J. Maíz Apellániz

University of Surrey, Guilford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (106)212.03 Total impact

  • Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 07/2015; 10(S309):153-154. DOI:10.1017/S174392131400951X
  • Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 06/2015; 9(S307):88-89. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314006322
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    ABSTRACT: We report on both high-precision photometry from the MOST space telescope and ground-based spectroscopy of the triple system delta Ori A consisting of a binary O9.5II+early-B (Aa1 and Aa2) with P = 5.7d, and a more distant tertiary (O9 IV P > 400 yrs). This data was collected in concert with X-ray spectroscopy from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Thanks to continuous coverage for 3 weeks, the MOST light curve reveals clear eclipses between Aa1 and Aa2 for the ?first time in non-phased data. From the spectroscopy we have a well constrained radial velocity curve of Aa1. While we are unable to recover radial velocity variations of the secondary star, we are able to constrain several fundamental parameters of this system and determine an approximate mass of the primary using apsidal motion. We also detected second order modulations at 12 separate frequencies with spacings indicative of tidally influenced oscillations. These spacings have never been seen in a massive binary, making this system one of only a handful of such binaries which show evidence for tidally induced pulsations.
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    ABSTRACT: Context: It appears that most (if not all) massive stars are born in multiple systems. At the same time, the most massive binaries are hard to find due to their low numbers throughout the Galaxy and the implied large distances and extinctions. AIMS: We want to study: [a] LS III +46 11, identified in this paper as a very massive binary; [b] another nearby massive system, LS III +46 12; and [c] the surrounding stellar cluster, Berkeley 90. Methods: Most of the data used in this paper are multi-epoch high-S/N optical spectra though we also use Lucky Imaging and archival photometry. The spectra are reduced with devoted pipelines and processed with our own software, such as a spectroscopic-orbit code, CHORIZOS, and MGB. Results: LS III +46 11 is identified as a new very-early-O-type spectroscopic binary [O3.5 If* + O3.5 If*] and LS III +46 12 as another early O-type system [O4.5 V((f))]. We measure a 97.2-day period for LS III +46 12 and derive minimum masses of 38.80$\pm$0.83 M_Sol and 35.60$\pm$0.77 M_Sol for its two stars. We measure the extinction to both stars, estimate the distance, search for optical companions, and study the surrounding cluster. In doing so, a variable extinction is found as well as discrepant results for the distance. We discuss possible explanations and suggest that LS III +46 12 may be a hidden binary system, where the companion is currently undetected.
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    ABSTRACT: The IACOB project is an ambitious long-term project which is contributing to step forward in our knowledge about the physical properties and evolution of Galactic massive stars. The project aims at building a large database of high-resolution, multi-epoch, spectra of Galactic OB stars, and the scientific exploitation of the database using state-of-the-art models and techniques. In this proceeding, we summarize the latest updates of the IACOB spectroscopic database and highlight some of the first scientific results from the IACOB project; we also announce the first data release and the first public version of the iacob-broad tool for the line-broadening characterization of OB-type spectra.
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    ABSTRACT: Eclipsing systems of massive stars allow one to explore the properties of their components in great detail. We perform a multi-wavelength, non-LTE analysis of the three components of the massive multiple system $\delta$ Ori A, focusing on the fundamental stellar properties, stellar winds, and X-ray characteristics of the system. The primary's distance-independent parameters turn out to be characteristic for its spectral type (O9.5 II), but usage of the ${\rm \it Hipparcos}$ parallax yields surprisingly low values for the mass, radius, and luminosity. Consistent values follow only if $\delta$ Ori lies at about twice the ${\rm \it Hipparcos}$ distance, in the vicinity of the $\sigma$-Orionis cluster. The primary and tertiary dominate the spectrum and leave the secondary only marginally detectable. We estimate the V-band magnitude difference between primary and secondary to be $\Delta V \approx 2.\!\!^{\rm m}8$. The inferred parameters suggest the secondary is an early B-type dwarf ($\approx$ B1 V), while the tertiary is an early B-type subgiant ($\approx$ B0 IV). We find evidence for rapid turbulent velocities ($\sim 200$ km ${\rm s}^{-1}$) and wind inhomogeneities, partially optically thick, in the primary's wind. The bulk of the X-ray emission likely emerges from the primary's stellar wind ($\log L_{\text{X}} / L_{\text{Bol}} \approx -6.85$), initiating close to the stellar surface at $R_0 \sim 1.1\,R_*$. Accounting for clumping, the mass-loss rate of the primary is found to be $\log \dot{M} \approx -6.4\,[M_\odot\,{\rm yr}^{-1}]$, which agrees with hydrodynamic predictions, and provides a consistent picture along the X-ray, UV, optical and radio spectral domains.
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    ABSTRACT: The stellar population of the 30 Doradus star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud contains a subset of apparently single, rapidly rotating O-type stars. The physical processes leading to the formation of this cohort are currently uncertain. One member of this group, the late O-type star VFTS 399, is found to be unexpectedly X-ray bright for its bolometric luminosity - in this study we aim to determine its physical nature and the cause of this behaviour. We find VFTS 399 to be an aperiodic photometric variable with an apparent near-IR excess. Its optical spectrum demonstrates complex emission profiles in the lower Balmer series and select HeI lines - taken together these suggest an OeBe classification. The highly variable X-ray luminosity is too great to be produced by a single star, while the hard, non-thermal nature suggests the presence of an accreting relativistic companion. Finally, the detection of periodic modulation of the X-ray lightcurve is most naturally explained under the assumption that the accretor is a neutron star. VFTS 399 appears to be the first high-mass X-ray binary identified within 30 Dor. Comparison of the current properties of VFTS 399 to binary-evolution models suggests a progenitor mass in excess of 25Msun for the putative neutron star, which may host a magnetic field comparable in strength to those of magnetars. VFTS 399 is now the second member of the cohort of rapidly rotating `single' O-type stars in 30 Dor to show evidence of binary interaction resulting in spin-up, suggesting that this may be a viable evolutionary pathway for the formation of a subset of this stellar population.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424427 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectral classifications for 438 B-type stars observed as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radial velocities are provided for 307 apparently single stars, and for 99 targets with radial-velocity variations which are consistent with them being spectroscopic binaries. We investigate the spatial distribution of the radial velocities across the 30 Dor region, and use the results to identify candidate runaway stars. Excluding potential runaways and members of two older clusters in the survey region (SL 639 and Hodge 301), we determine a systemic velocity for 30 Dor of 271.6 +/- 12.2 km/s from 273 presumed single stars. Employing a 3-sigma criterion we identify nine candidate runaway stars (2.9% of the single stars with radial-velocity estimates). The projected rotational velocities of the candidate runaways appear to be significantly different to those of the full B-type sample, with a strong preference for either large (>345 km/s) or small (<65 km/s) rotational velocities. Of the candidate runaways, VFTS 358 (classified B0.5: V) has the largest differential radial velocity (-106.9 +/- 16.2 km/s), and a preliminary atmospheric analysis finds a significantly enriched nitrogen abundance of 12+log(N/H) > ~8.5. Combined with a large rotational velocity (vsini = 345 +/- 22 km/s), this is suggestive of past binary interaction for this star.
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    ABSTRACT: CAFÉ-BEANS is an on-going survey running on the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto. For more than two years, CAFÉ-BEANS has been collecting high-resolution spectra of early-type stars with the aim of detecting and characterising spectroscopic binaries. The main goal of this project is a thorough characterisation of multiplicity in high-mass stars by detecting all spectroscopic and visual binaries in a large sample of Galactic O-type stars, and solving their orbits. Our final objective is eliminating all biases in the high-mass-star IMF created by undetected binaries.
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    ABSTRACT: We provide a complete characterization of the astrophysical properties of the $\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab,B hierarchical triple system, and an improved set of orbital parameters for the highly eccentric $\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab spectroscopic binary. We compiled a spectroscopic dataset comprising 90 high-resolution spectra covering a total time span of 1963 days. We applied the Lehman-Filh\'es method for a detailed orbital analysis of the radial velocity curves and performed a combined quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the {$\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab,B} system by means of the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND. We used our own plus other available information on photometry and distance to the system for measuring the radii, luminosities, and spectroscopic masses of the three components. We also inferred evolutionary masses and stellar ages using the Bayesian code BONNSAI. The orbital analysis of the new radial velocity curves led to a very accurate orbital solution of the $\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab pair. We provided indirect arguments indicating that $\sigma$ Ori B is a fast rotating early-B dwarf. The FASTWIND+BONNSAI analysis showed that the Aa,Ab pair contains the hottest and most massive components of the triple system while $\sigma$ Ori B is a bit cooler and less massive. The derived stellar ages of the inner pair are intriguingly younger than the one widely accepted for the $\sigma$ Orionis cluster, at 3$\pm$1 Ma. The outcome of this study will be of key importance for a precise determination of the distance to the $\sigma$ Orionis cluster, the interpretation of the strong X-ray emission detected for $\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab,B, and the investigation of the formation and evolution of multiple massive stellar systems and substellar objects.
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    ABSTRACT: TLUSTY non-LTE model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine atmospheric parameters and nitrogen (N) abundances for 34 single and 18 binary B-type supergiants (BSGs). The effects of flux contribution from an unseen secondary were considered for the binary sample. We present the first systematic study of the incidence of binarity for a sample of BSGs across the theoretical terminal age main sequence (TAMS). To account for the distribution of effective temperatures of the BSGs it may be necessary to extend the TAMS to lower temperatures. This is consistent with the derived distribution of mass discrepancies, projected rotational velocities (vsini) and N abundances, provided that stars cooler than this temperature are post RSG objects. For the BSGs in the Tarantula and previous FLAMES surveys, most have small vsini. About 10% have larger vsini (>100 km/s) but surprisingly these show little or no N enhancement. All the cooler BSGs have low vsini of <70km/s and high N abundance estimates, implying that either bi-stability braking or evolution on a blue loop may be important. A lack of cool binaries, possibly reflects the small sample size. Single star evolutionary models, which include rotation, can account for the N enhancement in both the single and binary samples. The detailed distribution of N abundances in the single and binary samples may be different, possibly reflecting differences in their evolutionary history. The first comparative study of single and binary BSGs has revealed that the main sequence may be significantly wider than previously assumed, extending to Teff=20000K. Some marginal differences in single and binary atmospheric parameters and abundances have been identified, possibly implying non-standard evolution for some of the sample. This sample as a whole has implications for several aspects of our understanding of the evolution of BSGs. Full abstract in paper
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Massive stars are extremely important for the chemical evolution of the galaxies; however there are large gaps in our understanding of their properties and formation, mainly because they evolve rapidly, are rare and distant. Recent findings suggest that most O-stars belong to multiple systems. It may well be that almost all massive stars are born as triples or higher multiples, but their large distances require very high angular resolution for a direct detection of the companions at milliarcsecond scales. Aims: Herschel 36 is a young massive system located at 1.3 kpc. It has a combined minimum predicted mass of 45.2 M_sun. Multi-epoch spectroscopic data suggest the existence of three components gravitationally bound. Two of them, system B, are tightly bound in a spectroscopic binary and the third one, component A, orbiting in a wide orbit. Our aim was to image and obtain astrometric and photometric measurements of the component A using, for the first time, long-baseline optical interferometry to further constrain its nature. Methods: We observed Herschel 36 with the near-infrared instrument AMBER attached to the ESO VLT Interferometer, which pro- vides an angular resolution of 2 mas. To perform the interferometric image reconstruction, we used BSMEM. The model fitting to the interferometric observables was done via proprietary routines and LitPro. Results: We imaged the A+B components of Herschel 36 in H and K filters. Component A is located at a projected distance of 1.81 mas, at a position angle of 222 deg. East of North, the flux ratio between components A and B is close to one. The small measured angular separation indicates that the tertiary may be approaching the periastron of its orbit. These results, only achievable with long-baseline near-infrared interferometry, constitute the first step toward a thorough understanding of this massive triple system.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2014; 571:L1. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424901 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    J. Salas, J. Maíz Apellániz, R. H. Barbá
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    ABSTRACT: We have conducted a 1.5 year-long variability study of the stars in the Cygnus OB2 association, the region in the northern hemisphere with the highest density of optically visible massive stars. The survey was conducted using four pointings in the Johnson $R$ and $I$ bands with a 35 cm Meade LX200-ACF telescope equipped with a 3.2 Mpixel SBIG ST10-XME CCD camera and includes 300+ epochs in each filter. A total of 1425 objects were observed with limiting magnitudes of 15 in $R$ and 14 in $I$. The photometry was calibrated using reference stars with existing $UBVJHK$ photometry. Bright stars have precisions better than 0.01 magnitudes, allowing us to detect 52 confirmed and 19 candidate variables, many of them massive stars without previous detections as variables. Variables are classified as eclipsing, pulsating, irregular/long period, and Be. We derive the phased light curves for the eclipsing binaries, with periods ranging from 1.3 to 8.5 days.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a multi-filter HST/WFPC2 UV-optical study of the Hourglass region in M8. We have extracted the stellar photometry of the sources in the area and obtained the separations and position angles of the Herschel 36 multiple system: for Herschel 36 D we detect a possible orbital motion between 1995 and 2009. We have combined our data with archival IUE spectroscopy and measured the Herschel 36 extinction law, obtaining a different result from that of Cardelli et al. (1989) due to the improvement in the quality of the optical-NIR data, in agreement with the results of Ma\'iz Apell\'aniz et al. (2014). A large fraction of the UV flux around Herschel 36 arises from the Hourglass and not directly from the star itself. In the UV the Hourglass appears to act as a reflection nebula located behind Herschel 36 along the line of sight. Finally, we also detect three new Herbig-Haro objects and the possible anisotropic expansion of the Hourglass Nebula.
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    ABSTRACT: In this poster we present three developments related to the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). First, we are making public the first version of MGB, an IDL code that allows the user to compare oberved spectra to a grid of spectroscopic standards to measure spectral types, luminosity classes, rotation indexes, and spectral qualifiers. Second, we present the associated grid of standard stars for the spectral types O2 to O9.7, with several improvements over the original GOSSS grid of Sota et al. (2011). Third, we present a list of egregious classification errors in SIMBAD: stars that are or have been listed there as being of O type but that in reality are late-type stars.
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    J. Maíz Apellániz
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently derived a family of extinction laws for 30 Doradus that provides better fits to the optical photometry of obscured stars in the Galaxy and the LMC. Simultaneously, we are extending our Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS) to fainter, more extinguished stars to obtain accurate spectral types for massive stars with more than 6 magnitudes of $V$-band extinction. I have combined both lines of research with 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer photometry to obtain the 1-10 micron extinction law for O stars in the solar neighborhood. I present these results and compare them with the extinction laws in the same wavelength range derived from late-type stars and H II regions. I also discuss plans to extend the newly derived optical-IR extinction laws to the UV.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of an all-sky survey made with the Fine Guidance Sensor on Hubble Space Telescope to search for angularly resolved binary systems among the massive stars. The sample of 224 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and Luminous Blue Variables, plus a few luminous stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to detection of companions with an angular separation between 0."01 and 1."0 and brighter than $\triangle m = 5$. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets (43 of these are new detections). These numbers yield a companion detection frequency of 29% for the FGS survey. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample, and we present estimates of the frequency of multiple systems and the companion frequency for subsets of stars residing in clusters and associations, field stars, and runaway stars. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction, especially among massive stars in clusters and associations. We show that the period distribution is approximately flat in increments of log P. We identify a number of systems of potential interest for long term orbital determinations, and we note the importance of some of these companions for the interpretation of the radial velocities and light curves of close binaries that have third companions.
    The Astronomical Journal 09/2014; 149(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/149/1/26 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rotation is a key parameter in the evolution of massive stars, affecting their evolution, chemical yields, ionizing photon budget, and final fate. We determined the projected rotational velocity, $v_e\sin i$, of $\sim$330 O-type objects, i.e. $\sim$210 spectroscopic single stars and $\sim$110 primaries in binary systems, in the Tarantula nebula or 30 Doradus (30\,Dor) region. The observations were taken using VLT/FLAMES and constitute the largest homogeneous dataset of multi-epoch spectroscopy of O-type stars currently available. The most distinctive feature of the $v_e\sin i$ distributions of the presumed-single stars and primaries in 30 Dor is a low-velocity peak at around 100\,$\rm{km s^{-1}}$. Stellar winds are not expected to have spun-down the bulk of the stars significantly since their arrival on the main sequence and therefore the peak in the single star sample is likely to represent the outcome of the formation process. Whereas the spin distribution of presumed-single stars shows a well developed tail of stars rotating more rapidly than 300\,$\rm{km s^{-1}}$, the sample of primaries does not feature such a high-velocity tail. The tail of the presumed-single star distribution is attributed for the most part -- and could potentially be completely due -- to spun-up binary products that appear as single stars or that have merged. This would be consistent with the lack of such post-interaction products in the binary sample, that is expected to be dominated by pre-interaction systems. The peak in this distribution is broader and is shifted toward somewhat higher spin rates compared to the distribution of presumed-single stars. Systems displaying large radial velocity variations, typical for short period systems, appear mostly responsible for these differences.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 09/2014; 9(S307). DOI:10.1017/S1743921314006309
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    ABSTRACT: The B fields in OB stars (BOB) survey is an ESO large programme collecting spectropolarimetric observations for a large number of early-type stars in order to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. As of July 2014, a total of 98 objects were observed over 20 nights with FORS2 and HARPSpol. Our preliminary results indicate that the fraction of magnetic OB stars with an organised, detectable field is low. This conclusion, now independently reached by two different surveys, has profound implications for any theoretical model attempting to explain the field formation in these objects. We discuss in this contribution some important issues addressed by our observations (e.g., the lower bound of the field strength) and the discovery of some remarkable objects.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the compact open cluster VdBH 222 is a young massive distant object. We set out to characterise VdBH 222 using a comprehensive set of multi-wavelength observations. We obtained multi-band optical (UBVR) and near-infrared (JHK) photometry of the cluster field, as well as multi-object and long-slit optical spectroscopy for a large sample of stars in the field. We applied classical photometric analysis, as well as more sophisticated methods using the CHORIZOS code, to determine the reddening to the cluster. We then plotted dereddened HR diagrams and determined cluster parameters via isochrone fitting. We have identified a large population of luminous supergiants confirmed as cluster members via radial velocity measurements. We find nine red supergiants (plus one other candidate) and two yellow supergiants. We also identify a large population of OB stars. Ten of them are bright enough to be blue supergiants. The cluster lies behind 7.5 mag of extinction for the preferred value of Rv of 2.9. Isochrone fitting allows for a narrow range of ages between 12 and 16 Ma. The cluster radial velocity is compatible with distances of 6 and 10 kpc. The shorter distance is inconsistent with the age range and Galactic structure. The longer distance implies an age of 12 Ma and a location not far from the position where some Galactic models place the far end of the Galactic Bar. VdBH 222 is a young massive cluster with a likely mass greater than 20000 Msolar . Its population of massive evolved stars is comparable to that of large associations, such as Per OB1. Its location in the inner Galaxy, presumably close to the end of the Galactic bar, adds to the increasing evidence for vigorous star formation in the inner regions of the Milky Way.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2014; 567. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423897 · 4.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

679 Citations
212.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of Surrey
      • Department of Physics
      Guilford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • Centro de Astrobiología
      Torrejon de Ardos, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006–2014
    • Instituto De Astrofisica De Andalucia
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2005–2010
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina