José M Gatell

Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (274)1999.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This open-label, multinational, pilot study randomized (1:2) adults with HIV-1 RNA <40 copies/mL and nucleos(t)ide-related safety/tolerability issues to switch to ATV/r plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) (n=37) or the NRTI-sparing regimen of ATV/r plus raltegravir (RAL) (n=72). At 24 weeks, 35/37 (94.6%) and 58/72 (80.6%) of patients, respectively, maintained virological suppression, the primary endpoint, and 1 (2.7%) and 7 (9.7%), respectively, experienced virological rebound. Corresponding 48-week proportions were 86.5%, 69.4%, 2.7% and 12.5%, respectively. Adherence was lower and treatment discontinuation was higher with ATV/r+RAL. In conclusion, switching to ATV/r+RAL resulted in a higher virological rebound rate than switching to ATV/r+TDF/FTC.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND), which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2015; DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000904 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trial design: Previous studies suggested that poxvirus-based vaccines might be instrumental in the therapeutic HIV field. A phase I clinical trial was conducted in HIV-1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), with CD4 T cell counts above 450 cells/mm3 and undetectable viremia. Thirty participants were randomized (2:1) to receive either 3 intramuscular injections of MVA-B vaccine (coding for clade B HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens) or placebo, followed by interruption of HAART. Methods: The magnitude, breadth, quality and phenotype of the HIV-1-specific T cell response were assayed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in 22 volunteers pre- and post-vaccination. Results: MVA-B vaccine induced newly detected HIV-1-specific CD4 T cell responses and expanded pre-existing responses (mostly against Gag, Pol and Nef antigens) that were high in magnitude, broadly directed and showed an enhanced polyfunctionality with a T effector memory (TEM) phenotype, while maintaining the magnitude and quality of the pre-existing HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses. In addition, vaccination also triggered preferential CD8+ T cell polyfunctional responses to the MVA vector antigens that increase in magnitude after two and three booster doses. Conclusion: MVA-B vaccination represents a feasible strategy to improve T cell responses in individuals with pre-existing HIV-1-specific immunity. Trial registration: NCT01571466.
    PLoS ONE 11/2015; 10(11):e0141456. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0141456 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells have an important role in immune suppression during HIV-1 infection. As regulatory T cells produce the immunomodulatory molecule adenosine, our aim here was to assess the potential of adenosine removal to revert the suppression of anti-HIV responses exerted by regulatory T cells. The experimental setup consisted of ex vivo cocultures of T and dendritic cells, to which adenosine deaminase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes adenosine, was added. In cells from healthy individuals, adenosine hydrolysis decreased CD4(+)CD25(hi) regulatory T cells. Addition of 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, an adenosine receptor agonist, significantly decreased CD4(+)CD25(lo) cells, confirming a modulatory role of adenosine acting via adenosine receptors. In autologous cocultures of T cells with HIV-1-pulsed dendritic cells, addition of adenosine deaminase led to a significant decrease of HIV-1-induced CD4(+)CD25(hi) forkhead box p3(+) cells and to a significant enhancement of the HIV-1-specific CD4(+) responder T cells. An increase in the effector response was confirmed by the enhanced production of CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD25(-)CD45RO(+) memory cell generation and secretion of Th1 cytokines, including IFN-γ and IL-15 and chemokines MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, and RANTES/CCL5. These ex vivo results show, in a physiologically relevant model, that adenosine deaminase is able to enhance HIV-1 effector responses markedly. The possibility to revert regulatory T cell-mediated inhibition of immune responses by use of adenosine deaminase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes adenosine, merits attention for restoring T lymphocyte function in HIV-1 infection. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 08/2015; DOI:10.1189/jlb.3A1214-580RR · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article aims to investigate if the detection of preexisting drug-resistant minority variant (DRMV) and/or X4 HIV-1 variants could improve the efficacy of first-line combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) in late presenters. Post-hoc, combined analysis of two open-label, prospective, randomized clinical trials comparing first-line ART with efavirenz (EFV) vs. ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r)-based regimens in ART-naive, HIV-1-infected patients, with CD4 T-cell counts less than 100 cells/μl and wild-type HIV-1 by bulk sequencing. Pre-ART samples were reanalyzed for the presence of DRMVs and X4 HIV-1 using 454 sequencing. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used to evaluate the association between X4 HIV and DRMVs and risk of virological failure. From 141 evaluable patients, 57 received EFV, and 84 received PI/r, including first-line ART. Median pre-ART CD4 T-cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels were 39 cells/μl and 257 424 copies/ml, respectively; 35.5% of patients had X4 HIV variants. Detection of DRMVs leading to an ART-specific cumulative HIVdb score of at least 10 increased the risk of virological failure in patients initiating EFV [log-rank P = 0.048, hazard ratio = 4.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.8, 25.0), P = 0.074], but not in those starting PI/r. Presence of X4 HIV did not affect virological outcomes, but was associated with impaired CD4 T-cell count recovery over 2 years (214 vs. 315 cells/μl with X4 vs. R5 HIV-1 tropism, respectively, P = 0.017). Accounting for preexisting DRMVs may improve the outcomes of first-line nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART in late presenters with advanced immune suppression. Presence of X4 HIV-1 at diagnosis predicts impaired immune restoration under ART.
    AIDS 07/2015; 29(12-12). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000748 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although virus-specific responses are rarely detected by conventional approaches, we report here the detection of T-cell responses in HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) patients by two distinct assays. HIV-specific T-cell responses were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HESN patients after a 48-h co-culture with boosted dendritic cells. Additionally, a boosted flow cytometry approach was used to capture antiviral T-cell responses. Host genetic factors and T-cell activation were also analyzed to assess their implication on HIV exposure. Of the 45 HESN individuals tested, up to 11 (24.4%) showed at least one response to peptide pools covering HIV Gag and Nef. A positive correlation was observed between the intensity (P = 0.0022) and magnitude (P = 0.0174) of the response detected in the HESN, and the viral load of the HIV-positive partner. Moreover, the result from the boosted flow and cytomix analyses showed a dominant Th1-like response pattern against HIV antigens, especially in CD8 T-cell populations. The combined use of our boosted dendritic cell technique with a boosted flow cytometric approach allows us both to detect specific HIV-positive responses in a higher percentage of HESN patients and to define specific effector function profiles. This study contributes to a better understanding of resistance to HIV infection.
    AIDS (London, England) 06/2015; 29(11). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000728 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to assess therapeutic non-inferiority of dual treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine to triple treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir plus two nucleos(t)ides for maintenance of HIV-1 viral suppression. In this randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial, we recruited patients from 32 HIV units in hospitals in Spain and France. Eligible patients were HIV-infected adults (aged ≥18 years) with HIV-1 RNA of less than 50 copies per mL, for at least 6 months on triple treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (twice daily) plus lamivudine or emtricitabine and a second nucleos(t)ide, with no resistance or virological failure to these drugs, and no positive hepatitis B serum surface antigen. Investigators at each centre randomly assigned patients (1:1; block size of four; stratified by time to suppression [<1 year or >1 year] and nadir CD4 cell count [<100 cells per μL or >100 cells per μL]; computer-generated random sequence) to continue triple treatment or switch to dual treatment (oral lopinavir 400 mg and oral ritonavir 100 mg twice daily plus oral lamivudine 300 mg once daily). The primary endpoint was response to treatment in the intention-to-treat population (all randomised patients) at 48 weeks. The non-inferiority margin was 12%. This study is registered with, number NCT01471821. Between Oct 1, 2011, and April 1, 2013, we randomly assigned 250 participants to continue triple treatment (127 [51%] patients) or switch to dual treatment (123 [49%] patients). In the intention-to-treat population, 110 (86·6%) of 127 patients in the triple-treatment group responded to treatment versus 108 (87·8%) of 123 in the dual-treatment group (difference -1·2% [95% CI -9·6 to 7·3]; p=0·92), meeting the criteria for non-inferiority. Serious adverse events occurred in eight (7%) patients in the triple-treatment group and five (4%) in the dual-treatment group (p=0·515), and study drug discontinuations due to adverse events occurred in four (3%) in the triple-treatment group and one (1%) in the dual-treatment group (p=0·223). Dual treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir plus lamivudine has non-inferior therapeutic efficacy and is similarly tolerated to triple treatment. AbbVie and Red Temática Cooperativa de Investigación en Sida. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 06/2015; 15(7). DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00096-1 · 22.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) infective endocarditis (IE) epidemiology at our institution, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, and the influence of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on patient outcomes. One hundred and three adults with definite IE admitted to an 850-bed tertiary care hospital in Barcelona from 1995-2008 were prospectively included in the cohort. We observed that CoNS IE was an important cause of community-acquired and healthcare-associated IE; one-third of patients involved native valves. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequent species, methicillin-resistant in 52% of patients. CoNS frozen isolates were available in 88 patients. Vancomycin MICs of 2.0 μg/mL were common; almost all cases were found among S. epidermidis isolates and did not increase over time. Eighty-five patients were treated either with cloxacillin or vancomycin: 38 patients (Group 1) were treated with cloxacillin, and 47 received vancomycin; of these 47, 27 had CoNS isolates with a vancomycin MIC <2.0 μg/mL (Group 2), 20 had isolates with a vancomycin MIC ≥ 2.0 μg/mL (Group 3). One-year mortality was 21%, 48%, and 65% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P = 0.003). After adjusting for confounders and taking Group 2 as a reference, methicillin-susceptibility was associated with lower 1-year mortality (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.55), and vancomycin MIC ≥ 2.0 μg/mL showed a trend to higher 1-year mortality (OR 3.7, 95% CI 0.9-15.2; P=0.069). Other independent variables associated with 1-year mortality were heart failure (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.5-25.2) and pacemaker lead IE (OR 0.1, 95%CI 0.02-0.51). In conclusion, methicillin-resistant S.epidermidis was the leading cause of CoNS IE, and patients receiving vancomycin had higher mortality rates than those receiving cloxacillin; mortality was higher among patients having isolates with vancomycin MICs ≥ 2.0 μg/mL.
    PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0125818. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125818 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the availability of effective combined antiretroviral treatment, many patients still present with advanced HIV infection, often accompanied by an AIDS-defining disease. A subgroup of patients starting antiretroviral treatment under these clinical conditions may experience paradoxical worsening of their disease as a result of an exaggerated immune response towards an active (but also subclinical) infectious agent, despite an appropriate virological and immunological response to the treatment. This clinical condition, known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, may cause significant morbidity and even mortality if it is not promptly recognized and treated. This review updates current knowledge about the incidence, diagnostic criteria, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and management of opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the combined antiretroviral treatment era.
    Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 04/2015; 13(6):1-17. DOI:10.1586/14787210.2015.1029917 · 3.46 Impact Factor
  • Esteban Martínez · José M Gatell ·
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    ABSTRACT: Initial treatment with dolutegravir offers higher efficacy than treatment with efavirenz, darunavir/ritonavir and even with raltegravir in patients with a high viral load. Like ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors, dolutegravir will probably have a high genetic barrier to resistance and prior genetic testing will not be required in integrase inhibitor-naïve patients. The drug is well tolerated and associated with few treatment discontinuations. It can be administered once daily and the tablet size is small. A fixed-dose combination tablet containing dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine will soon be available. Dolutegravir has few interactions with commonly-used drugs. It does not require pharmacological boosting and has no food or time of day restrictions. Because of these characteristics, dolutegravir has a unique profile and is the ideal drug for most HIV-infected patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 03/2015; 33 Suppl 1:31-3. DOI:10.1016/S0213-005X(15)30007-0 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The safety, immunogenicity, impact on the latent reservoir and rebound of viral load after therapeutic HIV-1 vaccination with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara-based (MVA-B) HIV-1 vaccine expressing monomeric gp120 and the fused Gag-Pol-Nef polyprotein of clade B with or without a drug to reactivate latent HIV-1 (disulfiram) were assessed. HIV-1-infected patients were randomized to receive three injections of MVA-B (n = 20) or placebo (n = 10). Twelve patients (eight who received vaccine and four who were given placebo) received a fourth dose of MVA-B followed by 3 months of disulfiram. Combined ART (cART) was discontinued 8 weeks after the last dose of MVA-B. Clinical identifier: NCT01571466. MVA-B was safe and well tolerated. A minor, but significant, increase in the T cell responses targeting vaccine inserts of Gag was observed [a median of 290, 403 and 435 spot-forming-cells/10(6) PBMCs at baseline, after two vaccinations and after three vaccinations, respectively; P = 0.02 and P = 0.04]. After interruption of cART, a modest delay in the rebound of the plasma viral load in participants receiving vaccine but not disulfiram was observed compared with placebo recipients (P = 0.01). The dynamics of the viral load rebound did not change in patients receiving MVA-B/disulfiram. No changes in the proviral reservoir were observed after disulfiram treatment. MVA-B vaccination was a safe strategy to increase Gag-specific T cell responses in chronically HIV-1-infected individuals, but it did not have a major impact on the latent reservoir or the rebound of plasma viral load after interruption of cART when given alone or in combination with disulfiram. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 02/2015; 70(6). DOI:10.1093/jac/dkv046 · 5.31 Impact Factor
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    CROI 2015; 02/2015
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    ABSTRACT: Few randomized clinical trials have investigated antiretroviral regimens in very advanced HIV-1-infected patients. The objective was to study the immune reconstitution in very immunosuppressed antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-1-infected individuals by comparing an efavirenz-based regimen with 2 ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor regimens. Randomized, controlled, open-label multicenter clinical trial. Eighty-nine HIV-1-infected antiretroviral-naïve patients with <100 CD4 cells/mm were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to efavirenz (n=29), atazanavir/ritonavir (n=30), or lopinavir/ritonavir (n=30) combined with tenofovir plus emtricitabine. The primary outcome was median increase in CD4 cell count at week 48. Secondary endpoints were the proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL, adverse events, disease progression, and death. In the on-treatment analysis, the median (interquartile range) increase in the CD4 count after 48 weeks was +193 (129-349) cells/µL in the efavirenz arm, +197 (146-238) cells/µL in the ritonavir-boosted atazanavir arm, and +205 (178-327) cells/µL in the ritonavir-boosted lopinavir arm (P=0.73). The percentage of patients achieving viral suppression was similar in all 3 treatment arms at 48 weeks (efavirenz, 85.71% [95%CI, 68.5-94.3]; atazanavir, 80% [95%CI, 62.7-90.5]; and lopinavir, 82.8% [95%CI, 65.5-92.4]; p=0.88). Bacterial translocation, inflammation, immune activation, and apoptotic markers-but not D-dimer-declined significantly and similarly in the 3 treatment arms. Adverse events had a similar incidence in all 3 antiretroviral regimens. No patients died. The immune reconstitution induced by an efavirenz-based regimen in very advanced HIV-1-infected patients was similar to that induced by a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimen ( registration number: NCT00532168).
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 02/2015; 69(2). DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000567 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fixed-dose combination antiretroviral therapy administered as a single-tablet regimen (STR) may improve virologic suppression rates. The effect of STRs on development of resistance when virologic failure occurs on STRs is not known. To compare the rate of emergent drug resistance mutations (DRMs) on first-line therapy with coformulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)/efavirenz (EFV) as an STR versus TDF, lamivudine (3TC) or FTC, and EFV given as non-STR. Patients from eight cohorts and four randomized clinical trials who received first-line antiretroviral therapy with Atripla (STR group) or with TDF + FTC/3TC + EFV (non-STR group) were eligible if a genotypic resistance test was available immediately after the first episode of viral failure. The DRM list from the 2013 version of IAS-USA was used. One hundred and eighty-six patients were included in the final analysis, 122 (65.6%) from eight cohorts and 64 (34.1%) from four randomized clinical trials. The overall proportion of patients with at least one DRM at viral failure was 67.7%, including 53.4% (31 of 58) in the STR group vs. 74.2% (95 of 128) in the non-STR group (P = 0.005). Among patients exclusively from cohorts, at least one DRM was detected in 53.4% (31 of 58) in the STR group vs. 78.1% (50 of 64) in the non-STR group (P = 0.004). DRMs for individual drugs were: TDF, 15.5 vs. 16.4% (P = 0.87); 3TC/FTC, 31 vs. 35.2% (P = 0.58); and NNRTI, 51.7 vs. 65.6% (P = 0.07). The proportion of patients with an M184V/I among the 128 patients who received FTC was 32.8 vs. 36.2% among the 58 treated with 3TC (P = 0.65). Compared to patients receiving the STR-Atripla, those receiving the same components individually in a non-STR regimen have a statistically significantly increased risk of selecting for DRMs associated with their drugs on failure.
    AIDS 11/2014; 28(17):1. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000424 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It is unclear whether metabolic or body composition effects differ between protease inhibitor-based regimens recommended for initial treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Methods: ATADAR is a phase 4, open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Stable antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults were randomly assigned to atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg or darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg in combination with tenofovir/emtricitabine daily. Predefined endpoints were treatment or virological failure, drug discontinuation due to adverse effects, and laboratory and body composition changes at 96 weeks. Results: At 96 weeks, 56 (62%) atazanavir/ritonavir and 62 (71%) darunavir/ritonavir patients remained free of treatment failure (estimated difference 8.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.6 to 21.6) and 71 (79%) atazanavir/ritonavir and 75 (85%) darunavir/ritonavir patients remained free of virological failure (estimated difference 6.3%; 95% CI, -.5 to 17.6). Seven patients discontinued atazanavir/ritonavir and 5 discontinued darunavir/ritonavir due to adverse effects. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol similarly increased in both arms, but there was a greater increase in triglycerides in the atazanavir/ritonavir arm. At 96 weeks, body fat (estimated difference 2862.2 gr; 95% CI, 726.7 to 4997.7; P = .0090), limb fat (estimated difference 1403.3 gr; 95% CI, 388.4 to 2418.2; P = .0071), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (estimated difference 28.4 cm(2); 95% CI, 1.9 to 55.0; P = .0362) increased more in the atazanavir/ritonavir arm than in darunavir/ritonavir arm. Body fat changes in the atazanavir/ritonavir arm were associated with higher insulin resistance. Conclusions: We found no major differences between atazanavir/ritonavir and darunavir/ritonavir in efficacy, clinically relevant side effects, or plasma cholesterol fractions. However, atazanavir/ritonavir led to higher triglycerides and more total and subcutaneous fat than darunavir/ritonavir. Also, fat gains with atazanavir/ritonavir were associated with insulin resistance. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01274780.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 11/2014; 60(5). DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu898 · 8.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Treatment with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors and nucleoside analogues frequently leads to rises in lipids, which might increase the cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to describe changes in lipid levels among HIV positive patients participating in the GARDEL study. Materials and Methods The GARDEL study compared the efficacy and safety of a dual therapy (DT) combination of LPV/r 400/100 mg BID+3TC 150 mg BID to a triple therapy (TT) with LPV/r 400/100 mg BID+3TC or FTC and a third investigator-selected NRTI in fixed-dose combination among HIV+ treatment naïve patients. We compared changes in lipid levels from baseline to week 48 in both arms. Results Patient's characteristics were well balanced regarding mean baseline total cholesterol (157 mg/dL DT, 154 mg/dL TT), triglycerides (142 mg/dL DT, 139 mg/Dl TT), LDL-C (94 mg/dL DT, 91 mg/dL TT) and HDL-C (36 mg/dL DT, 35 mg/dL TT). Changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C were higher in DT arm, compared to TT (32% DT vs 26% TT for cholesterol; 25% DT vs 16% TT for LDL and 33% DT vs 28% TT for HDL). Increase in triglycerides was higher in TT compared to DT (55% DT vs 92% TT) (Table 1). In TT arm LDL-C and total cholesterol elevations were lower among patients receiving TDF compared to those treated with ZDV or ABC. Conclusion Changes in lipid parameters were observed in both arms. Albeit the increase was numerically higher for cholesterol (total and LDL-C) in DT arm while TT arm had higher increases in TG; no difference was observed when week 48 values were compared with the NCEP ATP III goals for cardiovascular risk reduction [1]. So, the DT strategy, even missing the lipid-lowering effect observed with tenofovir, does not seem to add significant risk to patients treated with this novel strategy.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19554. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19554 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Proteinuria (PTU) is an important marker for the development and progression of renal disease, cardiovascular disease and death, but there is limited information about the prevalence and factors associated with confirmed PTU in predominantly white European HIV+ persons, especially in those with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Patients and methods: Baseline was defined as the first of two consecutive dipstick urine protein (DPU) measurements during prospective follow-up >1/6/2011 (when systematic data collection began). PTU was defined as two consecutive DUP >1+ (>30 mg/dL) >3 months apart; persons with eGFR <60 at either DPU measurement were excluded. Logistic regression investigated factors associated with PTU. Results: A total of 1,640 persons were included, participants were mainly white (n=1,517, 92.5%), male (n=1296, 79.0%) and men having sex with men (n=809; 49.3%). Median age at baseline was 45 (IQR 37-52 years), and CD4 was 570 (IQR 406-760/mm(3)). The median baseline date was 2/12 (IQR 11/11-6/12), and median eGFR was 99 (IQR 88-109 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Sixty-nine persons had PTU (4.2%, 95% CI 3.2-4.7%). Persons with diabetes had increased odds of PTU, as were those with a prior non-AIDS (1) or AIDS event and those with prior exposure to indinavir. Among females, those with a normal eGFR (>90) and those with prior abacavir use had lower odds of PTU (Figure 1). Conclusions: One in 25 persons with eGFR>60 had confirmed proteinuria at baseline. Factors associated with PTU were similar to those associated with CKD. The lack of association with antiretrovirals, particularly tenofovir, may be due to the cross-sectional design of this study, and additional follow-up is required to address progression to PTU in those without PTU at baseline. It may also suggest other markers are needed to capture the deteriorating renal function associated with antiretrovirals may be needed at higher eGFRs. Our findings suggest PTU is an early marker for impaired renal function.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19561. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19561 · 5.09 Impact Factor
  • Laura Zamora · José M Gatell ·
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    ABSTRACT: Triple combination regimens consisting of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus 2 nucleoside/nucleotide analogs continue to be a valid option in initial antiretroviral therapy. Other protease inhibitors boosted with ritonavir (and in future with cobicistat) have been introduced, as well as other non-nucleoside analogs (rilpivirin) and 3 integrase inhibitors. None of the new regimens have shown superiority over LPV/r or comparisons are lacking. Therefore, regimens including LPV/r continue to be recommended as initial first-line or alternative strategies in most treatment guidelines. Dual combinations with LPV/r (plus raltegravir or lamivudine) are described in another article and can provide a similar response rate to triple combinations, better tolerance, and an improved cost-efficacy ratio, both for initial therapy and in simplification strategies. In contrast, LPV/r or darunavir/r monotherapy does not seem an acceptable option in treatment-naïve patients and is becoming increasingly less acceptable in simplification strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 11/2014; 32S3:2-6. DOI:10.1016/S0213-005X(14)70160-0 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    Ana Del Río · Oriol Gasch · Asuncion Moreno · Carmen Peña · Jordi Cuquet · Dolors Soy · Carlos A Mestres · Cristina Suarez · Juan C Pare · Fe Tubau · [...] · O. Gasch · C. Suarez · C. Peña · M. Pujol · J. Ariza · J. Carratalà · F. Gudiol · J. Cuquet · C. Martí · M. Mijana ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background. There is an urgent need for alternative rescue therapies in invasive infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of the combination of fosfomycin and imipenem as rescue therapy for MRSA infective endocarditis and complicated bacteremia. Methods. The trial was conducted between 2001 and 2010 in 3 Spanish hospitals. Adult patients with complicated MRSA bacteremia or endocarditis requiring rescue therapy were eligible for the study. Treatment with fosfomycin (2 g/6 hours IV) plus imipenem (1 g/6 hours IV) was started and monitored. The primary efficacy endpoints were percentage of sterile blood cultures at 72 hours and clinical success rate assessed at the test-of-cure visit (45 days after the end of therapy). Results. The combination was administered in 12 patients with endocarditis, 2 with vascular graft infection, and 2 with complicated bacteremia. Therapy had previously failed with vancomycin in 9 patients, daptomycin in 2, and sequential antibiotics in 5. Blood cultures were negative 72 hours after the first dose of the combination in all cases. The success rate was 69%, and only 1 of 5 deaths was related to the MRSA infection. Although the combination was safe in most patients (94%), a patient with liver cirrhosis died of multiorgan failure secondary to sodium overload. There were no episodes of breakthrough bacteremia or relapse. Conclusions. Fosfomycin plus imipenem was an effective and safe combination when used as rescue therapy for complicated MRSA bloodstream infections and deserves further clinical evaluation as initial therapy in these infections.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 07/2014; 59(8). DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu580 · 8.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess changes in antibiotic resistance, epidemiology, and outcome among patients with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (EFIE) and to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin (A+G) with that of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone (A+C). The study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of EFIE patients treated in our center from 1997 to 2011. Thirty patients were initially treated with A+G (ampicillin 2 g/4 h and gentamicin 3 mg/kg/d) and 39 with A+C (ampicillin 2 g/4 h and ceftriaxone 2 g/12 h) for 4-6 weeks. Increased rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR: gentamicin MIC ≥512 mg/L, streptomycin MIC ≥1024 mg/L or both) were observed in recent years (24% in 1997-2006 and 49% in 2007-2011; P=0.03). The use of A+C increased over time: 1997-2001, 4/18 (22%); 2002-2006, 5/16 (31%); and 2007-2011, 30/35 (86%) (P<0.001). Renal failure developed in 65% of the A+G group and in 34% of the A+C group (P=0.014). Thirteen patients (43%) in the A+G group had to discontinue treatment, whereas only 1 patient (3%) treated with A+C had to discontinue treatment (P<0.001). Only development of heart failure and previous chronic renal failure were independently associated with one-year mortality, while the individual antibiotic regimen (A+C vs. A+G) did not affect outcome (OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.2-2.2, P=0.549). Our study shows that the prevalence of HLAR EFIE has increased significantly in recent years and that alternative treatment with A+C is safer than A+G, with similar clinical outcomes, although the sample size is too small to draw firm conclusions. Randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these results.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 07/2014; 20(12). DOI:10.1111/1469-0691.12756 · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has helped to improved control of the HIV infection, and has led to a progressively older population with the infection having a life expectancy quite similar to that of the general population. On the other hand, it is also known that HIV infection, even in patients with undetectable viral loads and good immunity, carries an increased cardiovascular risk, as well as an increased incidence of certain cancers. Therefore, the majority of HIV-infected patients receive several drugs (either prescribed by the physician or self-administered) combined with antiretrovirals. This article reviews the interactions between antiretrovirals and other drugs that can cause significant damage to patients, or even be life-threatening and of whom clinicians, especially those not directly treating HIV-infected patients, should be aware. A review is also presented on the implications of interactions between antiretrovirals and other drugs in special situations, such as the co-administration with cytostatics, immunesuppressants used in solid organ transplantation, or patients receiving new treatments for hepatitisC. Generally, combinations with two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors and raltegravir (or in the near future, dolutegravir) are those with less potential for clinically significant interactions.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 06/2014; 33(7). DOI:10.1016/j.eimc.2014.02.020 · 2.17 Impact Factor

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13k Citations
1,999.25 Total Impact Points


  • 1996-2015
    • Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
      • Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1995-2015
    • University of Barcelona
      • Department of Medicine
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1999-2014
    • IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2012
    • TAISS - Técnicas Avanzadas de Investigación en Servicios de Salud
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2011
    • Spanish National Research Council
      • Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology (CIB)
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2002-2011
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Medical School
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
    • Instituto de Salud Carlos III
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2009
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2006
    • The University of Calgary
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 2005
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2004
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Hôpital Bichat - Claude-Bernard (Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Nord Val de Seine)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003
    • University Hospital Vall d'Hebron
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1999-2001
    • University of Lausanne
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2000
    • Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol
      Badalona, Catalonia, Spain