J. Maíz Apellániz

Centro de Astrobiología, Torrejon de Ardos, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (98)211.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: CAF\'E-BEANS is an on-going survey running on the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto. For more than two years, CAF\'E-BEANS has been collecting high-resolution spectra of early-type stars with the aim of detecting and characterising spectroscopic binaries. The main goal of this project is a thorough characterisation of multiplicity in high-mass stars by detecting all spectroscopic and visual binaries in a large sample of Galactic O-type stars, and solving their orbits. Our final objective is eliminating all biases in the high-mass-star IMF created by undetected binaries.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We provide a complete characterization of the astrophysical properties of the $\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab,B hierarchical triple system, and an improved set of orbital parameters for the highly eccentric $\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab spectroscopic binary. We compiled a spectroscopic dataset comprising 90 high-resolution spectra covering a total time span of 1963 days. We applied the Lehman-Filh\'es method for a detailed orbital analysis of the radial velocity curves and performed a combined quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the {$\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab,B} system by means of the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND. We used our own plus other available information on photometry and distance to the system for measuring the radii, luminosities, and spectroscopic masses of the three components. We also inferred evolutionary masses and stellar ages using the Bayesian code BONNSAI. The orbital analysis of the new radial velocity curves led to a very accurate orbital solution of the $\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab pair. We provided indirect arguments indicating that $\sigma$ Ori B is a fast rotating early-B dwarf. The FASTWIND+BONNSAI analysis showed that the Aa,Ab pair contains the hottest and most massive components of the triple system while $\sigma$ Ori B is a bit cooler and less massive. The derived stellar ages of the inner pair are intriguingly younger than the one widely accepted for the $\sigma$ Orionis cluster, at 3$\pm$1 Ma. The outcome of this study will be of key importance for a precise determination of the distance to the $\sigma$ Orionis cluster, the interpretation of the strong X-ray emission detected for $\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab,B, and the investigation of the formation and evolution of multiple massive stellar systems and substellar objects.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: TLUSTY non-LTE model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine atmospheric parameters and nitrogen (N) abundances for 34 single and 18 binary B-type supergiants (BSGs). The effects of flux contribution from an unseen secondary were considered for the binary sample. We present the first systematic study of the incidence of binarity for a sample of BSGs across the theoretical terminal age main sequence (TAMS). To account for the distribution of effective temperatures of the BSGs it may be necessary to extend the TAMS to lower temperatures. This is consistent with the derived distribution of mass discrepancies, projected rotational velocities (vsini) and N abundances, provided that stars cooler than this temperature are post RSG objects. For the BSGs in the Tarantula and previous FLAMES surveys, most have small vsini. About 10% have larger vsini (>100 km/s) but surprisingly these show little or no N enhancement. All the cooler BSGs have low vsini of <70km/s and high N abundance estimates, implying that either bi-stability braking or evolution on a blue loop may be important. A lack of cool binaries, possibly reflects the small sample size. Single star evolutionary models, which include rotation, can account for the N enhancement in both the single and binary samples. The detailed distribution of N abundances in the single and binary samples may be different, possibly reflecting differences in their evolutionary history. The first comparative study of single and binary BSGs has revealed that the main sequence may be significantly wider than previously assumed, extending to Teff=20000K. Some marginal differences in single and binary atmospheric parameters and abundances have been identified, possibly implying non-standard evolution for some of the sample. This sample as a whole has implications for several aspects of our understanding of the evolution of BSGs. Full abstract in paper
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a multi-filter HST/WFPC2 UV-optical study of the Hourglass region in M8. We have extracted the stellar photometry of the sources in the area and obtained the separations and position angles of the Herschel 36 multiple system: for Herschel 36 D we detect a possible orbital motion between 1995 and 2009. We have combined our data with archival IUE spectroscopy and measured the Herschel 36 extinction law, obtaining a different result from that of Cardelli et al. (1989) due to the improvement in the quality of the optical-NIR data, in agreement with the results of Ma\'iz Apell\'aniz et al. (2014). A large fraction of the UV flux around Herschel 36 arises from the Hourglass and not directly from the star itself. In the UV the Hourglass appears to act as a reflection nebula located behind Herschel 36 along the line of sight. Finally, we also detect three new Herbig-Haro objects and the possible anisotropic expansion of the Hourglass Nebula.
    10/2014;
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    J. Salas, J. Maíz Apellániz, R. H. Barbá
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    ABSTRACT: We have conducted a 1.5 year-long variability study of the stars in the Cygnus OB2 association, the region in the northern hemisphere with the highest density of optically visible massive stars. The survey was conducted using four pointings in the Johnson $R$ and $I$ bands with a 35 cm Meade LX200-ACF telescope equipped with a 3.2 Mpixel SBIG ST10-XME CCD camera and includes 300+ epochs in each filter. A total of 1425 objects were observed with limiting magnitudes of 15 in $R$ and 14 in $I$. The photometry was calibrated using reference stars with existing $UBVJHK$ photometry. Bright stars have precisions better than 0.01 magnitudes, allowing us to detect 52 confirmed and 19 candidate variables, many of them massive stars without previous detections as variables. Variables are classified as eclipsing, pulsating, irregular/long period, and Be. We derive the phased light curves for the eclipsing binaries, with periods ranging from 1.3 to 8.5 days.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this poster we present three developments related to the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). First, we are making public the first version of MGB, an IDL code that allows the user to compare oberved spectra to a grid of spectroscopic standards to measure spectral types, luminosity classes, rotation indexes, and spectral qualifiers. Second, we present the associated grid of standard stars for the spectral types O2 to O9.7, with several improvements over the original GOSSS grid of Sota et al. (2011). Third, we present a list of egregious classification errors in SIMBAD: stars that are or have been listed there as being of O type but that in reality are late-type stars.
    10/2014;
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    J. Maíz Apellániz
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently derived a family of extinction laws for 30 Doradus that provides better fits to the optical photometry of obscured stars in the Galaxy and the LMC. Simultaneously, we are extending our Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS) to fainter, more extinguished stars to obtain accurate spectral types for massive stars with more than 6 magnitudes of $V$-band extinction. I have combined both lines of research with 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer photometry to obtain the 1-10 micron extinction law for O stars in the solar neighborhood. I present these results and compare them with the extinction laws in the same wavelength range derived from late-type stars and H II regions. I also discuss plans to extend the newly derived optical-IR extinction laws to the UV.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of an all-sky survey made with the Fine Guidance Sensor on Hubble Space Telescope to search for angularly resolved binary systems among the massive stars. The sample of 224 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and Luminous Blue Variables, plus a few luminous stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to detection of companions with an angular separation between 0."01 and 1."0 and brighter than $\triangle m = 5$. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets (43 of these are new detections). These numbers yield a companion detection frequency of 29% for the FGS survey. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample, and we present estimates of the frequency of multiple systems and the companion frequency for subsets of stars residing in clusters and associations, field stars, and runaway stars. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction, especially among massive stars in clusters and associations. We show that the period distribution is approximately flat in increments of log P. We identify a number of systems of potential interest for long term orbital determinations, and we note the importance of some of these companions for the interpretation of the radial velocities and light curves of close binaries that have third companions.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Massive stars are extremely important for the chemical evolution of the galaxies; however there are large gaps in our understanding of their properties and formation, mainly because they evolve rapidly, are rare and distant. Recent findings suggest that most O-stars belong to multiple systems. It may well be that almost all massive stars are born as triples or higher multiples, but their large distances require very high angular resolution for a direct detection of the companions at milliarcsecond scales. Aims: Herschel 36 is a young massive system located at 1.3 kpc. It has a combined minimum predicted mass of 45.2 M_sun. Multi-epoch spectroscopic data suggest the existence of three components gravitationally bound. Two of them, system B, are tightly bound in a spectroscopic binary and the third one, component A, orbiting in a wide orbit. Our aim was to image and obtain astrometric and photometric measurements of the component A using, for the first time, long-baseline optical interferometry to further constrain its nature. Methods: We observed Herschel 36 with the near-infrared instrument AMBER attached to the ESO VLT Interferometer, which pro- vides an angular resolution of 2 mas. To perform the interferometric image reconstruction, we used BSMEM. The model fitting to the interferometric observables was done via proprietary routines and LitPro. Results: We imaged the A+B components of Herschel 36 in H and K filters. Component A is located at a projected distance of 1.81 mas, at a position angle of 222 deg. East of North, the flux ratio between components A and B is close to one. The small measured angular separation indicates that the tertiary may be approaching the periastron of its orbit. These results, only achievable with long-baseline near-infrared interferometry, constitute the first step toward a thorough understanding of this massive triple system.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Rotation is a key parameter in the evolution of massive stars, affecting their evolution, chemical yields, ionizing photon budget, and final fate. We determined the projected rotational velocity, $v_e\sin i$, of $\sim$330 O-type objects, i.e. $\sim$210 spectroscopic single stars and $\sim$110 primaries in binary systems, in the Tarantula nebula or 30 Doradus (30\,Dor) region. The observations were taken using VLT/FLAMES and constitute the largest homogeneous dataset of multi-epoch spectroscopy of O-type stars currently available. The most distinctive feature of the $v_e\sin i$ distributions of the presumed-single stars and primaries in 30 Dor is a low-velocity peak at around 100\,$\rm{km s^{-1}}$. Stellar winds are not expected to have spun-down the bulk of the stars significantly since their arrival on the main sequence and therefore the peak in the single star sample is likely to represent the outcome of the formation process. Whereas the spin distribution of presumed-single stars shows a well developed tail of stars rotating more rapidly than 300\,$\rm{km s^{-1}}$, the sample of primaries does not feature such a high-velocity tail. The tail of the presumed-single star distribution is attributed for the most part -- and could potentially be completely due -- to spun-up binary products that appear as single stars or that have merged. This would be consistent with the lack of such post-interaction products in the binary sample, that is expected to be dominated by pre-interaction systems. The peak in this distribution is broader and is shifted toward somewhat higher spin rates compared to the distribution of presumed-single stars. Systems displaying large radial velocity variations, typical for short period systems, appear mostly responsible for these differences.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The B fields in OB stars (BOB) survey is an ESO large programme collecting spectropolarimetric observations for a large number of early-type stars in order to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. As of July 2014, a total of 98 objects were observed over 20 nights with FORS2 and HARPSpol. Our preliminary results indicate that the fraction of magnetic OB stars with an organised, detectable field is low. This conclusion, now independently reached by two different surveys, has profound implications for any theoretical model attempting to explain the field formation in these objects. We discuss in this contribution some important issues addressed by our observations (e.g., the lower bound of the field strength) and the discovery of some remarkable objects.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the compact open cluster VdBH 222 is a young massive distant object. We set out to characterise VdBH 222 using a comprehensive set of multi-wavelength observations. We obtained multi-band optical (UBVR) and near-infrared (JHK) photometry of the cluster field, as well as multi-object and long-slit optical spectroscopy for a large sample of stars in the field. We applied classical photometric analysis, as well as more sophisticated methods using the CHORIZOS code, to determine the reddening to the cluster. We then plotted dereddened HR diagrams and determined cluster parameters via isochrone fitting. We have identified a large population of luminous supergiants confirmed as cluster members via radial velocity measurements. We find nine red supergiants (plus one other candidate) and two yellow supergiants. We also identify a large population of OB stars. Ten of them are bright enough to be blue supergiants. The cluster lies behind 7.5 mag of extinction for the preferred value of Rv of 2.9. Isochrone fitting allows for a narrow range of ages between 12 and 16 Ma. The cluster radial velocity is compatible with distances of 6 and 10 kpc. The shorter distance is inconsistent with the age range and Galactic structure. The longer distance implies an age of 12 Ma and a location not far from the position where some Galactic models place the far end of the Galactic Bar. VdBH 222 is a young massive cluster with a likely mass greater than 20000 Msolar . Its population of massive evolved stars is comparable to that of large associations, such as Per OB1. Its location in the inner Galaxy, presumably close to the end of the Galactic bar, adds to the increasing evidence for vigorous star formation in the inner regions of the Milky Way.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the second installment of GOSSS, a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ~ 2500 digital observations from both hemispheres selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC). In this paper we include bright stars and other objects drawn mostly from the first version of GOSC, all of them south of delta = -20 degrees, for a total number of 258 O stars. We also revise the northern sample of paper I to provide the full list of spectroscopically classified Galactic O stars complete to B = 8, bringing the total number of published GOSSS stars to 448. Extensive sequences of exceptional objects are given, including the early Of/WN, O Iafpe, Ofc, ON/OC, Onfp, Of?p, and Oe types, as well as double/triple-lined spectroscopic binaries. The new spectral subtype O9.2 is also discussed. The magnitude and spatial distributions of the observed sample are analyzed. We also present new results from OWN, a multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopic survey coordinated with GOSSS that is assembling the largest sample of Galactic spectroscopic massive binaries ever attained. The OWN data combined with additional information on spectroscopic and visual binaries from the literature indicate that only a very small fraction (if any) of the stars with masses above 15-20 M_Sol are born as single systems. In the future we will publish the rest of the GOSSS survey, which is expected to include over 1000 Galactic O stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2014; 211(1):10-93. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Detailed spectral classifications are presented for 352 O-B0 stars in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey, of which 213 O-type are of sufficient quality for further morphological analysis. Among them, six subcategories of special interest are distinguished. (1) Several new examples of the earliest spectral types O2-O3 have been found. (2) A group of extremely rapidly rotating main-sequence objects has been isolated, including the largest $v\sin i$ values known, the spatial and radial-velocity distributions of which suggest ejection from the two principal ionizing clusters. (3) Several new examples of the evolved, rapidly rotating Onfp class show similar evidence. (4) No fewer than 48 members of the Vz category, hypothesized to be on or near the ZAMS, are found in this sample; in contrast to the rapid rotators, they are strongly concentrated to the ionizing clusters, supporting their interpretation as very young objects, as do their relatively faint absolute magnitudes. (5) A surprisingly large fraction of the main-sequence spectra belong to the recently recognized V((fc)) class, with C III emission lines of similar strength to the usual N III in V((f)) spectra; there are also six objects with very high-quality data but no trace of either mission feature, presenting new challenges to physical interpretations. (6) Five spectra with morphologically enhanced nitrogen lines have been detected. Absolute visual magnitudes have been derived for each star with individual extinction laws, and composite HRDs provide evidence of the multiple generations present in this field. Associations with X-ray sources are noted. Further analyses of this unique dataset underway will provide new insights into the evolution of massive stars and starburst clusters.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The commonly used extinction laws of Cardelli et al. (1989) have limitations that, among other issues, hamper the determination of the effective temperatures of O and early B stars from optical+NIR photometry. Aims: We aim to develop a new family of extinction laws for 30 Doradus, check their general applicability within that region and elsewhere, and apply them to test the feasibility of using optical+NIR photometry to determine the effective temperature of OB stars. Methods: We use spectroscopy and NIR photometry from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey and optical photometry from HST/WFC3 of 30 Doradus and we analyze them with the software code CHORIZOS using different assumptions such as the family of extinction laws. Results: We derive a new family of optical+NIR extinction laws for 30 Doradus and confirm its applicability to extinguished Galactic O-type systems. We conclude that by using the new extinction laws it is possible to measure the effective temperatures of OB stars with moderate uncertainties and only a small bias, at least up to E(4405-5495) ~ 1.5 mag.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze spatially resolved, long-slit ultraviolet (UV) and optical stellar spectra of the compact starburst cluster R136 at the core of 30 Doradus. R136 is young and massive, making it an ideal place to study the upper end of the initial mass function. These spectra, taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, cover over 100 stars in the inner 4 arcseconds (1 parsec) of R136, a region which cannot be resolved with ground-based spectroscopy. In this poster we present both the UV and optical of over 20 of the brightest stars in R136, extracted with MULTISPEC, a tool written specifically for multiple objects in crowded fields. For each star we present an optical spectral type and a terminal wind velocity derived from the UV data
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS. We test the hypothesis of O Vz stars (characterized by having HeII4686 stronger in absorption than other He lines in their blue-violet spectra) being at a younger evolutionary stage than are normal O-type dwarfs. METHODS. We have performed a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 38 O Vz and 46 O V stars, identified by the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We obtained the stellar and wind parameters of both samples using the FASTWIND stellar atmosphere code and the IACOB-GBAT grid-based automatic tool. In the framework of a differential study, we compared the physical and evolutionary properties of both samples, regarding Teff, logg, logQ and logL. We also investigated the predictions of the FASTWIND code about the O Vz phenomenon. RESULTS. We find a differential distribution of objects in terms of effective temperature, with O Vz stars dominant at intermediate values. The O Vz stars in 30 Doradus tend to be younger and less luminous, and they have weaker winds than the O V stars, but we also find examples with ages of 2-4 Myr and with luminosities and winds that are similar to those of normal O dwarfs. Moreover, the O Vz stars do not appear to have higher gravities than the O V stars. In addition to effective temperature and wind strength, our FASTWIND predictions indicate how important it is to take other stellar parameters (gravity and projected rotational velocity) into account for correctly interpreting the O Vz phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS. In general, the O Vz stars appear to be on or very close to the ZAMS, but there are some examples where the Vz classification does not necessarily imply extreme youth. In particular, the presence of O Vz stars in our sample at more evolved phases than expected is likely a consequence of modest O-star winds owing to the low-metallicity environment of the LMC.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: As part of a photometric campaign of Cyg OB2 carried out with an amateur 35 cm telescope, we discovered a brightening of Cyg OB2-4 B (RA=20:32:13.117, dec=+41:27:24.25 J2000). The star maintained approximately constant magnitudes of RJohnson = 11.23 and IJohnson = 10.47 during the 2012 summer campaign. When the campaign resumed in 4 June 2013 the star retained the previous magnitudes but in a few days it started a progressive brightening that reached RJohnson = 10.66 and IJohnson = 9.78 in late August.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 11/2013; 5571:1.
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    ABSTRACT: The 30 Doradus (30\,Dor) region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (also known as the Tarantula Nebula) is the nearest massive starburst region, containing the richest sample of massive stars in the Local Group. It is the best possible laboratory to investigate aspects of the formation and evolution of massive stars. Here, we focus on rotation which is a key parameter in the evolution of these objects. We establish the projected rotational velocity, $v_{e}\sin i$, distribution of an unprecedented sample of 216 radial velocity constant ($\rm{\Delta RV\, \leq\, 20 \,km s^{-1}}$) O-type stars in 30\,Dor observed in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). The distribution of $v_{e}\sin i$ shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 $\rm{km s^{-1}}$ and a high-velocity tail extending up to $\sim$600 $\rm{km s^{-1}}$. Around 75% of the sample has 0 $\leq\, v_{e}\sin i \leq$ 200 $\rm{km s^{-1}}$ with the other 25% distributed in the high-velocity tail. The presence of the low-velocity peak is consistent with that found in other studies of late-O and early-B stars. The high-velocity tail is compatible with expectations from binary interaction synthesis models and may be predominantly populated by post-binary interaction, spun-up, objects and mergers. This may have important implications for the nature of progenitors of long-duration gamma ray bursts.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. Using ground based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to establish the (projected) rotational velocity distribution for a sample of 216 presumably single O-type stars in 30 Doradus (30 Dor). Methods. We measured projected rotational velocities, \vrot, by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied on a set of isolated spectral lines. We also used an iterative deconvolution procedure to infer the probability density, $\rm{P(\veq)}$, of the equatorial rotational velocity, \veq. Results. The distribution of \vrot\ shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 \kms\ and a high-velocity tail extending up to $\sim$600 \kms. This structure is also present in the inferred distribution $\rm{P(\veq)}$ with around 80% of the sample having 0 $<$ \veq\, $\leq\, 300$ \kms\ and the other 20% distributed in the high-velocity region. Conclusions. Most of the stars in our sample rotate with a rate less than 20%\ of their break-up velocity. For the bulk of the sample, mass-loss in a stellar wind and/or envelope expansion is not efficient enough to significantly spin down these stars within the first few Myr of evolution. The presence of a sizeable population of fast rotators is compatible with recent population synthesis computations that investigate the influence of binary evolution on the rotation rate of massive stars. Despite the fact that we have excluded stars that show significant radial velocity variations, our sample may have remained contaminated by post-interaction binary products. The fact that the high-velocity tail may be preferentially (and perhaps even exclusively), populated by post-binary interaction products, has important implications for the evolutionary origin of systems that produce gamma-ray bursts.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

403 Citations
211.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Centro de Astrobiología
      Torrejon de Ardos, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006–2014
    • Instituto De Astrofisica De Andalucia
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2001–2010
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina