Henrik Kehlet

IT University of Copenhagen, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (843)2943.67 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Breast cancer patients treated with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) have a higher risk of both acute and persistent pain than those treated with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). This could be attributed to a higher risk of nerve injury with ALND. We hypothesized that (1) pain patients have more pronounced sensory dysfunction than pain-free patients, (2) ALND have more sensory dysfunction and pain than SLNB patients and (3) patients with preserved intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) preservation have less sensory dysfunction compared to a sectioned ICBN. Methods: Twenty-seven patients treated with ALND and 27 with SLNB examined with a standardized Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) protocol, including sensory mapping, mechanical and thermal thresholds, as well as recording intraoperative ICBN handling and pain status 1 week post-operative. Results: The area of cold hypoaesthesia was significantly associated with movement-related pain (P = 0.004), with a similar tendency for warmth (P = 0.018) and brush (P = 0.030) hypoaesthesia areas. 14 (26%) of the patients had moderate/severe pain at rest and 13 (24%) during movement without differences between ALND and SLNB, but ALND was associated with more sensory dysfunction than SLNB. Patients with sectioned ICBN reported lower pain intensity than those with preserved ICBN (P = 0.005), but without differences in sensory dysfunction. Conclusion: Pain was increased in patients having larger areas of hypoaesthesia and reduced in patients where ICBN-section was done. Sensory dysfunction was related to extent of axillary surgery, but not with ICBN handling. Our data suggest that acute pain after breast cancer surgery may be related to nerve injury.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/aas.12641 · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Henrik Kehlet · Girish P Joshi
    Anesthesia and analgesia 09/2015; 121(4):1104-7. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000000687 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    Øivind Jans · Louise Brinth · Henrik Kehlet · Jesper Mehlsen
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating to postoperative autonomic dysfunction. Thus, based on a previous study on haemodynamic responses during mobilization before and after elective total hip arthroplasty (THA), we performed secondary analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) and aimed to identify possible abnormal postoperative autonomic responses in relation to postural change. METHODS: A standardized mobilization protocol before, 6 and 24 h after surgery was performed in 23 patients scheduled for elective THA. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure was measured by photoplethysmography and HRV was derived from pulse wave interbeat intervals and analysed in the time and frequency domain as well as by non-linear analysis using sample entropy RESULTS: Before surgery, arterial pressures and HR increased upon standing, while HRV low (LF) and high frequency (HF) components remained unchanged. At 6 and 24 h after surgery, resting total HRV power, sample entropy and postural responses in arterial pressures decreased compared to preoperative conditions. During standing HF variation increased by 16.7 (95 % CI 8.0-25.0) normalized units (nu) at 6 h and 10.7 (2.0-19.4) nu at 24 h compared to the preoperative evaluation. At 24 h the LF/HF ratio decreased from 1.8 (1.2-2.6) nu when supine to 1.2 (0.8-1.8) nu when standing. CONCLUSIONS: This study observed postoperative autonomic cardiovascular dysregulation that may contribute to limited HRV responses during early postoperative mobilization. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01089946.
    BMC Anesthesiology 08/2015; 15(1):120. DOI:10.1186/s12871-015-0099-4 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gabapentin has shown acute postoperative analgesic effects, but the optimal dose and procedure-specific benefits vs. harm have not been clarified. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study, 300 opioid-naive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized (1:1:1) to either gabapentin 1300 mg/day (group A), gabapentin 900mg/day (group B) or placebo (group C) daily from 2 hours preoperatively to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized multimodal analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 hours after surgery, the secondary outcome sedation6 hours after surgery. Other outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest, and sedation during the first 48hours and from day2-6, morphine use, anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and nausea, vomiting, dizziness, concentration difficulty, head-ache, visual disturbances, and adverse reactions. Pain upon ambulation [VAS, mean (95% CI)] 24hours after surgery in group A vs. B vs. C was: 41(37-46) vs.41(36-45) vs.42(37-47), p=0.93. Sedation [NRS, median (range)] 6hours after surgery was: 3.2(0-10) vs.2.6 (0-9) vs.2.3 (0-9), the mean difference Avs.C being 0.9(0.2-1.7),p=0.046. No between-group differences were observed in overall pain or morphine use the first 48hours and from day2-6. Sleep quality was better during the first 2 nights in group A and Bvs.C. Dizziness was more pronounced from day2-6 in Avs. C. More severe adverse reactions were observed in group Avs.B and C. In conclusion, gabapentin may have limited if any role in acute postoperative pain management of opioid-naive patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and should not be recommended as standard of care.
    Pain 07/2015; DOI:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000309 · 5.21 Impact Factor
  • E K Aasvang · I E Luna · H Kehlet
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    ABSTRACT: This narrative review updates the recent advances in our understanding of the multifactorial pathogenesis for reduced postdischarge physical and cognitive function after fast-track surgery, using total hip and knee arthroplasty as surgical models. Relevant factors discussed include the surgical stress responses and potential methods for controlling postsurgical inflammation, pain, and cognitive dysfunction. The continuation of moderate to severe pain in up to 30% of patients for 2-4 weeks calls for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and development of effective multimodal opioid-sparing analgesic regimens. The need for the development of effective physiotherapy programmes on a patient-specific basis is discussed, along with the need for optimal assessment of postoperative function to guide rehabilitation. Other relevant factors discussed include the role of orthostatic intolerance, sleep disturbances, and blood management, and specific patient populations at risk for adverse outcomes, including psychiatric disorders, to identify and guide future interventions for optimizing functional postdischarge outcomes after fast-track surgery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 07/2015; DOI:10.1093/bja/aev257 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that 15-25% of patients treated for breast cancer experience long term moderate to severe pain in the area of surgery, potentially lasting for several years. Few prospective studies have included all potential risk factors for the development of persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS). The aim of the present prospective cohort study was to comprehensively identify factors predicting PPBCS. Patients scheduled for primary breast cancer surgery were recruited. Assessments were conducted preoperatively, the first 3 days postoperatively and 1 week, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. A comprehensive validated questionnaire was used. Handling of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) was registered by the surgeon. Factors known by the first 3 weeks after surgery were modelled in ordinal logistic regression analyses. 537 patients with baseline data were included and 475 (88%) were available for analysis at 1 year. At 1 year follow up, the prevalence of moderate to severe pain at rest was 14% and during movement was 7%. Factors associated with pain atrest was age <65 years (OR: 1.8, p=0.02), breast conserving surgery (OR: 2.0, p=0.006), axillary lymph node dissection with preservation of the ICBN (OR: 3.1, p=0.0005), moderate to severe preoperative pain (OR: 5.7, p=0.0002), acute postoperative pain (OR: 2.8, p= 0.0018) and signs of neuropathic pain at 1 week OR: 2.1, p=0.01. Higher preoperative diastolic blood pressure was associated with reduced risk of PPBCS (OR 0.98 per mmHg, p=0.01). Both patient and treatment related risk factors predicted PPBCS. Identifying patients at risk may facilitate targeted intervention.
    Pain 07/2015; DOI:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000298 · 5.21 Impact Factor
  • Henrik Kehlet · Christoffer C Jørgensen
    The Journal of arthroplasty 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.arth.2015.06.064 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose — Patient satisfaction is important in fast-track total hip and knee replacement (THR, TKR). We assessed: (1) how satisfied patients were with the treatment; (2) factors related to overall satisfaction; and (3) whether there was a difference between THR and TKR regarding length of stay (LOS) and patient satisfaction. Patients and methods — In this follow-up study, a consecutive series of 445 patients undergoing THR and TKR completed a questionnaire 2 weeks after discharge. LOS and short-term patient satisfaction with the fast-track management were measured. Patient satisfaction was measured using a numerical rating scale (NRS; 0–10). Results — For THR, the median satisfaction score was 9–10 and for TKR it was 8.5–10 in all parameters. Older THR patients had higher overall satisfaction. No association was found between overall satisfaction following THR or TKR and sex comorbidity, or LOS. THR patients had shorter mean LOS than TKR patients, even though the median LOS was 2 days for both groups. THR patients were more satisfied than TKR patients in the first weeks after discharge. Interpretation — Patient satisfaction is high following fast-track THR and TKR, with scores ranging from 8.5 to 10 on the NRS. A qualitative investigation of the first weeks after discharge is required to learn more about how to improve the experience of recovery.
    Acta Orthopaedica 06/2015; DOI:10.3109/17453674.2015.1063910 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • E K Aasvang · M U Werner · H Kehlet
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent postherniotomy pain is located around the scar and external inguinal ring and is often described as deep rather than cutaneous, with frequent complaints of pain in adjacent areas. Whether this pain is due to local pathology or referred/projected pain is unknown, hindering mechanism-based treatment. Deep tissue electrical pain stimulation by needle electrodes in the right groin (rectus muscle, ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve and perispermatic cord) was combined with assessment of referred/projected pain and the cutaneous heat pain threshold (HPT) at three prespecified areas (both groins and the lower right arm) in 19 healthy subjects. The assessment was repeated 10 days later to assess the reproducibility of individual responses. Deep electrical stimulation elicited pain at the stimulation site in all subjects, and in 15 subjects, pain from areas outside the stimulation area was reported, with 90-100% having the same response on both days, depending on the location. Deep pain stimulation significantly increased the cutaneous HPT (P<0.014). Individual HPT responses before and during deep electrical pain stimulation were significantly correlated (ρ>0.474, P≤0.040) at the two test days for the majority of test areas. Our results corroborate a systematic relationship between deep pain and changes in cutaneous nociception. The individual referred/projected pain patterns and cutaneous responses are variable, but reproducible, supporting individual differences in anatomy and sensory processing. Future studies investigating the responses to deep tissue electrical stimulation in persistent postherniotomy pain patients may advance our understanding of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and strategies for treatment and prevention. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01701427). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 06/2015; 115(2). DOI:10.1093/bja/aev170 · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • C C Jørgensen · Ø Jans · H Kehlet
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    ABSTRACT: Preoperative anaemia is a well-established risk factor for use of blood transfusions and postoperative morbidity. Consequently, focus on preoperative evaluation of haemoglobin levels is increasing. In this context, iron deficiency anaemia may be a symptom of undiscovered gastrointestinal (GI) cancer requiring further investigation. However, the association between preoperative anaemia and cancer 1 year after elective total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is unknown. We evaluated 1-year cancer diagnoses, particularly GI cancers, in anaemic and non-anaemic THA and TKA patients. A prospective database on preoperative patient characteristics from six Danish orthopaedic centres was cross-referenced with the Danish Cancer Registry for information on diagnoses of new cancers 1 year after surgery. Crude cancer risk estimates were calculated using chi-square and Fisher's exact test in the total study cohort. Adjusted risk estimates were obtained using propensity scores and the Mantel-Haenzel statistic. Of 5400 procedures, 731 (13·5%) were in anaemic patients. These were older and had more comorbidity than non-anaemic patients. There were 17 (2·3%) and 79 (1·6%) new cancers in anaemic and non-anaemic patients, respectively (OR: 1·38; 95% CI: 0·81-2·35, P = 0·228). After propensity matching of 661 anaemic and 1305 non-anaemic patients, we found no association between preoperative anaemia and cancer (OR: 0·94; 95% CI: 0·51-1·73, P = 0·837) or with GI cancers specifically (OR: 0·80; 95% CI: 0·25-2·56, P = 0·707). Preoperative anaemia per se may not be related to being diagnosed with cancer 1 year after THA and TKA. The optimal criteria for preoperative referral of anaemic patients to gastroenterologist in elective THA and TKA need further investigation. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
    Vox Sanguinis 05/2015; 109(1). DOI:10.1111/vox.12255 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic pain is a highly prevalent and poorly managed human health problem. We used microarray-based expression genomics in 25 inbred mouse strains to identify dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-expressed genetic contributors to mechanical allodynia, a prominent symptom of chronic pain. We identified expression levels of Chrna6, which encodes the α6 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), as highly associated with allodynia. We confirmed the importance of α6* (α6-containing) nAChRs by analyzing both gain- and loss-of-function mutants. We find that mechanical allodynia associated with neuropathic and inflammatory injuries is significantly altered in α6* mutants, and that α6* but not α4* nicotinic receptors are absolutely required for peripheral and/or spinal nicotine analgesia. Furthermore, we show that Chrna6's role in analgesia is at least partially due to direct interaction and cross-inhibition of α6* nAChRs with P2X2/3 receptors in DRG nociceptors. Finally, we establish the relevance of our results to humans by the observation of genetic association in patients suffering from chronic postsurgical and temporomandibular pain. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Science translational medicine 05/2015; 7(287):287ra72. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3009986 · 15.84 Impact Factor
  • H Kehlet · C P Delaney · A G Hill
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 04/2015; 115(1). DOI:10.1093/bja/aev098 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations for clinical trials investigating the prevention of chronic pain. We present general design considerations for prevention trials in populations that are at relatively high risk for developing chronic pain. Specific design considerations included subject identification, timing and duration of treatment, outcomes, timing of assessment, and adjusting for risk factors in the analyses. We provide a detailed examination of 4 models of chronic pain prevention (i.e., chronic post-surgical pain, postherpetic neuralgia, chronic low back pain, and painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). The issues discussed can, in many instances, be extrapolated to other chronic pain conditions. These examples were selected because they are representative models of primary and secondary prevention, reflect persistent pain resulting from multiple insults (i.e., surgery, viral infection, injury, and toxic/noxious element exposure), and are chronically painful conditions that are treated with a range of interventions. Improvements in the design of chronic pain prevention trials could improve assay sensitivity and thus accelerate the identification of efficacious interventions. Such interventions would have the potential to reduce the prevalence of chronic pain in the population. Additionally, standardization of outcomes in prevention clinical trials will facilitate meta-analyses and systematic reviews and improve detection of preventive strategies emerging from clinical trials.
    Pain 04/2015; 156(7). DOI:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000191 · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sufficient pain treatment remains a challenge after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), especially in high pain catastrophizing patients. Serotonergic signaling may be involved in pain processing, but the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on well-defined postoperative pain has not previously been investigated. The authors hypothesized that perioperative escitalopram would reduce pain after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. A total of 120 pain catastrophizing patients (selected using the pain catastrophizing scale as preoperative screening tool) scheduled for TKA were randomized in a double-blind manner to either 10 mg escitalopram or placebo daily from preanesthesia to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest from 2 to 48 h and from days 2 to 6, morphine equivalents, anxiety, depression, and side effects. Pain upon ambulation (mean [95% CI]) 24 h after surgery in the escitalopram versus placebo group was 58 (53 to 64) versus 64 (58 to 69), the mean difference being -5 (-13 to 3), P = 0.20. Overall pain upon ambulation and at rest from days 2 to 6 was lower in the escitalopram versus placebo group, as was depression score at day 6 (all P ≤ 0.01 in analyses uncorrected for multiple tests). Side effects were nonsignificant except for reduced tendency to sweat and prolonged sleep in the escitalopram group. No other between-group differences were observed. Escitalopram did not reduce pain upon ambulation 24 h after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. Future studies on optimal timing, dose, and duration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment might be warranted.
    Anesthesiology 04/2015; 122(4):884-94. DOI:10.1097/ALN.0000000000000597 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients who are surgically treated for an acute hip fracture in Denmark commence early in-hospital physical rehabilitation (PR) with more than 95% of patients referred to further PR following discharge. However, the specifics of the PR services after discharge are unknown. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to describe the specifics of PR provided to patients following discharge after hip fracture (HF) surgery in Denmark to evaluate the need for future interventions or guidelines. This was a national, cross-sectional questionnaire survey including 56 randomly selected municipalities out of 98. Information was gathered on PR and categorised into outpatient PR (including one-to-one and group), home-based PR, 24-hour in-patient PR units and nursing homes. Sixty PR centres (97%) within 51 municipalities (91%) participated. The PR was initiated within 1-2 weeks after the municipality had received a referral from the hospital in 97% of the participating centres. The duration of PR was 8-12 weeks or 4-7 weeks in 85% of the centres, and most often comprised 1-2 training sessions per week. In all, 72% out of 56 municipalities returned a specific PR programme of which only 14% provided specific information regarding the intensity and the progression of training. PR after hip fracture in Denmark is initiated shortly after referral, for a variable duration of time and with poorly described exercise intensity and progression. This calls for a national description and implementation of an optimised PR programme according to the best available evidence. The study was supported by grants from The IMK Foundation, The Research Foundation of the Capital Region, The Research Foundation of the Danish Physical Therapy Organization, The Research Foundation of Hvidovre Hospital and The UCSF Lundbeck Foundation. The funding agencies had no influence on the study design, methods, subjects, data collection, analyses or on the manuscript. not relevant.
    Danish Medical Journal 04/2015; 62(4):A5023. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pain after Caesarean section is often treated with opioids with a risk of side effects. Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics is effective and has few side effects, but volume vs. dose concentration has not been examined. Ninety patients scheduled for elective Caesarean section included in a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial receiving infiltration with 50 ml ropivacaine 0.5% or 125 ml ropivacaine 0.2% or 50 ml 0.9% saline (placebo) during surgery. Surgery was performed under lumbar spinal anaesthesia. Primary endpoint was post-operative pain. Secondary endpoints were rescue analgesic, post-operative nausea and vomiting, time spent in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and time to first mobilisation. No difference in pain response between groups, but time until maximum pain score was prolonged in the ropivacaine 0.5% group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.0493). The administration of ketobemidone at 24 h post-operatively in the ropivacaine 0.5% group was reduced compared with the placebo group (P = 0.020), and between the ropivacaine 0.2% group and the ropivacaine 0.5% group (P = 0.044). No significant differences between groups were found concerning time spent in the PACU, to first mobilisation or in number of women with nausea/vomiting (P ≥ 0.05). No complications related to ropivacaine were observed. Systematic infiltration with a high concentration, low volume compared with low concentration, high volume showed no significant effect on post-operative pain intensity. However, a statistically significant, but clinically limited opioid sparing effect was demonstrated compared with placebo in the high concentration, low volume group. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 03/2015; 59(5). DOI:10.1111/aas.12509 · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Sorel Kurbegovic · Jens Andersen · Lene Krenk · Henrik Kehlet
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative delirium (PD) is a common but serious problem after major surgery with a multifactorial pathogenesis including age, pain, opioid use, sleep disturbances and the surgical stress response. These factors have been minimised by the "fast-track methodology" previously demonstrated to enhance recovery and reduce morbidity. Clinical symptoms of PD were routinely collected three times daily from preoperatively until discharge in a well-defined enhanced recovery program after colonic surgery in 247 consecutive patients. Total median length of hospital stay was 3 days. Seven patients (2.8 %) developed clinical signs of PD most within the first 72 postoperative hours and only 1 patient with PD extending to 120 h postoperatively. Only 1 PD patient required treatment with serenase. PD patients were older (83 vs. 73 years) and had longer median stay (6 vs. 3 days). No difference in development of PD between open and laparoscopic operation could be demonstrated. Among the 7 patients with PD, 3 of these patients had later surgical complications. One patient had a subsequent strangulated small intestine, another an anastomotic leakage complicated by a bleeding gastric ulcer and death on day 12 and 1 with fever, abdominal pain and suspected but disproven anastomotic leakage (stay 21, 12 and 22 days, respectively). The remaining 4 PD patients stayed 4, 4, 5 and 6 days with an uncomplicated course. These data support that an enhanced postoperative recovery program may decrease the risk and duration of PD after colonic surgery.
    Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 03/2015; 400(4). DOI:10.1007/s00423-015-1297-8 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • A Harsten · H Kehlet · P Ljung · S Toksvig-Larsen
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 03/2015; 59(4). DOI:10.1111/aas.12495 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variability in heart rate response (HRR) can be used as a measure for autonomic nervous system function, which may influence sleep disturbances and the recovery phase after major surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic function by assessment of HRR during sleep arousals in the postoperative period after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty. Determination of autonomic function was gained from polysomnographic evaluation of 10 patients >60 years undergoing either hip or knee arthroplasty (mean age 69.9 years) evaluating HRR during the different sleep phases. Sleep monitoring took place in the patients' home preoperatively, during hospitalization on the first postoperative night, and on the fourth postoperative night at home. HRR was reduced (P < 0.01) during arousal from non-REM stage 2 sleep on the first postoperative night, and was still reduced on the fourth postoperative night compared to preoperative level (P = 0.01). HRR during arousal from REM sleep was not different between the preoperative and fourth postoperative night (P = 0.92), while this could not be determined on the first postoperative night where REM sleep disappeared. The reduced HRR during sleep arousal after major arthroplasty surgery in elderly patients may reflect a functional change in sympathetic nervous system potentially relevant for postoperative sleep changes, fatigue and cognitive function.
    Sleep and Biological Rhythms 03/2015; 13(3). DOI:10.1111/sbr.12108 · 0.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

34k Citations
2,943.67 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2015
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • University of Geneva
      • Division of Anaesthesiology
      Genève, GE, Switzerland
  • 2014
    • University of Southern Denmark
      • Institute of Regional Health Research
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
  • 2000–2014
    • Copenhagen University Hospital
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1985–2014
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      • • Clinical Research Centre
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics
      • • Department of Pathology
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1981–2014
    • Rigshospitalet
      • • Department of Anaesthesiology
      • • Surgical Pathophysiology Unit
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2009–2013
    • Køge Sygehus
      Kjoge, Zealand, Denmark
    • Lund University
      • Department of Health Sciences
      Lund, Skane, Sweden
  • 2012
    • University of Copenhagen Herlev Hospital
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2008–2012
    • Region Hovedstaden
      Hillerød, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1984–2012
    • Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen University
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1986–2011
    • Herlev Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2009–2010
    • Rigshospitalet
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2002–2010
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management
      Dallas, TX, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • Sundhedsstyrelsen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1997–2009
    • Aarhus University Hospital
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2006
    • Aarhus University
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2004
    • University of Pennsylvania
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1990
    • København Zoo
      København, Capital Region, Denmark