[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of lactose at the concentration typically found in milk (134 mM) on the ability of ricin to inhibit protein synthesis in HeLa cells was studied. Ricin (0.001 to 300 μg/ml) that was either not treated or treated with 134 mM lactose was added to test tubes containing 1 ml of HeLa cells (approximately 3 × 10(5) cells in a low-leucine medium). After 2 h of incubation at 37°C, 0.5 μCi of L-[U-(14)C]-leucine was added to each tube and incubated for another 60 min. The cells were harvested by centrifugation and lysed, and cellular proteins were separated. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the proteins was determined by liquid scintillation. The biological activity of ricin, i. e., the amount of radioactivity in a sample relative to that of the control (cells not treated with ricin), was calculated for each treatment. The inhibitory effect of 134 mM lactose on the biological activity of ricin was only significant at concentrations of ricin below 1 μg/ml. At higher ricin concentrations, the effect of 134 mM lactose decreased as the concentration of ricin increased, resulting in an increase in the inhibition of proteins synthesis. Our results also indicated that bovine milk, when used in place of 134 mM lactose, was more effective for reducing the activity of ricin at concentrations below 1 μg/ml but was ineffective against ricin concentrations greater than 1 μg/ml. These results suggest that milk may not protect against ricin intoxication at the concentration (0.89 μg/ml) equivalent to the lowest limit of its 50 % lethal dose for a 20-kg child consuming 225 ml (8 oz) of milk.
Journal of food protection 12/2013; 76(12):2037-9. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, saxitoxin dihydrochloride in skim milk was reacted with sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide to yield nontoxic 8-amino-6-hydroxymethyl-iminopurine-3(2H)-propionic acid (AHIPA), which was quantified by fluorescence spectroscopy using excitation and emission wavelengths of 330 and 425 nm, respectively. Samples of saxitoxin dihydrochloride (in 20% ethanol, vol/vol) were used as controls. The limits of detection of AHIPA, based on the concentration of saxitoxin prior to inactivation, were 5 and 10 μg/ml for the control and skim milk, respectively. These values are considerably below the concentration of saxitoxin that corresponds to the lethal dosage of 1 mg for an adult of average weight (70 kg). The inactivation of saxitoxin proceeded at a lower rate in skim milk than in the control, as its reaction rate constant was only 0.004 min(-1) compared with 0.011 min(-1) for the control. We were unable to detect AHIPA in 2% milk contaminated with saxitoxin because of possible interference from what we believed were products of secondary reactions involving milk fat and sodium hydroxide. Our results also indicated that the conversion of saxitoxin to AHIPA increased initially with temperature up to 40°C but decreased thereafter. We observed a decrease in the formation of AHIPA when the concentration of hydrogen peroxide was increased except at 22°C, where there was an initial increase in AHIPA formation between 1.2 and 2.4 mg/ml hydrogen peroxide but its formation decreased thereafter.
Journal of food protection 06/2012; 75(6):1113-6. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to compare the identification of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) based on its specific biological activity and based on results of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Stx1 was thermally treated for various periods in phosphate-buffered saline, milk, and orange juice. The residual Stx1 concentration was determined with the commercial ELISA kit, and its residual enzymatic activity (amount of adenine released from a 2,551-bp DNA substrate) was determined with a biological activity assay (BAA). Regression analysis indicated that the inactivation of Stx1 as a function of time followed first-order kinetics. The half-lives determined at 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85°C were 9.96, 3.19, 2.67, 0.72, 0.47, and 0.29 min, respectively, using the BAA. The half-lives determined by the ELISA with thermal treatments at 70, 75, 80, and 85°C were 40.47, 11.03, 3.64, and 1.40 min, respectively. The Z, Q(10), and Arrhenius activation energy values derived by both assays were dissimilar, indicating that the rate of inactivation of the active site of Stx1 was less sensitive to temperature change than was denaturation of the epitope(s) used in the ELISA. These values were 10.28°C and 9.40 and 54.70 kcal/mol, respectively, with the ELISA and 16°C and 4.11 and 34 kcal/mol, respectively, with the BAA. Orange juice enhanced Stx1 inactivation as a function of increasing temperature, whereas inactivation in 2% milk was not very much different from that in phosphate-buffered saline. Our investigation indicates that the ELISA would be a reliable method for detecting the residual toxicity of heat-treated Stx1 because the half-lives determined with the ELISA were greater than those determined with the BAA (faster degradation) at all temperatures and were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.994) with those determined with the BAA.
Journal of food protection 06/2012; 75(6):1036-42. · 1.83 Impact Factor