovery of a companion candidate around one of {\it Kepler} Objects of Interest (KOIs), KOI-94, and results of our quantitative investigation of the possibility that planetary candidates around KOI-94 are false positives. KOI-94 has a planetary system in which four planetary detections have been reported by {\it Kepler}, suggesting that this system is intriguing to study the dynamical evolutions of planets. However, while two of those detections (KOI-94.01 and 03) have been made robust by previous observations, the others (KOI-94.02 and 04) are marginal detections, for which future confirmations with various techniques are required. We have conducted high-contrast direct imaging observations with Subaru/HiCIAO in $H$ band and detected a faint object located at a separation of $\sim0.6''$ from KOI-94. The object has a contrast of $\sim 1\times 10^{-3}$ in $H$ band, and corresponds to an M type star on the assumption that the object is at the same distance of KOI-94. Based on our analysis, KOI-94.02 is likely to be a real planet because of its transit depth, while KOI-94.04 can be a false positive due to the companion candidate. The success in detecting the companion candidate suggests that high-contrast direct imaging observations are important keys to examine false positives of KOIs. On the other hand, our transit light curve reanalyses lead to a better period estimate of KOI-94.04 than that on the KOI catalogue and show that the planetary candidate has the same limb darkening parameter value as the other planetary candidates in the KOI-94 system, suggesting that KOI-94.04 is also a real planet in the system.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out an imaging survey for extrasolar planets around stars in the Pleiades (125 Myr, 135 pc) in the $H$ and $K_{S}$ bands using HiCIAO combined with the adaptive optics, AO188, on the Subaru telescope. We found 13 companion candidates fainter than 14.5 mag in the $H$ band around 9 stars. Five of these 13 were confirmed to be background stars by measurement of their proper motion. One was not found in the second epoch observation, and thus was not a background or companion object. One had multi-epoch image, but the precision of its proper motion was not sufficient to conclude whether it was background object. Four other candidates are waiting for second epoch observations to determine their proper motion. Finally, the remaining 2 were confirmed to be 60 $M_{J}$ brown dwarf companions orbiting around HD 23514 (G0) and HII 1348 (K5) respectively, as had been reported in previous studies. In our observations, the average detection limit for a point source was 20.3 mag in the $H$ band beyond 1''.5 from the central star. On the basis of this detection limit, we calculated the detection efficiency to be 90% for a planet with 6 to 12 Jovian masses and a semi-major axis of 50--1000 AU. For this we extrapolated the distribution of planet mass and semi-major axis derived from RV observations and adopted the planet evolution model of Baraffe et al. (2003). As there was no detection of a planet, we estimated the frequency of such planets to be less than 17.9% ($2\sigma$) around one star of the Pleiades cluster.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at H-band at a high resolution (~0".05) for the first time, using Subaru-HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with: (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 772(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Debris disks around young main-sequence stars often have gaps and cavities which for a long time have been interpreted as possibly being caused by planets. In recent years, several giant planet discoveries have been made in systems hosting disks of precisely this nature, further implying that interactions with planets could be a common cause of such disk structures. As part of the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey, we are surveying a population of debris disk-hosting stars with gaps and cavities implied by their spectral energy distributions, in order to attempt to spatially resolve the disk as well as to detect any planets that may be responsible for the disk structure. Here we report on intermediate results from this survey. Five debris disks have been spatially resolved, and a number of faint point sources have been discovered, most of which have been tested for common proper motion, which in each case has excluded physical companionship with the target stars. From the detection limits of the 50 targets that have been observed, we find that beta Pic b-like planets (~10 Mjup planets around G--A-type stars) near the gap edges are less frequent than 15--30%, implying that if giant planets are the dominant cause of these wide (27 AU on average) gaps, they are generally less massive than beta Pic b.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 773(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first near infrared (NIR) spatially resolved images of the circumstellar transitional disk around SR21. These images were obtained with the Subaru HiCIAO camera, adaptive optics and the polarized differential imaging (PDI) technique. We resolve the disk in scattered light at H-band for stellocentric 0.1"<r<0.6" (12<r<75AU). We compare our results with previously published spatially-resolved 880 micron continuum Submillimeter Array (SMA) images that show an inner r<36AU cavity in SR21. Radiative transfer models reveal that the large disk depletion factor invoked to explain SR21's sub-mm cavity cannot be "universal" for all grain sizes. Even significantly more moderate depletions (delta=0.1, 0.01 relative to an undepleted disk) than those that reproduce the sub-mm cavity (delta~10^-6) are inconsistent with our H-band images when they are assumed to carry over to small grains, suggesting that surface grains scattering in the NIR either survive or are generated by whatever mechanism is clearing the disk midplane. In fact, the radial polarized intensity profile of our H-band observations is smooth and steeply inwardly-increasing (r^-3), with no evidence of a break at the 36AU sub-mm cavity wall. We hypothesize that this profile is dominated by an optically thin disk envelope or atmosphere component. We also discuss the compatibility of our data with the previously postulated existence of a sub-stellar companion to SR21 at r~10-20AU, and find that we can neither exclude nor verify this scenario. This study demonstrates the power of multiwavelength imaging of transitional disks to inform modeling efforts, including the debate over precisely what physical mechanism is responsible for clearing these disks of their large midplane grains.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 767(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present high-resolution H-band polarized intensity (FWHM = 0farcs1: 14 AU) and L'-band imaging data (FWHM = 0farcs11: 15 AU) of the circumstellar disk around the weak-lined T Tauri star PDS 70 in Centaurus at a radial distance of 28 AU (0farcs2) up to 210 AU (1farcs5). In both images, a giant inner gap is clearly resolved for the first time, and the radius of the gap is ~70 AU. Our data show that the geometric center of the disk shifts by ~6 AU toward the minor axis. We confirm that the brown dwarf companion candidate to the north of PDS 70 is a background star based on its proper motion. As a result of spectral energy distribution fitting by Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling, we infer the existence of an optically thick inner disk at a few AU. Combining our observations and modeling, we classify the disk of PDS 70 as a pre-transitional disk. Furthermore, based on the analysis of L'-band imaging data, we put an upper limit of ~30 to ~50 M J on the mass of companions within the gap. Taking into account the presence of the large and sharp gap, we suggest that the gap could be formed by dynamical interactions of sub-stellar companions or multiple unseen giant planets in the gap.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2012; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of our wide-field narrow band imaging of the field around the radio galaxy 53W002 at z = 2.390 with Subaru/Suprime-Cam. A custom made filter NB413 centered at 4140 \AA\ with the width of 83 \AA\ is used to observe the 31' x 24' area around the radio galaxy. We detected 204 Ly\alpha emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.4 with a rest frame equivalent width larger than 25 \AA\ to the depth of 26 AB mag (in NB413). The entire LAE population in the 53W002 field has an average number density and distributions of equivalent width and size that are similar to those of other fields at z ~ 2. We identify a significant high density region (53W002F-HDR) that spreads over ~ 5' x 4' near 53W002 where the LAE number density is nearly four times as large as the average of the entire field. Using the probability distribution function of density fluctuation, we evaluate the rareness probability of the 53W002F-HDR to be 0.9^{+2.4}_{-0.62}%, which corresponds to a moderately rich structure. No notable environmental dependency at the comoving scale of 10 Mpc is found for the distributions of the Ly\alpha equivalent width and luminosity in the field. We also detected 4 Ly\alpha blobs (LABs), one of which is newly discovered. They are all found to be located in the rims of high density regions. The biased location and unique morphologies in Ly\alpha suggest that galaxy interaction play a key role in their formation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2012; 759(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report that HAT-P-7 has a common proper motion stellar companion. The companion is located at ∼ 3.9 arcsec to the east and estimated as an M5.5V dwarf based on its colors. We also confirm the presence of the third companion, which was first reported by Winn et al. (2009), based on long-term radial velocity measurements. We revisit the migration mechanism of HAT-P-7b given the presence of those com- panions, and propose sequential Kozai migration as a likely scenario in this system. This scenario may explain the reason for an outlier in the discussion of the spin-orbit alignment timescale for HAT-P-7b by Albrecht et al. (2012).
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 09/2012; · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using stacks of Lyα images of 2128 Lyα emitters (LAEs) and 24 proto-cluster UV-selected galaxies (LBGs) at z = 3.1, we examine the surface brightness profiles of Lyα haloes around high-z galaxies as a function of environment and UV luminosity. We find that the slopes of the Lyα radial profiles become flatter as the Mpc-scale LAE surface density increases, but that they are almost independent of the central UV luminosity. The characteristic exponential scalelength of the Lyα haloes appears to be proportional to the square of the LAE surface density (r_Ly α∝Σ_LAE^2). Including the diffuse, extended Lyα haloes, the rest-frame Lyα equivalent width of the LAEs in the densest regions approaches EW0 ˜ 200 Å, the maximum value expected for young (<10^7 yr) galaxies. This suggests that Lyα photons formed via shock compression by gas outflows or cooling radiation by gravitational gas inflows may partly contribute to the illumination of Lyα haloes; however, most of their Lyα luminosity can be explained by photoionization by or by scattering of Lyα photons produced from H II regions in and around the central galaxies. Regardless of the source of Lyα photons, if the Lyα haloes trace the overall gaseous structure, following the dark matter distribution, it is not surprising that the Lyα spatial extent depends more strongly on the surrounding Mpc-scale environment than on the activity of the central galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2012; · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of wide-field deep JHK imaging of the SSA22 field using MOIRCS instrument equipped with Subaru telescope. The observed field is 112 arcmin^2 in area, which covers the z=3.1 protocluster characterized by the overdensities of Ly Alpha emitters (LAEs) and Ly Alpha Blobs (LABs). The 5 sigma limiting magnitude is K_{AB} = 24.3. We extract the potential protocluster members from the K-selected sample by using the multi-band photometric-redshift selection as well as the simple color cut for distant red galaxies (DRGs; J-K_{AB}>1.4). The surface number density of DRGs in our observed fields shows clear excess compared with those in the blank fields, and the location of the densest area whose projected overdensity is twice the average coincides with the large-scale density peak of LAEs. We also found that K-band counterparts with z_{phot} = 3.1 are detected for 75% (15/20) of the LABs within their Ly Alpha halo, and the 40 % (8/20) of LABs have multiple components, which gives a direct evidence of the hierarchical multiple merging in galaxy formation. The stellar mass ofLABs correlates with their luminosity, isophotal area, and the Ly Alpha velocity widths, implying that the physical scale and the dynamical motion of Ly Alpha emission are closely related to their previous star-formation activities. Highly dust-obscured galaxies such as hyper extremely red objects (HEROs; J-K_{AB}>2.1) and plausible K-band counterparts of submillimeter sources are also populated in the high density region.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2012; 750(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to constrain the bolometric luminosities, dust properties, and molecular gas content of giant Lyα nebulae, the so-called Lyα blobs, we have carried out a study of dust continuum and CO line emission in two well-studied representatives of this population at z ~ 3: an Lyα blob discovered by its strong Spitzer Multiband Infrared Photometer 24 μm detection (LABd05) and the Steidel blob 1 (SSA22-LAB01). We find that the spectral energy distribution of LABd05 is well described by an active-galactic-nucleus-starburst composite template with L FIR = (4.0 ± 0.5) × 1012 L ☉, comparable to high-z submillimeter galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. New Large APEX Bolometer Camera 870 μm measurements rule out the reported Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array detection of the SSA22-LAB01 (S 850 μm = 16.8 mJy) at the >4σ level. Consistent with this, ultradeep Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations with ~2'' spatial resolution also fail to detect any 1.2 mm continuum source down to 0.45 mJy beam–1 (3σ). Combined with the existing (sub)millimeter observations in the literature, we conclude that the FIR luminosity of SSA22-LAB01 remains uncertain. No CO line is detected in either case down to integrated flux limits of S νΔV 0.25-1.0 Jy km s–1, indicating a modest molecular gas reservoir, M(H2) < (1-3) × 1010 M ☉. The non-detections exclude, with high significance (12σ), the previous tentative detection of a CO J = 4-3 line in the SSA22-LAB01. The increased sensitivity afforded by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be critical in studying molecular gas and dust in these interesting systems.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2011; 744(2):178. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to constrain the bolometric luminosities, dust properties and molecular gas content of giant Lyman alpha nebulae, the so-called Lyman alpha blobs, we have carried out a study of dust continuum and CO line emission in two well-studied representatives of this population at z ~ 3: a Lya blob discovered by its strong Spitzer MIPS 24um detection (LABd05; Dey et al. 2005) and the Steidel blob 1 (SSA22-LAB01; Steidel et al. 2000). We find that the spectral energy distribution of LABd05 is well described by an AGN-starburst composite template with L(FIR) = (4.0 +/- 0.5) x 10^12 Lsun, comparable to high-z sub-millimeter galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. New APEX/LABOCA 870um measurements rule out the reported SCUBA detection of the SSA22-LAB01 (S[850um] = 16.8 mJy) at the > 4sigma level. Consistent with this, ultra-deep Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) observations with ~2arcsec spatial resolution also fail to detect any 1.2mm continuum source down to ~0.45mJy per beam (3sigma). Combined with the existing (sub)mm observations in the literature, we conclude that the FIR luminosity of SSA22-LAB01 remains uncertain. No CO line is detected in either case down to integrated flux limits of (Snu dV) < 0.25--1.0 Jy km/s, indicating a modest molecular gas reservoir, M(H_2) < 1--3 x 10^10 Msun. The non-detections exclude, with high significance (12 sigma), the previous tentative detection of a CO(4-3) line in the SSA22-LAB01. The increased sensitivity afforded by ALMA will be critical in studying molecular gas and dust in these interesting systems.
    10/2011;

Publication Stats

2k Citations
505.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • Tohoku University
      • • Astronomical Institute
      • • Graduate School of Science
      Japan
  • 2013
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2012–2013
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)
      • • Department of Astronomy
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2000–2008
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      • Division of Optical and Infrared Astronomy
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1992–1994
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan