[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malnutrition screening among nursing home residents is often performed with tools developed for use among older subjects, and sometimes with tools designed for an adult population. Only a few tools have been designed specifically for the nursing home setting. This systematic review assesses the criterion and predictive validity of malnutrition screening tools used in nursing homes.
The databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE were searched on January 30, 2013, for manuscripts including search terms for malnutrition, screening or assessment tools, and setting. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they expressed criterion validity (how well can a tool assess nutritional status) or predictive validity (how well can a tool predict clinical outcome) of malnutrition screening tools in a nursing home population. Included were articles that had been published in the English, German, French, Dutch, Spanish, or Portuguese language.
The search yielded 8313 references. Of these, 24 met the inclusion criteria and were available; 2 extra manuscripts were retrieved by reference checking. Twenty tools were identified. Seventeen studies reported on criterion validity, and 9 on predictive validity. Four of the tools had been designed specifically for use in long term care. None of the tools, not even the ones specifically designed for the nursing home setting, performed (on average) better than "fair" in either assessing the residents' nutritional status or in predicting malnutrition-related outcomes.
The use of existing screening tools for the nursing home population carries limitations, as none performs better than "fair" in assessing nutritional status or in predicting outcome. Also, no superior tool can be pointed out. This systematic review implies that further considerations regarding malnutrition screening among nursing home residents are required.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 11/2013; · 5.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since 2007, systematic screening for undernutrition has become a performance indicator (PI) for hospitals within the National Benchmarks on Quality of Care of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate (HCI). Its introduction was guided by a national implementation program. The aim of this study was to evaluate the screening results from 2007 to 2010 and to identify predictive factors for achieved screening results.
All 97 Dutch hospitals were obliged to report screening results to the HCI. An additional questionnaire was developed to determine hospital characteristics, including hospital type, size, participation in implementation program, screening tool used, use of electronic records, presence of hospital-wide or ward task forces, and protocol-defined referral. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify predictive factors for the obtained screening results in 2010.
The mean screening percentage increased from 51 ± 28% in 2007 (n = 75 hospitals, n = 340,000 patients) to 72 ± 17% in 2010 (n = 97; n = 1,050,000) (p < 0.01). Eighty-one hospitals returned the questionnaire. A higher screening percentage was associated with more clinical admissions (highest vs. lowest tertile: β = 14.0, 95% CI 3.9-20.5; p < 0.01; middle vs. lowest: β = 7.3, -0.8 to 15.6; p = 0.05), presence of protocol-defined referral to a dietician (β = 10.5, 2.9-18.0; p < 0.01), and use of the SNAQ screening tool (vs. MUST: β = 9.1, 1.7-16.6; p = 0.02).
Screening percentages have increased significantly since the introduction of the PI. Screening was more frequent in hospitals which have more patient admissions, protocol-defined referral to a dietician, and who use the SNAQ screening tool. This information may assist in improving Dutch screening rates and in implementation in other countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few data is available on the nutritional status of geriatric outpatients. The aim of this study is to describe the nutritional status and its clinical correlates of independently living geriatric older individuals visiting a geriatric outpatient department. METHODS: From 2005 to 2010, all consecutive patients visiting a geriatric outpatient department in the Netherlands were screened for malnutrition. Nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Determinants of malnutrition were categorized into somatic factors (medicine use, comorbidity, walking aid, falls, urinary incontinence), psychological factors (GDS-15 depression scale, MMSE cognition scale), functional status (Activities of Daily Life (ADL), Instrumental ADL (IADL)), social factors (children, marital status), and life style factors (smoking, alcohol use). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age and sex and all other risk factors were performed to identify correlates of malnutrition (MNA < 17). RESULTS: Included were 448 outpatients, mean (SD) age was 80 (7) years and 38% was men. Prevalence of malnutrition and risk for malnutrition were 17% and 58%. Depression, being IADL dependent, and smoking were independently associated with an increased risk of malnutrition with OR's (95%CI) of 2.6 (1.3-5.3), 2.8 (1.3-6.4), 5.5 (1.9-16.4) respectively. Alcohol use was associated with a decreased risk (OR 0.4 (0.2-0.9)). CONCLUSION: Malnutrition is highly prevalent among geriatric outpatients and is independently associated with depressive symptoms, poor functional status, and life style factors. Our results emphasize the importance of integrating nutritional assessment within a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Future longitudinal studies should be performed to examine the effects of causal relationships and multifactorial interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Numerous nutrition screening tools for the hospital setting have been developed. The aim of this systematic review is to study construct or criterion validity and predictive validity of nutrition screening tools for the general hospital setting. METHODS: A systematic review of English, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch articles identified via MEDLINE, Cinahl and EMBASE (from inception to the 2nd of February 2012). Additional studies were identified by checking reference lists of identified manuscripts. Search terms included key words for malnutrition, screening or assessment instruments, and terms for hospital setting and adults. Data were extracted independently by 2 authors. Only studies expressing the (construct, criterion or predictive) validity of a tool were included. RESULTS: 83 studies (32 screening tools) were identified: 42 studies on construct or criterion validity versus a reference method and 51 studies on predictive validity on outcome (i.e. length of stay, mortality or complications). None of the tools performed consistently well to establish the patients' nutritional status. For the elderly, MNA performed fair to good, for the adults MUST performed fair to good. SGA, NRS-2002 and MUST performed well in predicting outcome in approximately half of the studies reviewed in adults, but not in older patients. CONCLUSIONS: Not one single screening or assessment tool is capable of adequate nutrition screening as well as predicting poor nutrition related outcome. Development of new tools seems redundant and will most probably not lead to new insights. New studies comparing different tools within one patient population are required.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD). This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current "early diagnosed" untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years) and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy) D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet). Almost all CD-patients (87%) had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss), 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5), and 29% of the patients were overweight (BMI > 25). Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher) grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired) nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly "early diagnosed" CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: The recently proposed definitions of 'pre-cachexia' and 'cachexia' might offer new possibilities for the detection of malnutrition in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The prevalence of different components of nutritional status and the compiled definitions of 'precachexia' and 'cachexia' were measured in a cohort of 103 patients with moderately active RA. Nutritional status was determined by measuring unintentional weight loss, BMI, and muscle strength. Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) was used to determine fat free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index. In addition, appetite, pain, fatigue, and inflammatory activity were assessed. The prevalence of 'pre-cachexia' and 'cachexia' was calculated from different combinations of these parameters. RESULTS: 20% of the study population had a low FFMI (<10th percentile), and 95% had a decreased muscle strength (<lowest tertile). Weight loss and loss of appetite, both essential elements in the newly proposed (pre-)cachexia definitions, were uncommon. The prevalence of 'pre-cachexia' and 'cachexia' was both 1% (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: In spite of altered body composition and impaired body function, the recently proposed definitions of both 'pre-cachexia' and 'cachexia' were unable to identify and diagnose impaired nutritional status in RA patients mainly because of low prevalences of weight loss and decreased appetite.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Predicting resting energy expenditure (REE) in malnourished hospitalized older patients is important for establishing optimal goals for nutritional intake. Measuring REE by indirect calorimetry is hardly feasible in most clinical settings. OBJECTIVE: To study the most accurate and precise REE predictive equation for malnourished older patients at hospital admission and again three months after discharge. DESIGN: Twenty-three equations based on weight, height, gender, age, fat free mass (FFM) and/or fat mass (FM) and eleven fixed factors of kcal/kg were compared to measured REE. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. Accuracy of REE equations was evaluated by the percentage patients predicted within 10% of REE measured, the mean percentage difference between predicted and measured values (bias) and the Root Mean Squared prediction Error (RMSE). RESULTS: REE was measured in 194 patients at hospital admission (mean 1473 kcal/d) and again three months after hospital discharge in 107 patients (mean 1448 kcal/d). The best equations predicted 40% accuracy at hospital admission (Lazzer, FAO/WHO-wh and Owen) and 63% three months after discharge (FAO/WHO-wh). Equations combined with FFM, height or illness factor predicted slightly better. Fixed factors produce large RMSE's. All predictive equations showed proportional bias, with overestimation of low REE values and underestimation of high REE values. Correction by regression analysis did not improve results. CONCLUSIONS: The REE predictive equations are not adequate to predict REE in malnourished hospitalized older patients. There is an urgent need for either a new accurate REE predictive equation, or accurate easy-to-use equipment to measure REE in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in hospital inpatients is high; many patients do not meet individual nutrition requirements while hospitalized. To better understand the reasons for inadequate nutrition intake, this study describes patient satisfaction, food provision, food intake, and waste of hospital meals.
Over 6 days, 150 hospital meals were weighed and nutrient composition was calculated. On return from the wards, waste was weighed. In addition, nutrition intake was compared to nutrition requirements in 42 patients. In a separate study, the authors studied patient satisfaction with the hospital food service using interviews (n = 112).
The 3 main meals accounted for a mean of 1809 ± 143 kcal and 76 ± 13 g of protein per day. In total, 38% of the food provided by the kitchen was wasted. As a consequence, the main meals supplied an average of 1105 ± 594 kcal and 47 ± 27 g of protein to patients. Sixty-one percent of patients had an energy intake <90% and 75% had a protein intake <90% of requirements. Most patients were satisfied or fairly satisfied with the choices, taste, and presentation of the main meals. Satisfaction with snack meals and information was inadequate.
The standard meals provided by the hospital kitchen provide adequate amounts of energy and protein. However, most patients do not consume complete meals. It may be concluded that food waste is largely attributed to the inadequate intake of many hospitalized patients. Patients who experienced the worst health status ate the least.
Nutrition in Clinical Practice 02/2012; 27(2):274-80. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low handgrip strength by dynamometry is associated with increased postoperative morbidity, higher mortality and reduced quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of four algorithms in diagnosing malnutrition by measuring handgrip strength.
We included 504 consecutive preoperative outpatients. Reference standard for malnutrition was defined based on percentage involuntary weight loss and BMI. Diagnostic characteristics of the handgrip strength algorithms (Álvares-da-Silva, Klidjian, Matos, Webb) were expressed by sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, false positive and negative rate.
The prevalence of malnutrition was 5.8%. Although Klidjian showed the highest sensitivity (79%, 95% CI 62%-90%), 6 out of 29 malnourished patients were falsely identified as well-nourished (false positive rate 21%, 95% CI 9%-38%). In contrast, this algorithm showed the lowest positive predictive value (8%, 95% CI 5%-13%). Matos presented the highest positive predictive value; the post-test probability increased to 13% (95% CI 8%-20%). The 1-minus negative predictive value ranged between 3% and 5% for all algorithms.
None of the algorithms derived from handgrip strength measurements was found to have a diagnostic accuracy good enough to introduce handgrip strength as a systematic institutional screening tool to detect malnutrition in individual adult preoperative elective outpatients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative screening for malnutrition has become mandatory in The Netherlands. A sensitive method to diagnose malnutrition would save time and improve effectiveness.
A prospective cross-sectional study of 488 adult elective preoperative outpatients was performed. The accuracy of self-reported height and weight was compared with measured data and 3 commonly used malnutrition screening tools. Interobserver agreement was calculated by the intraclass correlation coefficient, studied in Bland and Altman plots, and analyzed by using Cohen's κ statistic. Accuracy was expressed in sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative rates.
Differences between self-reported and measured data were significant, but clinically irrelevant, because only 1 patient was falsely identified as well nourished. Intraclass correlation coefficient for height, weight, and body mass index was high (.97-.99). Bland-Altman plots showed that the mean ± standard deviation differences and 95% limits of agreement between both methods were as follows: height, .0096 m (±.0262, -.0417 to +.0609 m); weight, -1.28 kg (±2.29, -5.76 to +3.20 kg); body mass index, -.72 kg/m(2) (±1.11, -2.92 to +1.46 kg/m(2)). The κ coefficient was .84 (95% confidence interval, .75-.94). Sensitivity was .97 and specificity was .98. Sensitivity and false-negative rates of self-reported data were better overall compared with the screening tools.
Self-reported data provide highly sensitive information to diagnose malnutrition in preoperative outpatients.
American journal of surgery 02/2012; 203(6):700-7. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: scientific evidence regarding the optimal management of malnutrition in geriatric patients is scarce. Our aim was to develop a consensus statement for geriatric hospital practice concerning six elements: (i) definition of malnutrition, (ii) screening and assessment, (iii) treatment and monitoring, (iv) roles and responsibilities of involved health care professionals, (v) communication and coordination of care between hospital and community health care professionals, (vi) quality indicators for malnutrition management.
a modified Delphi study.
eleven geriatricians with special interest in malnutrition participated. In four rounds the experts rated the relevance of 204 statements, which were based on a literature review, on a five-point Likert scale. From the responses, means and 95% CIs were calculated. Consensus was defined as a lower 95% confidence limit ≥4.0.
the panel reached consensus that malnutrition should be considered a geriatric syndrome. The nutritional status should be assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment combined with comprehensive geriatric assessment. Nutritional interventions should be combined with interventions targeting underlying factors. Specific goals for nutritional therapy and ways to achieve them were agreed upon. According to the experts, malnutrition is best managed by a multidisciplinary team for whom roles and responsibilities were specified. At discharge written information about the nutritional problem, treatment plan and goals should be provided to the patient, caregiver and community health care professionals.
this study shows that a qualitative study based on a modified Delphi technique can result in national consensus on essential ingredients for a practical malnutrition guideline for geriatric patients.
Age and Ageing 02/2012; 41(3):399-404. · 3.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of a short-term nutritional intervention with protein and vitamin D on falls in malnourished older adults.
Randomized controlled trial.
From hospital admission until 3 months after discharge.
Malnourished older adults (≥ 60) newly admitted to an acute hospital (n = 210).
Participants were randomized to receive nutritional intervention (energy- and protein-enriched diet, oral nutritional supplements, calcium-vitamin D supplement, telephone counseling by a dietitian) for 3 months after discharge or usual care.
Number of participants who fell, fall incidents, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and dietary intake. Measurements were performed on admission to hospital and 3 months after discharge.
Three months after discharge, 10 participants (10%) in the intervention group had fallen at least once, compared with 24 (23%) in the control group (hazard ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.19-0.86). There were 57 fall incidents (16 in the intervention group; 41 in the control group). A significantly higher intake of energy (280 kcal, 95% CI = 37-524 kcal) and protein (11 g, 95% CI = 1-25 g) and significantly higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (10.9 nmol/L, 95% CI = 2.9-18.9 nmol/L) were found in participants in the intervention group than in controls.
A short-term nutritional intervention consisting of oral nutritional supplements and calcium and vitamin D supplementation and supported by dietetic counseling in malnourished older adults decreases the number of patients who fall and fall incidents.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 02/2012; 60(4):691-9. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is no valid, fast and easy-to-apply set of criteria to determine (risk of) undernutrition in community-dwelling older persons. The aim of this study was to develop and validate such criteria.
Selection of potential anthropometric and undernutrition-related items was based on consensus literature. The criteria were developed using 15-year mortality in community-dwelling older persons ≥ 65 years (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, n = 1687) and validated in an independent sample (InCHIANTI, n = 1142).
Groups distinguished were: (1) undernutrition (mid-upper arm circumference <25 cm or involuntary weight loss ≥4 kg/6 months); (2) risk of undernutrition (poor appetite and difficulties climbing staircase); and (3) no undernutrition (others). Respective hazard ratio's for 15-year mortality were: (1) 2.22 (95% CI 1.83-2.69); and (2) 1.57 (1.22-2.01) ((3) = reference). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.55. Comparable results were found stratified by sex, excluding cancer/obstructive lung disease/(past) smoking, using 6-year mortality, and applying results to the InCHIANTI study (hazard ratio's 2.12 and 2.46, AUC 0.59).
The developed set of criteria (SNAQ⁶⁵⁺) for determining (risk of) undernutrition in community-dwelling older persons shows good face validity and moderate predictive validity based on the consistent association with mortality in a second independent study sample.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Older people are vulnerable to malnutrition which leads to increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nutritional supplementation from a societal perspective.
This randomized controlled trial included hospital admitted malnourished elderly (≥ 60 y) patients. Patients in the intervention group received nutritional supplementation (energy and protein enriched diet, oral nutritional support, calcium-vitamin D supplement, telephone counselling by a dietician) until three months after discharge from hospital. Patients in the control group received usual care (control). Primary outcomes were Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), physical activities and functional limitations. Measurements were performed at hospital admission and three months after discharge. Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle and multiple imputation was used to impute missing data. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated and bootstrapping was applied to evaluate cost-effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness was expressed by cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves.
210 patients were included, 105 in each group. After three months, no statistically significant differences in quality of life and physical activities were observed between groups. Functional limitations decreased significantly more in the intervention group (mean difference -0.72, 95% CI-1.15; -0.28). There were no differences in costs between groups. Cost-effectiveness for QALYs and physical activities could not be demonstrated. For functional limitations we found a 0.95 probability that the intervention is cost-effective in comparison with usual care for ceiling ratios > €6500.
A multi-component nutritional intervention to malnourished elderly patients for three months after hospital discharge leads to significant improvement in functional limitations and is neutral in costs. A follow-up of three months is probably too short to detect changes in QALYs or physical activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: n-3 (omega-3) Fatty acids (FAs) may have beneficial effects in patients with cancer or in patients who undergo surgery or critical care.
Our aim was to systematically review the effects of oral or enteral and parenteral n-3 FA supplementation on clinical outcomes and to describe the incorporation of n-3 FAs into phospholipids of plasma, blood cells, and mucosal tissue and the subsequent washout in these patients.
We investigated the supplementation of n-3 FAs in these patients by using a systematic literature review.
In cancer, the oral or enteral supplementation of n-3 FAs contributed to the maintenance of body weight and quality of life but not to survival. We did not find any studies on parenteral supplementation of n-3 FAs in cancer. In surgical oncology, we did not find any studies on enteral supplementation of n-3 FAs. However, postoperative parenteral supplementation in surgical oncology may reduce the length of a hospital stay. For general surgery, we did not find any studies on enteral supplementation of n-3 FAs, and evidence on parenteral supplementation was insufficient. In critical care, enteral supplementation of n-3 FAs had beneficial effects on clinical outcomes; evidence on parenteral supplementation in critical care was inconsistent. The incorporation of n-3 FAs in plasma and blood cells was slower with enteral supplementation (4-7 d) than with parenteral supplementation (1-3 d). The washout was 5-7 d.
This review shows the beneficial effects of n-3 FA supplementation in cancer, surgical oncology, and critical care patients. Supplementation in these specific patient populations could be considered with the route of administration taken into account.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 09/2011; 94(5):1248-65. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Older people are vulnerable to malnutrition, which leads to negative outcomes. This study evaluates the effectiveness of nutritional supplementation in malnourished elderly patients after hospital discharge.
Hospital-admitted malnourished elderly patients (≥ 60 years) were randomized to receive either nutritional supplementation (energy and protein enriched diet, oral nutritional support, calcium-vitamin D supplement, telephone counseling by a dietitian) for 3 months postdischarge or usual care. Outcomes were functional limitations, physical performance, physical activities, body weight, fat-free mass, and handgrip strength. Measurements were performed at hospital admission (baseline) and at 3 months after discharge. Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle.
A total of 210 patients were included, 105 in each group. Body weight increased more in the intervention group than in the control group; this was significant for the highest body weight category (mean difference 3.4 kg, 95% CI 0.2-6.6). Functional limitations decreased more (mean difference -0.5 (95% CI -1.0-0.1) in the intervention group than in the control group. When excluding patients who had already received nutritional support before the start of the study, this reached significance. No significant differences could be demonstrated for physical performance, physical activities, fat-free mass, or handgrip strength.
Three months of oral nutritional support to malnourished elderly decreased functional limitations and increased body weight. It can be questioned if a follow-up of only 3 months was not too short to detect differences on physical performance and physical activities as well.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 05/2011; 12(4):295-301. · 5.30 Impact Factor