B. R. McNamara

University of Waterloo, Ватерлоо, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (239)714.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cygnus A, the nearest truly powerful radio galaxy, resides at the centre of a massive galaxy cluster. Chandra X-ray observations reveal its cocoon shocks, radio lobe cavities and an X-ray jet, which are discussed here. It is argued that X-ray emission from the outer regions of the cocoon shocks is nonthermal. The X-ray jets are best interpreted as synchrotron emission, suggesting that they, rather than the radio jets, are the path of energy flow from the nucleus to the hotspots. In that case, a model shows that the jet flow is non-relativistic and carries in excess of one solar mass per year.
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    ABSTRACT: The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions developed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), with a planned launch in 2015. The ASTRO-H mission is equipped with a suite of sensitive instruments with the highest energy resolution ever achieved at E > 3 keV and a wide energy range spanning four decades in energy from soft X-rays to gamma-rays. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with the high spectral resolution of Delta E < 7 eV of the micro-calorimeter, will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued. ASTRO-H is expected to provide breakthrough results in scientific areas as diverse as the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution, the behavior of matter in the gravitational strong field regime, the physical conditions in sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and the distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters at different redshifts.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the potential of high resolution imaging spectroscopy with the SXS on ASTRO-H to advance our understanding of the interstellar- and circumgalactic media of our own Galaxy, and other galaxies. Topics to be addressed range from absorption spectroscopy of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium, to observations to constrain the total mass-, metal-, and energy flow out of starburst galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: The next generation X-ray observatory ASTRO-H will open up a new dimension in the study of galaxy clusters by achieving for the first time the spectral resolution required to measure velocities of the intracluster plasma, and extending at the same time the spectral coverage to energies well beyond 10 keV. This white paper provides an overview of the capabilities of ASTRO-H for exploring gas motions in galaxy clusters including their cosmological implications, the physics of AGN feedback, dynamics of cluster mergers as well as associated high-energy processes, chemical enrichment of the intracluster medium, and the nature of missing baryons and unidentified dark matter.
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    ABSTRACT: We present new X-ray temperatures and improved X-ray luminosity estimates for 15 new and archival XMM-Newton observations of galaxy clusters at intermediate redshift with mass and luminosities near the galaxy group/cluster division (M2500 < $2.4\times 10^{14} h_{70}^{-1} M_\odot$, L < $2\times 10^{44}$ erg $s^{-1}$, 0.3< z < 0.6). These clusters have weak-lensing mass measurements based on Hubble Space Telescope observations of clusters representative of an X-ray selected sample (the ROSAT 160SD survey). The angular resolution of XMM-Newton allows us to disentangle the emission of these galaxy clusters from nearby point sources, which significantly contaminated previous X-ray luminosity estimates for six of the fifteen clusters. We extend cluster scaling relations between X-ray luminosity, temperature, and weak-lensing mass for low-mass, X-ray-selected clusters out to redshift $\approx$0.45. These relations are important for cosmology and the astrophysics of feedback in galaxy groups and clusters. Our joint analysis with a sample of 50 clusters in a similar redshift range but with larger masses (M500 < $21.9 \times 10^{14} M_\odot$, $0.15 \leq z \leq 0.55$) from the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project finds that within r2500, $M \propto L^{0.44 +/- 0.05}$, $T \propto L^{0.23 +/- 0.02}$, and $M \propto T^{1.9 +/- 0.2}$. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the M-L relation for the combined sample is reduced to ${\sigma}_{log(M|L)}=0.10$, from ${\sigma}_{log(M|L)}=0.26$ with the original ROSAT measurements. We also find an intrinsic scatter for the T-L relation, ${\sigma}_{log(T|L)}=0.07 +/- 0.01$.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 794(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/48 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first stage of an investigation of the interactions of the jets in the radio galaxy Hydra A with the intracluster medium. We consider the jet kinetic power, the galaxy and cluster atmosphere, and the inner structure of the radio source. Analysing radio observations of the inner lobes of Hydra A by Taylor et al. (1990) we confirm the jet power estimates of about 1e45 ergs/s derived by Wise et al. (2007) from dynamical analysis of the X-ray cavities. With this result and a model for the galaxy halo, we explore the jet-intracluster medium interactions occurring on a scale of 10 kpc using two-dimensional, axisymmetric, relativistic pure hydrodynamic simulations. A key feature is that we identify the three bright knots in the northern jet as biconical reconfinement shocks, which result when an over pressured jet starts to come into equilibrium with the galactic atmosphere. Through an extensive parameter space study we deduce that the jet velocity is approximately 0.8 c at a distance 0.5 kpc from the black hole. The combined constraints of jet power, the observed jet radius profile along the jet, and the estimated jet pressure and jet velocity imply a value of the jet density parameter approximately 13 for the northern jet. We show that for a jet velocity = 0.8c and angle between the jet and the line of sight = 42 deg, an intrinsic asymmetry in the emissivity of the northern and southern jet is required for a consistent brightness ratio approximately 7 estimated from the 6cm VLA image of Hydra A.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2014; 444(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1563 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new Chandra X-ray observation of the off-axis galaxy group merger RXJ0751.3+5012. The hot atmospheres of the two colliding groups appear highly distorted by the merger. The images reveal arc-like cold fronts around each group core, produced by the motion through the ambient medium, and the first detection of a group merger shock front. We detect a clear density and temperature jump associated with a bow shock of Mach number M=1.9+/-0.4 ahead of the northern group. Using galaxy redshifts and the shock velocity of 1100+/-300 km/s, we estimate that the merger axis is only 10deg from the plane of the sky. From the projected group separation of 90 kpc, this corresponds to a time since closest approach of 0.1 Gyr. The northern group hosts a dense, cool core with a ram pressure stripped tail of gas extending 100 kpc. The sheared sides of this tail appear distorted and broadened by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We use the presence of this substructure to place an upper limit on the magnetic field strength and, for Spitzer-like viscosity, show that the development of these structures is consistent with the critical perturbation length above which instabilities can grow in the intragroup medium. The northern group core also hosts a galaxy pair, UGC4052, with a surrounding IR and near-UV ring 40 kpc in diameter. The ring may have been produced by tidal stripping of a smaller galaxy by UGC4052 or it may be a collisional ring generated by a close encounter between the two large galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 444(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1469 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of deep Chandra X-ray observations of the galaxy cluster MS 0735.6+7421, which hosts the most energetic radio AGN known. Our analysis has revealed two cavities in its hot atmosphere with diameters of 200-240 kpc. The total cavity enthalpy, mean age, and mean jet power are $9\times 10^{61}$ erg, $1.6\times 10^{8}$ yr, and $1.7\times 10^{46}$ erg/s, respectively. The cavities are surrounded by nearly continuous temperature and surface brightness discontinuities associated with an elliptical shock front of Mach number 1.26 (1.17-1.30) and age of $1.1\times 10^{8}$ yr. The shock has injected at least $4\times 10^{61}$ erg into the hot atmosphere at a rate of $1.1\times 10^{46}$ erg/s. A second pair of cavities and possibly a second shock front are located along the radio jets, indicating that the AGN power has declined by a factor of 30 over the past 100 Myr. The multiphase atmosphere surrounding the central galaxy is cooling at a rate of 36 Msun/yr, but does not fuel star formation at an appreciable rate. In addition to heating, entrainment in the radio jet may be depleting the nucleus of fuel and preventing gas from condensing out of the intracluster medium. Finally, we examine the mean time intervals between AGN outbursts in systems with multiple generations of X-ray cavities. We find that, like MS0735, their AGN rejuvenate on a timescale that is approximately 1/3 of their mean central cooling timescales, indicating that jet heating is outpacing cooling in these systems.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2014; 442(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1030 · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • Proceedings of the 12th Asia Pacific Physics Conference (APPC12); 03/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We report ALMA Early Science observations of the A1835 brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the CO (3-2) and CO (1-0) emission lines. We detect 5 × 1010M ☉ of molecular gas within 10 kpc of the BCG. Its ensemble velocity profile width of ~130 km s–1 FWHM is too narrow for the molecular clouds to be supported in the galaxy by dynamic pressure. The gas may instead be supported in a rotating, turbulent disk oriented nearly face-on. Roughly 1010M ☉ of molecular gas is projected 3-10 kpc to the northwest and to the east of the nucleus with line-of-sight velocities lying between –250 km s–1 and +480 km s–1 with respect to the systemic velocity. The high-velocity gas may be either inflowing or outflowing. However, the absence of high-velocity gas toward the nucleus that would be expected in a steady inflow, and its bipolar distribution on either side of the nucleus, are more naturally explained as outflow. Star formation and radiation from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) are both incapable of driving an outflow of this magnitude. The location of the high-velocity gas projected behind buoyantly rising X-ray cavities and favorable energetics suggest an outflow driven by the radio AGN. If so, the molecular outflow may be associated with a hot outflow on larger scales reported by Kirkpatrick and colleagues. The molecular gas flow rate of approximately 200 M ☉ yr–1 is comparable to the star formation rate of 100-180 M ☉ yr–1 in the central disk. How radio bubbles would lift dense molecular gas in their updrafts, how much gas will be lost to the BCG, and how much will return to fuel future star formation and AGN activity are poorly understood. Our results imply that radio-mechanical (radio-mode) feedback not only heats hot atmospheres surrounding elliptical galaxies and BCGs, but it is able to sweep higher density molecular gas away from their centers.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 785(1):44. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/785/1/44 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report ALMA Early Science observations of the Abell 1835 brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the CO (3-2) and CO (1-0) emission lines. We detect $5\times 10^{10}~\rm M_\odot$ of molecular gas within 10 kpc of the BCG. Its ensemble velocity profile width of $\sim 130 ~\rm km~s^{-1}$ FWHM is too narrow for the molecular cloud sto be supported in the galaxy by dynamic pressure. The gas may instead be supported in a rotating, turbulent disk oriented nearly face-on. Roughly $10^{10}~\rm M_\odot$ of molecular gas is projected $3-10 ~\rm kpc$ to the north-west and to the east of the nucleus with line of sight velocities lying between $-250 ~\rm km~s^{-1}$ to $+480 ~\rm km~s^{-1}$ with respect to the systemic velocity. The high velocity gas may be either inflowing or outflowing. However, the absence of high velocity gas toward the nucleus that would be expected in a steady inflow, and its bipolar distribution on either side of the nucleus, are more naturally explained as outflow. Star formation and radiation from the AGN are both incapable of driving an outflow of this magnitude. If so, the molecular outflow may be associated a hot outflow on larger scales reported by Kirkpatrick and colleagues. The molecular gas flow rate of approximately $200~\rm M_\odot ~yr^{-1}$ is comparable to the star formation rate of $100-180~\rm M_\odot ~yr^{-1}$ in the central disk. How radio bubbles would lift dense molecular gas in their updrafts, how much gas will be lost to the BCG, and how much will return to fuel future star formation and AGN activity are poorly understood. Our results imply that radio-mechanical (radio mode) feedback not only heats hot atmospheres surrounding elliptical galaxies and BCGs, it is able to sweep higher density molecular gas away from their centers.
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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (~800 Msun/yr) in the central, brightest cluster galaxy, most likely fueled by the rapidly-cooling intracluster medium. These new data reveal a complex emission-line nebula, extending for >30 kpc from the central galaxy. The total Halpha luminosity, assuming Halpha/Hbeta = 2.85, is L_Ha = 7.6 +/- 0.4 x10^43 erg/s, making this the most luminous emission line nebula detected in the center of a cool core cluster. Overall, the relative fluxes of the low-ionization lines (e.g., [O II], Hbeta) to the UV continuum are consistent with photoionization by young stars. In both the center of the galaxy and in a newly-discovered highly-ionized plume to the north of the galaxy, the ionization ratios are consistent with both shocks and AGN photoionization. We speculate that this extended plume may be a galactic wind, driven and partially photoionized by both the starburst and central AGN. We find evidence for shocks throughout the ISM of the central galaxy, most likely driven by a combination of stellar winds from massive young stars, core-collapse supernovae, and the central AGN. In addition to the warm, ionized gas, we detect a substantial amount of cold, molecular gas via the CO(3-2) transition, coincident in position with the galaxy center. We infer a molecular gas mass of M_H2 = 2.2 +/- 0.6 x10^10 Msun, which implies that the starburst will consume its fuel in ~30 Myr if it is not replenished. The combination of the high level of turbulence in the warm phase and the high L_IR/M_H2 ratio suggests that this violent starburst may be in the process of quenching itself.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 784(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/784/1/18 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present multi-frequency observations of the radio galaxy Hydra-A (3C218) located in the core of a massive, X-ray luminous galaxy cluster. IFU spectroscopy is used to trace the kinematics of the ionised and warm molecular hydrogen which are consistent with a ~ 5 kpc rotating disc. Broad, double-peaked lines of CO(2-1), [CII]157 $\mu$m and [OI]63 $\mu$m are detected. We estimate the mass of the cold gas within the disc to be M$_{gas}$ = 2.3 $\pm$ 0.3 x 10$^9$ M$_{\odot}$. These observations demonstrate that the complex line profiles found in the cold atomic and molecular gas are related to the rotating disc or ring of gas. Finally, an HST image of the galaxy shows that this gas disc contains a substantial mass of dust. The large gas mass, SFR and kinematics are consistent with the levels of gas cooling from the ICM. We conclude that the cold gas originates from the continual quiescent accumulation of cooled ICM gas. The rotation is in a plane perpendicular to the projected orientation of the radio jets and ICM cavities hinting at a possible connection between the kpc-scale cooling gas and the accretion of material onto the black hole. We discuss the implications of these observations for models of cold accretion, AGN feedback and cooling flows.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2013; 437(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt1949 · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • B R McNamara
    Science 09/2013; 341(6150):1073-5. DOI:10.1126/science.1243114 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report ALMA Early Science observations of the Abell 1835 brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the CO (3-2) and CO (1-0) emission lines. We detect 5E10 solar masses of molecular gas within 10 kpc of the BCG. Its velocity width of ~130 km/s FWHM is too narrow to be supported by dynamical pressure. The gas may instead be supported in a rotating, turbulent disk oriented nearly face-on. The disk is forming stars at a rate of 100-180 solar masses per year. Roughly 1E10 solar masses of molecular gas is projected 3-10 kpc to the north-west and to the east of the nucleus with line of sight velocities lying between -250 km/s to +480 km/s with respect to the systemic velocity. Although inflow cannot be ruled out, the rising velocity gradient with radius is consistent with a broad, bipolar outflow driven by radio jets or buoyantly rising X-ray cavities. The molecular outflow may be associated with an outflow of hot gas in Abell 1835 seen on larger scales. Molecular gas is flowing out of the BCG at a rate of approximately 200 solar masses per year, which is comparable to its star formation rate. How radio bubbles lift dense molecular gas in their updrafts, how much gas will be lost to the BCG, and how much will return to fuel future star formation and AGN activity are poorly understood. Our results imply that radio-mechanical (radio mode) feedback not only heats hot atmospheres surrounding elliptical galaxies and BCGs, it is able to sweep higher density molecular gas away from their centers.
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    ABSTRACT: We report ALMA Early Science CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) observations of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in Abell 1664. The BCG contains 1.1x10^{10} solar masses of molecular gas divided roughly equally between two distinct velocity systems: one from -250 to +250 km/s centred on the BCG's systemic velocity and a high velocity system blueshifted by 570 km/s with respect to the systemic velocity. The BCG's systemic component shows a smooth velocity gradient across the BCG center with velocity proportional to radius suggestive of solid body rotation about the nucleus. However, the mass and velocity structure are highly asymmetric and there is little star formation coincident with a putative disk. It may be an inflow of gas that will settle into a disk over several 10^8 yr. The high velocity system consists of two gas clumps, each ~2 kpc across, located to the north and southeast of the nucleus. Each has a line of sight velocity spread of 250-300 km/s. The velocity of the gas in the high velocity system tends to increase towards the BCG center and could signify a massive high velocity flow onto the nucleus. However, the velocity gradient is not smooth and these structures are also coincident with low optical-UV surface brightness regions, which could indicate dust extinction associated with each clump. If so, the high velocity gas would be projected in front of the BCG and moving toward us along the line of sight in a massive outflow most likely driven by the AGN. A merger origin is unlikely but cannot be ruled out.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2013; 784(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/784/1/78 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical feedback via Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) jets in the centres of galaxy groups and clusters is a crucial ingredient in current models of galaxy formation and cluster evolution. Jet feedback is believed to regulate gas cooling and thus star formation in the most massive galaxies, but a robust physical understanding of this feedback mode is currently lacking. The large collecting area, excellent spectral resolution and high spatial resolution of Athena+ will provide the breakthrough diagnostic ability necessary to develop this understanding, via: (1) the first kinematic measurements on relevant spatial scales of the hot gas in galaxy, group and cluster haloes as it absorbs the impact of AGN jets, and (2) vastly improved ability to map thermodynamic conditions on scales well-matched to the jets, lobes and gas disturbances produced by them. Athena+ will therefore determine for the first time how jet energy is dissipated and distributed in group and cluster gas, and how a feedback loop operates in group/cluster cores to regulate gas cooling and AGN fuelling. Athena+ will also establish firmly the cumulative impact of powerful radio galaxies on the evolution of baryons from the epoch of group/cluster formation to the present day.
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    ABSTRACT: This White Paper, submitted to the recent ESA call for science themes to define its future large missions, advocates the need for a transformational leap in our understanding of two key questions in astrophysics: 1) How does ordinary matter assemble into the large scale structures that we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe? Hot gas in clusters, groups and the intergalactic medium dominates the baryonic content of the local Universe. To understand the astrophysical processes responsible for the formation and assembly of these large structures, it is necessary to measure their physical properties and evolution. This requires spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy with a factor 10 increase in both telescope throughput and spatial resolving power compared to currently planned facilities. Feedback from supermassive black holes is an essential ingredient in this process and in most galaxy evolution models, but it is not well understood. X-ray observations can uniquely reveal the mechanisms launching winds close to black holes and determine the coupling of the energy and matter flows on larger scales. Due to the effects of feedback, a complete understanding of galaxy evolution requires knowledge of the obscured growth of supermassive black holes through cosmic time, out to the redshifts where the first galaxies form. X-ray emission is the most reliable way to reveal accreting black holes, but deep survey speed must improve by a factor ~100 over current facilities to perform a full census into the early Universe. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (Athena+) mission provides the necessary performance (e.g. angular resolution, spectral resolution, survey grasp) to address these questions and revolutionize our understanding of the Hot and Energetic Universe. These capabilities will also provide a powerful observatory to be used in all areas of astrophysics.
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    ABSTRACT: We examine unresolved nuclear X-ray sources in 57 brightest cluster galaxies to study the relationship between nuclear X-ray emission and accretion on to supermassive black holes. The majority of the clusters in our sample have prominent X-ray cavities embedded in the surrounding hot atmospheres, which we use to estimate mean jet power and average accretion rate on to the supermassive black holes over the past several hundred Myr. We find that roughly half of the sample have detectable nuclear X-ray emission. The nuclear X-ray luminosity is correlated with average accretion rate determined using X-ray cavities, which is consistent with the hypothesis that nuclear X-ray emission traces ongoing accretion. The results imply that jets in systems that have experienced recent active galactic nucleus (AGN) outbursts, in the last ˜107 yr, are `on' at least half of the time. Nuclear X-ray sources become more luminous with respect to the mechanical jet power as the mean accretion rate rises. We show that nuclear radiation exceeds the jet power when the mean accretion rate rises above a few per cent of the Eddington rate, or a power output of {˜ }10^{45} {erg s^{-1}}, where the AGN apparently transitions to a quasar. The nuclear X-ray emission from three objects (A2052, Hydra A, M84) varies by factors of 2-10 on time-scales of 6 months to 10 years. If variability at this level is a common phenomenon, it can account for much of the scatter in the relationship between mean accretion rate and nuclear X-ray luminosity. We find no significant change in the spectral energy distribution as a function of luminosity in the variable objects. The nuclear X-ray luminosity is consistent with emission from either a jet, an advection-dominated accretion flow, or a combination of the two, although other origins are possible. We also consider the longstanding problem of whether jets are powered by the accretion of cold circumnuclear gas or nearly spherical inflows of hot keV gas. For a subset of 13 nearby systems in our sample, we re-examine the relationship between the jet power and the Bondi accretion rate. The results indicate weaker evidence for a trend between Bondi accretion and jet power, due to uncertainties in the cavity volumes and gas densities at the Bondi radius. We suggest that cold gas fuelling could be a likely source of accretion power in these objects; however, we cannot rule out Bondi accretion, which could play a significant role in low-power jets.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2013; 432(1):530-553. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt490 · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • P. E. J. Nulsen, B. R. McNamara
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    ABSTRACT: Observations support the view that feedback, in the form of radio outbursts from active nuclei in central galaxies, prevents catastrophic cooling of gas and rapid star formation in many groups and clusters of galaxies. Variations in jet power drive a succession of weak shocks that can heat regions close to the active galactic nuclei (AGN). On larger scales, shocks fade into sound waves. The Braginskii viscosity determines a well-defined sound damping rate in the weakly magnetised intracluster medium (ICM) that can provide sufficient heating on larger scales. It is argued that weak shocks and sound dissipation are the main means by which radio AGN heat the ICM, in which case, the power spectrum of AGN outbursts plays a central role in AGN feedback.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 05/2013; 334(4-5):386-. DOI:10.1002/asna.201211863 · 1.12 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
714.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1970–2015
    • University of Waterloo
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Ватерлоо, Ontario, Canada
  • 2012
    • Swinburne University of Technology
      • Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1994–2012
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Astronomy
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1970–2009
    • Ohio University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Athens, OH, United States
  • 2008
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Columbus, OH, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2004
    • University of Wollongong
      • School of Engineering Physics
      City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1992–2004
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2003
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2002
    • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
      • Departamento de Anatomía
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
  • 1998
    • Space Research Institute
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1993
    • University of Groningen
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands