[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The leaves of the Coriandrum sativum plant, known as cilantro or coriander, are widely used in many cuisines around the world. However, far from being a benign culinary herb, cilantro can be polarizing—many people love it while others claim that it tastes or smells foul, often like soap or dirt. This soapy or pungent aroma is largely attributed to several aldehydes present in cilantro. Cilantro preference is suspected to have a genetic component, yet to date nothing is known about specific mechanisms.
Here, we present the results of a genome-wide association study among 14,604 participants of European ancestry who reported whether cilantro tasted soapy, with replication in a distinct set of 11,851 participants who declared whether they liked cilantro. We find a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly associated with soapy-taste detection that is confirmed in the cilantro preference group. This SNP, rs72921001 (p = 6.4 × 10−9, odds ratio 0.81 per A allele), lies within a cluster of olfactory receptor genes on chromosome 11. Among these olfactory receptor genes is OR6A2, which has a high binding specificity for several of the aldehydes that give cilantro its characteristic odor. We also estimate the heritability of cilantro soapy-taste detection in our cohort, showing that the heritability tagged by common SNPs is low, about 0.087.
These results confirm that there is a genetic component to cilantro taste perception and suggest that cilantro dislike may stem from genetic variants in olfactory receptors. We propose that one of a cluster of olfactory receptor genes, perhaps OR6A2, may be the olfactory receptor that contributes to the detection of a soapy smell from cilantro in European populations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic disease is very common and carries substantial public-health burdens. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide associations with self-reported cat, dust-mite and pollen allergies in 53,862 individuals. We used generalized estimating equations to model shared and allergy-specific genetic effects. We identified 16 shared susceptibility loci with association P < 5 × 10(-8), including 8 loci previously associated with asthma, as well as 4p14 near TLR1, TLR6 and TLR10 (rs2101521, P = 5.3 × 10(-21)); 6p21.33 near HLA-C and MICA (rs9266772, P = 3.2 × 10(-12)); 5p13.1 near PTGER4 (rs7720838, P = 8.2 × 10(-11)); 2q33.1 in PLCL1 (rs10497813, P = 6.1 × 10(-10)), 3q28 in LPP (rs9860547, P = 1.2 × 10(-9)); 20q13.2 in NFATC2 (rs6021270, P = 6.9 × 10(-9)), 4q27 in ADAD1 (rs17388568, P = 3.9 × 10(-8)); and 14q21.1 near FOXA1 and TTC6 (rs1998359, P = 4.8 × 10(-8)). We identified one locus with substantial evidence of differences in effects across allergies at 6p21.32 in the class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region (rs17533090, P = 1.7 × 10(-12)), which was strongly associated with cat allergy. Our study sheds new light on the shared etiology of immune and autoimmune disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myopia, or nearsightedness, is the most common eye disorder, resulting primarily from excess elongation of the eye. The etiology of myopia, although known to be complex, is poorly understood. Here we report the largest ever genome-wide association study (45,771 participants) on myopia in Europeans. We performed a survival analysis on age of myopia onset and identified 22 significant associations ([Formula: see text]), two of which are replications of earlier associations with refractive error. Ten of the 20 novel associations identified replicate in a separate cohort of 8,323 participants who reported if they had developed myopia before age 10. These 22 associations in total explain 2.9% of the variance in myopia age of onset and point toward a number of different mechanisms behind the development of myopia. One association is in the gene , which has previously been linked to abnormally small eyes; one is in a gene that forms part of the extracellular matrix (); two are in or near genes involved in the regeneration of 11-cis-retinal ( and ); two are near genes known to be involved in the growth and guidance of retinal ganglion cells (, ); and five are in or near genes involved in neuronal signaling or development. These novel findings point toward multiple genetic factors involved in the development of myopia and suggest that complex interactions between extracellular matrix remodeling, neuronal development, and visual signals from the retina may underlie the development of myopia in humans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA, male-pattern baldness) is driven by androgens, and genetic predisposition is the major prerequisite. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at eight different genomic loci are associated with AGA-development. However a significant fraction of the overall heritable risk still awaits identification. Furthermore, understanding of the pathophysiology of AGA is incomplete, and each newly associated locus may provide novel insights into contributing biological pathways. The aim of this study was to identify unknown AGA risk loci by replicating SNPs at the twelve genomic loci that showed suggestive association (5 × 10(-8)<P<10(-5)) with AGA in a recent meta-analysis. We analyzed a replication-set comprising 2,759 cases and 2,661 controls of European descent to confirm the association with AGA at these loci. Combined analysis of the replication and the meta-analysis data identified four genome-wide significant risk loci for AGA on chromosomes 2q35, 3q25.1, 5q33.3, and 12p12.1. The strongest association signal was obtained for rs7349332 (P=3.55 × 10(-15)) on chr2q35, which is located intronically in WNT10A. Expression studies in human hair follicle tissue suggest that WNT10A plays a functional role in AGA-etiology. Thus, our study provides genetic evidence supporting an involvement of WNT-signaling in AGA-development.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 28 January 2013;. doi:10.1038/jid.2013.43.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 01/2013; · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical utility of family history and genetic tests is generally well understood for simple Mendelian disorders and rare subforms of complex diseases that are directly attributable to highly penetrant genetic variants. However, little is presently known regarding the performance of these methods in situations where disease susceptibility depends on the cumulative contribution of multiple genetic factors of moderate or low penetrance. Using quantitative genetic theory, we develop a model for studying the predictive ability of family history and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based methods for assessing risk of polygenic disorders. We show that family history is most useful for highly common, heritable conditions (e.g., coronary artery disease), where it explains roughly 20%-30% of disease heritability, on par with the most successful SNP models based on associations discovered to date. In contrast, we find that for diseases of moderate or low frequency (e.g., Crohn disease) family history accounts for less than 4% of disease heritability, substantially lagging behind SNPs in almost all cases. These results indicate that, for a broad range of diseases, already identified SNP associations may be better predictors of risk than their family history-based counterparts, despite the large fraction of missing heritability that remains to be explained. Our model illustrates the difficulty of using either family history or SNPs for standalone disease prediction. On the other hand, we show that, unlike family history, SNP-based tests can reveal extreme likelihood ratios for a relatively large percentage of individuals, thus providing potentially valuable adjunctive evidence in a differential diagnosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: While some factors of breast morphology, such as density, are directly implicated in breast cancer, the relationship between breast size and cancer is less clear. Breast size is moderately heritable, yet the genetic variants leading to differences in breast size have not been identified. METHODS: To investigate the genetic factors underlying breast size, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of self-reported bra cup size, controlling for age, genetic ancestry, breast surgeries, pregnancy history and bra band size, in a cohort of 16,175 women of European ancestry. RESULTS: We identified seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with breast size (p < 5 . 10-8): rs7816345 near ZNF703, rs4849887 and (independently) rs17625845 flanking INHBB, rs12173570 near ESR1, rs7089814 in ZNF365, rs12371778 near PTHLH, and rs62314947 near AREG. Two of these seven SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with SNPs associated with breast cancer (those near 1 ESR1 and PTHLH), and a third (ZNF365) is near, but not in LD with, a breast cancer SNP. The other three loci (ZNF703, INHBB, and AREG) have strong links to breast cancer, estrogen regulation, and breast development. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide insight into the genetic factors underlying normal breast development and show that some of these factors are shared with breast cancer. While these results do not directly support any possible epidemiological relationships between breast size and cancer, this study may contribute to a better understanding of the subtle interactions between breast morphology and breast cancer risk.
BMC Medical Genetics 06/2012; 13(1):53. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a highly heritable condition and the most common form of hair loss in humans. Susceptibility loci have been described on the X chromosome and chromosome 20, but these loci explain a minority of its heritable variance. We conducted a large-scale meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association studies for early-onset AGA in 12,806 individuals of European ancestry. While replicating the two AGA loci on the X chromosome and chromosome 20, six novel susceptibility loci reached genome-wide significance (p = 2.62×10⁻⁹-1.01×10⁻¹²). Unexpectedly, we identified a risk allele at 17q21.31 that was recently associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) at a genome-wide significant level. We then tested the association between early-onset AGA and the risk of PD in a cross-sectional analysis of 568 PD cases and 7,664 controls. Early-onset AGA cases had significantly increased odds of subsequent PD (OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.55, p = 8.9×10⁻³). Further, the AGA susceptibility alleles at the 17q21.31 locus are on the H1 haplotype, which is under negative selection in Europeans and has been linked to decreased fertility. Combining the risk alleles of six novel and two established susceptibility loci, we created a genotype risk score and tested its association with AGA in an additional sample. Individuals in the highest risk quartile of a genotype score had an approximately six-fold increased risk of early-onset AGA [odds ratio (OR) = 5.78, p = 1.4×10⁻⁸⁸]. Our results highlight unexpected associations between early-onset AGA, Parkinson's disease, and decreased fertility, providing important insights into the pathophysiology of these conditions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid disorder, affecting about 5% of the general population. Here we present the current largest genome-wide association study of hypothyroidism, in 3,736 cases and 35,546 controls. Hypothyroidism was assessed via web-based questionnaires. We identify five genome-wide significant associations, three of which are well known to be involved in a large spectrum of autoimmune diseases: rs6679677 near PTPN22, rs3184504 in SH2B3, and rs2517532 in the HLA class I region (p-values 2.8·10(-13), 2.6·10(-12), and 1.3·10(-8), respectively). We also report associations with rs4915077 near VAV3 (p-value 7.5·10(-10)) and rs925489 near FOXE1 (p value 2.4·10(-19)). VAV3 is involved in immune function, and FOXE1 and PTPN22 have previously been associated with hypothyroidism. Although the HLA class I region and SH2B3 have previously been linked with a number of autoimmune diseases, this is the first report of their association with thyroid disease. The VAV3 association is also novel. We also show suggestive evidence of association for hypothyroidism with a SNP in the HLA class II region (independent of the other HLA association) as well as SNPs in CAPZB, PDE8B, and CTLA4. CAPZB and PDE8B have been linked to TSH levels and CTLA4 to a variety of autoimmune diseases. These results suggest heterogeneity in the genetic etiology of hypothyroidism, implicating genes involved in both autoimmune disorders and thyroid function. Using a genetic risk profile score based on the top association from each of the five genome-wide significant regions in our study, the relative risk between the highest and lowest deciles of genetic risk is 2.0.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34442. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified several genomic regions that are associated with breast cancer risk, but these provide an explanation for only a small fraction of familial breast cancer aggregation. Genotype by environment interactions may contribute further to such explanation, and may help to refine the genomic regions of interest.
We examined genotypes for 4,988 SNPs, selected from recent genome-wide studies, and four randomized hormonal and dietary interventions among 2,166 women who developed invasive breast cancer during the intervention phase of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial (1993 to 2005), and one-to-one matched controls. These SNPs derive from 3,224 genomic regions having pairwise squared correlation (r2) between adjacent regions less than 0.2. Breast cancer and SNP associations were identified using a test statistic that combined evidence of overall association with evidence for SNPs by intervention interaction.
The combined 'main effect' and interaction test led to a focus on two genomic regions, the fibroblast growth factor receptor two (FGFR2) and the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S30 (MRPS30) regions. The ranking of SNPs by significance level, based on this combined test, was rather different from that based on the main effect alone, and drew attention to the vicinities of rs3750817 in FGFR2 and rs7705343 in MRPS30. Specifically, rs7705343 was included with several FGFR2 SNPs in a group of SNPs having an estimated false discovery rate < 0.05. In further analyses, there were suggestions (nominal P < 0.05) that hormonal and dietary intervention hazard ratios varied with the number of minor alleles of rs7705343.
Genotype by environment interaction information may help to define genomic regions relevant to disease risk. Combined main effect and intervention interaction analyses raise novel hypotheses concerning the MRPS30 genomic region and the effects of hormonal and dietary exposures on postmenopausal breast cancer risk.
Genome Medicine 06/2011; 3(6):42. · 3.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated association between common and rare sequence variants in 10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes and the severity of nausea 21 days after initiating the standard, Food and Drug Administration-approved varenicline regimen for smoking cessation. A total of 397 participants from a randomized clinical effectiveness trial with complete clinical and DNA resequencing data were included in the analysis (mean age=49.2 years; 68.0% female). Evidence for significant association between common sequence variants in CHRNB2 and nausea severity was obtained after adjusting for age, gender and correlated tests (all P(ACT)<0.05). Individuals with the minor allele of CHRNB2 variants experienced less nausea than did those without the minor allele, consistent with previously reported findings for CHRNB2 and the occurrence of nausea and dizziness as a consequence of first smoking attempt in adolescents, and with the known neurophysiology of nausea. As nausea is the most common reason for discontinuance of varenicline, further pharmacogenetic investigations are warranted.
The Pharmacogenomics Journal 05/2011; 12(4):349-58. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the cost and speed of generating genomic data have come down dramatically in recent years, the slow pace of collecting medical data for large cohorts continues to hamper genetic research. Here we evaluate a novel online framework for obtaining large amounts of medical information from a recontactable cohort by assessing our ability to replicate genetic associations using these data. Using web-based questionnaires, we gathered self-reported data on 50 medical phenotypes from a generally unselected cohort of over 20,000 genotyped individuals. Of a list of genetic associations curated by NHGRI, we successfully replicated about 75% of the associations that we expected to (based on the number of cases in our cohort and reported odds ratios, and excluding a set of associations with contradictory published evidence). Altogether we replicated over 180 previously reported associations, including many for type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, cholesterol levels, and multiple sclerosis. We found significant variation across categories of conditions in the percentage of expected associations that we were able to replicate, which may reflect systematic inflation of the effects in some initial reports, or differences across diseases in the likelihood of misdiagnosis or misreport. We also demonstrated that we could improve replication success by taking advantage of our recontactable cohort, offering more in-depth questions to refine self-reported diagnoses. Our data suggest that online collection of self-reported data from a recontactable cohort may be a viable method for both broad and deep phenotyping in large populations.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23473. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes have previously been associated with measures of nicotine dependence. We investigated the contribution of common SNPs and rare single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in nAChR genes to Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) scores in treatment-seeking smokers. Exons of 10 genes were resequenced with next-generation sequencing technology in 448 European-American participants of a smoking cessation trial, and CHRNB2 and CHRNA4 were resequenced by Sanger technology to improve sequence coverage. A total of 214 SNP/SNVs were identified, of which 19.2% were excluded from analyses because of reduced completion rate, 73.9% had minor allele frequencies <5%, and 48.1% were novel relative to dbSNP build 129. We tested associations of 173 SNP/SNVs with the FTND score using data obtained from 430 individuals (18 were excluded because of reduced completion rate) using linear regression for common, the cohort allelic sum test and the weighted sum statistic for rare, and the multivariate distance matrix regression method for both common and rare SNP/SNVs. Association testing with common SNPs with adjustment for correlated tests within each gene identified a significant association with two CHRNB2 SNPs, eg, the minor allele of rs2072660 increased the mean FTND score by 0.6 Units (P=0.01). We observed a significant evidence for association with the FTND score of common and rare SNP/SNVs at CHRNA5 and CHRNB2, and of rare SNVs at CHRNA4. Both common and/or rare SNP/SNVs from multiple nAChR subunit genes are associated with the FTND score in this sample of treatment-seeking smokers.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 11/2010; 35(12):2392-402. · 6.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Gail model is widely used for the assessment of risk of invasive breast cancer based on recognized clinical risk factors. In recent years, a substantial number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer risk have been identified. However, it remains unclear how to effectively integrate clinical and genetic risk factors for risk assessment.
Seven SNPs associated with breast cancer risk were selected from the literature and genotyped in white non-Hispanic women in a nested case-control cohort of 1664 case patients and 1636 control subjects within the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial. SNP risk scores were computed based on previously published odds ratios assuming a multiplicative model. Combined risk scores were calculated by multiplying Gail risk estimates by the SNP risk scores. The independence of Gail risk and SNP risk was evaluated by logistic regression. Calibration of relative risks was evaluated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The performance of the combined risk scores was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. The net reclassification improvement (NRI) was used to assess improvement in classification of women into low (<1.5%), intermediate (1.5%-2%), and high (>2%) categories of 5-year risk. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided.
The SNP risk score was nearly independent of Gail risk. There was good agreement between predicted and observed SNP relative risks. In the analysis for receiver operating characteristic curves, the combined risk score was more discriminating, with area under the curve of 0.594 compared with area under the curve of 0.557 for Gail risk alone (P < .001). Classification also improved for 5.6% of case patients and 2.9% of control subjects, showing an NRI value of 0.085 (P = 1.0 × 10⁻⁵). Focusing on women with intermediate Gail risk resulted in an improved NRI of 0.195 (P = 8.6 × 10⁻⁵).
Combining validated common genetic risk factors with clinical risk factors resulted in modest improvement in classification of breast cancer risks in white non-Hispanic postmenopausal women. Classification performance was further improved by focusing on women at intermediate risk.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examine the measurement properties of pooled DNA odds ratio estimates for 7,357 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in a genome-wide association study of postmenopausal breast cancer. This study involved DNA pools formed from 125 cases or 125 matched controls. Individual genotyping for these SNPs subsequently came available for a substantial majority of women included in seven pool pairs, providing the opportunity for a comparison of pooled DNA and individual odds ratio estimates and their variances. We find that the "per minor allele" odds ratio estimates from the pooled DNA comparisons agree fairly well with those from individual genotyping. Furthermore, the log-odds ratio variance estimates support a pooled DNA measurement model that we previously described, although with somewhat greater extra-binomial variation than was hypothesized in project design. Implications for the role of pooled DNA comparisons in the future genetic epidemiology research agenda are discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Women's Health Initiative dietary modification (DM) trial provided suggestive evidence of a benefit of a low-fat dietary pattern on breast cancer risk, with stronger evidence among women whose baseline diet was high in fat. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the FGFR2 gene relate strongly to breast cancer risk and could influence intervention effects.
All 48,835 trial participants were postmenopausal and ages 50 to 79 years at enrollment (1993-1998). We interrogated eight SNPs in intron 2 of the FGFR2 gene for 1,676 women who developed breast cancer during trial follow-up (1993-2005). Case-only analyses were used to estimate odds ratios for the DM intervention in relation to SNP genotype.
Odds ratios for the DM intervention did not vary significantly with the genotype for any of the eight FGFR2 SNPs (P > or = 0.18). However, odds ratios varied (P < 0.05) with the genotype of six of these SNPs, among women having baseline percent of energy from fat in the upper quartile (> or =36.8%). This variation is most evident for SNP rs3750817, with odds ratios for the DM intervention at 0, 1, and 2 minor SNP alleles of 1.06 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 0.80-1.41], 0.53 (95% CI, 0.38-0.74), and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.33-1.15). The nominal significance level for this interaction is P = 0.005, and P = 0.03 following multiple testing adjustment, with most evidence deriving from hormone receptor-positive tumors.
Invasive breast cancer odds ratios for a low-fat dietary pattern, among women whose usual diets are high in fat, seem to vary with SNP rs3750817 in the FGFR2 gene.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two recent genome-wide association studies have described associations of SNP variants in _PNPLA3_ with nonalcoholic fatty liver and plasma liver enzyme levels in population based cohorts. We investigated the contributions of these variants to clinical outcomes in Mestizo subjects with a history of excessive alcohol consumption. We show that non-synonymous variant rs738409[G] (I148M) in _PNPLA3_ is strongly associated with alcoholic liver disease and progression to alcoholic cirrhosis (unadjusted OR = 2.25, P = 1.7x10^-10^; ancestry-adjusted OR = 1.79, P = 1.9x10^-5^).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have described associations of variants in PNPLA3 with nonalcoholic fatty liver and plasma liver enzyme levels. We investigated the contributions of these variants to liver disease in Mestizo subjects with a history of alcohol dependence. We found that rs738409 in PNPLA3 is strongly associated with alcoholic liver disease and clinically evident alcoholic cirrhosis (unadjusted OR= 2.25, P=1.7 x 10(-10); ancestry-adjusted OR=1.79, P=1.9 x 10(-5)).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer concern is a major reason for the recent marked reduction in use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, although equally effective means of controlling menopausal symptoms are lacking. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene are substantially associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk and could influence hormone therapy effects.
We interrogated eight SNPs in intron 2 of the FGFR2 gene for 2,166 invasive breast cancer cases from the Women's Health Initiative clinical trial and one-to-one matched controls to confirm an association with breast cancer risk. We used case-only analyses to examine the dependence of estrogen plus progestin and estrogen-alone odds ratios on SNP genotype.
Seven FGFR2 SNPs, including six in a single linkage disequilibrium region, were found to associate strongly (P < 10(-7)) with breast cancer risk. SNP rs3750817 (minor allele T with frequency 0.39) had an estimated per-minor-allele odds ratio of 0.78, and was not in such strong linkage disequilibrium with the other SNPs. The genotype of this SNP related significantly (P < 0.05) to hormone therapy odds ratios. For estrogen plus progestin, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) at 0, 1, and 2 minor SNP alleles were 1.52 (1.14-2.02), 1.33 (1.01-1.75), and 0.69 (0.41-1.17), whereas the corresponding values for estrogen alone were 0.74 (0.51-1.09), 0.99 (0.68-1.44), and 0.34 (0.15-0.76).
Postmenopausal women having TT genotype for SNP rs3750817 have a reduced breast cancer risk and seem to experience comparatively favorable effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins are effective at lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reducing risk of cardiovascular disease, but variability in response is not well understood. To address this, 5745 individuals from the Treating to New Targets (TNT) trial were genotyped in a combination of a whole-genome and candidate gene approach to identify associations with response to atorvastatin treatment.
A total of 291 988 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 1984 individuals were analyzed for association with statin response, followed by genotyping top hits in 3761 additional individuals. None was significant at the whole-genome level in either the initial or follow-up test sets for association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride response. In addition to the whole-genome platform, 23 candidate genes previously associated with statin response were analyzed in these 5745 individuals. Three SNPs in apoE were most highly associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response, followed by 1 in PCSK9 with a similar effect size. At the candidate gene level, SNPs in HMGCR were also significant though the effect was less than with those in apoE and PCSK9. rs7412/apoE had the most significant association (P=6x10(-30)), and its high significance in the whole-genome study (P=4x10(-9)) confirmed the suitability of this population for detecting effects. Age and gender were found to influence low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to a similar extent as the most pronounced genetic effects.
Among SNPs tested with an allele frequency of at least 5%, only SNPs in apoE are found to influence statin response significantly. Less frequent variants in PCSK9 and smaller effect sizes in SNPs in HMGCR were also revealed.