Yasuhiko Mukai

Osaka Kyoiku University, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (37)99.19 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Apomixis or asexual seed formation in Hieracium praealtum (Asteraceae) is controlled by two independent dominant loci. One of these, the LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) locus, controls apomixis initiation, mitotic embryo sac formation (apospory) and suppression of the sexual pathway. The LOA locus is found near the end of a hemizygous chromosome surrounded by extensive repeats extending along the chromosome arm. Similar apomixis-carrying chromosome structures have been found in some apomictic grasses, suggesting that the extensive repetitive sequences may be functionally relevant to apomixis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to examine chromosomes of apomeiosis deletion mutants and rare recombinants in the critical LOA region arising from a cross between sexual Hieracium pilosella and apomictic H. praealtum. The combined analyses of aposporous and nonaposporous recombinant progeny and chromosomal karyotypes were used to determine that the functional LOA locus can be genetically separated from the very extensive repeat regions found on the LOA-carrying chromosome. The large-scale repetitive sequences associated with the LOA locus in H. praealtum are not essential for apospory or suppression of sexual megasporogenesis (female meiosis).
    New Phytologist 02/2014; 201(3):973-981. · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Onion can be used in experimental observation of mitotic cell division in plant science because its chromosome is large and easy to observe. However, molecular genetic studies are difficult in onion because of its large genome size, and only limited information of onion genes has been available to date. Here we cloned and characterized an onion homologue of mitotic RAD21 gene, AcRAD21-1, to develop a molecular marker of mitosis. The N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal regions of deduced AcRAD21-1 protein sequence were conserved with Arabidopsis SYN4/AtRAD21.3 and rice OsRAD21-1, whereas three characteristic types of repetitive motifs (Repeat-1, Repeat-2/2', and Repeat-3) were observed between the conserved regions. Such inserted repetitive amino acid sequences enlarge the AcRAD21-1 protein into almost 200 kDa, which belongs to the largest class of plant proteins. Genomic organization of the AcRAD21-1 locus was also determined, and the possibility of tandem exon duplication in Repeat-2 was revealed. Subsequently, the polyclonal antiserum was raised against the N-terminal region of AcRAD21-1, and purified by affinity chromatography. Immunohistochemical analysis with the purified antibody successfully showed localization of AcRAD21-1 in onion mitosis, suggesting that it can be used as a molecular marker visualizing dynamic movement of cohesin.
    Gene 11/2012; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) catalyzes the formation of lachrymatory factor, one of the most distinctive traits of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Therefore, we used LFS as a model for a functional gene in a huge genome, and we examined the chromosomal organization of LFS in A. cepa by multiple approaches. The first-level analysis completed the chromosomal assignment of LFS gene to chromosome 5 of A. cepa via the use of a complete set of A. fistulosum-shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines. Subsequent use of an F(2) mapping population from the interspecific cross A. cepa × A. roylei confirmed the assignment of an LFS locus to this chromosome. Sequence comparison of two BAC clones bearing LFS genes, LFS amplicons from diverse germplasm, and expressed sequences from a doubled haploid line revealed variation consistent with duplicated LFS genes. Furthermore, the BAC-FISH study using the two BAC clones as a probe showed that LFS genes are localized in the proximal region of the long arm of the chromosome. These results suggested that LFS in A. cepa is transcribed from at least two loci and that they are localized on chromosome 5.
    G3-Genes Genomes Genetics 06/2012; 2(6):643-51. · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome evolution is a continuous process and genomic rearrangement occurs both within and between species. With the sequencing of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, comparative genetics and genomics offer new insights into plant biology. The genus Brassica offers excellent opportunities with which to compare genomic synteny so as to reveal genome evolution. During a previous genetic analysis of clubroot resistance in Brassica rapa, we identified a genetic region that is highly collinear with Arabidopsis chromosome 4. This region corresponds to a disease resistance gene cluster in the A. thaliana genome. Relying on synteny with Arabidopsis, we fine-mapped the region and found that the location and order of the markers showed good correspondence with those in Arabidopsis. Microsynteny on a physical map indicated an almost parallel correspondence, with a few rearrangements such as inversions and insertions. The results show that this genomic region of Brassica is conserved extensively with that of Arabidopsis and has potential as a disease resistance gene cluster, although the genera diverged 20 million years ago.
    Breeding Science 06/2012; 62(2):170-7. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the ease with which chromosomes can be observed, the Allium species, and onion in particular, have been familiar materials employed in cytogenetic experiments in biology. In this study, centromeric histone H3 (CENH3)-coding cDNAs were identified in four Allium species (onion, welsh onion, garlic and garlic chives) and cloned. Anti-CENH3 antibody was then raised against a deduced amino acid sequence of CENH3 of welsh onion. The antibody recognized all CENH3 orthologs of the Allium species tested. Immunostaining with the antibody enabled clear visualization of chromosome behavior during mitosis in the species. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) observation of mitotic cell division was achieved by subjecting root sections to immunohistochemical techniques. The 3D dynamics of the cells and position of cell-cycle marker proteins (CENH3 and α-tubulin) were clearly revealed by immunohistochemical staining with the antibodies. The immunohistochemical analysis made it possible to establish an overview of the location of dividing cells in the root tissues. This breakthrough in technique, in addition to the two centromeric DNA sequences isolated from welsh onion by chromatin immuno-precipitation using the antibody, should lead to a better understanding of plant cell division. A phylogenetic analysis of Allium CENH3s together with the previously reported plant CENH3s showed two separate clades for monocot species tested. One clade was made from CENH3s of the Allium species with those of Poaceae species, and the other from CENH3s of a holocentric species (Luzula nivea). These data may imply functional differences of CENH3s between holocentric and monocentric species. Centromeric localization of DNA sequences isolated from welsh onion by chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP) using the antibody was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and ChIP-quantitative PCR.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e51315. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BAC FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization using bacterial artificial chromosome probes) is a useful cytogenetic technique for physical mapping, chromosome marker screening, and comparative genomics. As a large genomic fragment with repetitive sequences is inserted in each BAC clone, random BAC FISH without adding competitive DNA can unveil complex chromosome organization of the repetitive elements in plants. Here we performed the comparative analysis of the random BAC FISH in monocot plants including species having small chromosomes (rice and asparagus) and those having large chromosomes (hexaploid wheat, onion, and spider lily) in order to understand a whole view of the repetitive element organization in Poales and Asparagales monocots. More unique and less dense dispersed signals of BAC FISH were observed in species with smaller chromosomes in both the Poales and Asparagales species. In the case of large-chromosome species, 75-85% of the BAC clones were detected as dispersed repetitive FISH signals along entire chromosomes. The BAC FISH of Lycoris did not even show localized repetitive patterns (e.g., centromeric localization) of signals.
    Plant Cell Reports 11/2011; 31(4):621-8. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) locus is one of two dominant loci known to control apomixis in the eudicot Hieracium praealtum. LOA stimulates the differentiation of somatic aposporous initial cells after the initiation of meiosis in ovules. Aposporous initial cells undergo nuclear proliferation close to sexual megaspores, forming unreduced aposporous embryo sacs, and the sexual program ceases. LOA-linked genetic markers were used to isolate 1.2 Mb of LOA-associated DNAs from H. praealtum. Physical mapping defined the genomic region essential for LOA function between two markers, flanking 400 kb of identified sequence and central unknown sequences. Cytogenetic and sequence analyses revealed that the LOA locus is located on a single chromosome near the tip of the long arm and surrounded by extensive, abundant complex repeat and transposon sequences. Chromosomal features and LOA-linked markers are conserved in aposporous Hieracium caespitosum and Hieracium piloselloides but absent in sexual Hieracium pilosella. Their absence in apomictic Hieracium aurantiacum suggests that meiotic avoidance may have evolved independently in aposporous subgenus Pilosella species. The structure of the hemizygous chromosomal region containing the LOA locus in the three Hieracium subgenus Pilosella species resembles that of the hemizygous apospory-specific genomic regions in monocot Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris. Analyses of partial DNA sequences at these loci show no obvious conservation, indicating that they are unlikely to share a common ancestral origin. This suggests convergent evolution of repeat-rich hemizygous chromosomal regions containing apospory loci in these monocot and eudicot species, which may be required for the function and maintenance of the trait.
    Plant physiology 09/2011; 157(3):1327-41. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Grain hardness of wheat is determined by the hardness (Ha)-locus region, which contains three friabilin-related genes: puroindoline-a (Pina), puroindoline-b (Pinb) and GSP-1. In our previous study, we produced the transgenic rice plants harboring the large genomic fragment of the Ha-locus region of Aegilops tauschii containing Pina and GSP-1 genes by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. To examine the effects of the transgenes in the rice endosperms, we firstly confirmed the homozygosity of the T-DNAs in four independent T2 lines by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA gel blot analyses. The transgenes, Pina and GSP-1, were stably expressed in endosperms of the T3 and T4 seeds at RNA and protein levels, indicating that the promoters and other regulatory elements on the wheat Ha-locus region function in rice, and that multigene transformation using a large genomic fragment is a useful strategy. The functional contribution of the transgene-derived friabilins to the rice endosperm structure was considered as an increase of spaces between compound starch granules, resulting in a high proportion of white turbidity seeds.
    Plant Cell Reports 08/2011; 30(12):2293-301. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asexual seed formation, or apomixis, in the Hieracium subgenus Pilosella is controlled by two dominant independent genetic loci, LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP). We examined apomixis mutants that had lost function in one or both loci to establish their developmental roles during seed formation. In apomicts, sexual reproduction is initiated first. Somatic aposporous initial (AI) cells differentiate near meiotic cells, and the sexual pathway is terminated as AI cells undergo mitotic embryo sac formation. Seed initiation is fertilization-independent. Using a partially penetrant cytotoxic reporter to inhibit meioisis, we showed that developmental events leading to the completion of meiotic tetrad formation are required for AI cell formation. Sexual initiation may therefore stimulate activity of the LOA locus, which was found to be required for AI cell formation and subsequent suppression of the sexual pathway. AI cells undergo nuclear division to form embryo sacs, in which LOP functions gametophytically to stimulate fertilization-independent embryo and endosperm formation. Loss of function in either locus results in partial reversion to sexual reproduction, and loss of function in both loci results in total reversion to sexual reproduction. Therefore, in these apomicts, sexual reproduction is the default reproductive mode upon which apomixis is superimposed. These loci are unlikely to encode genes essential for sexual reproduction, but may function to recruit the sexual machinery at specific time points to enable apomixis.
    The Plant Journal 03/2011; 66(5):890-902. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endosperm texture is an important factor governing the end-product quality of cereals. The texture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endosperm is controlled by puroindoline a and b genes which are both absent in rice (Oryza sativa L.). It has been reported that the endosperm texture of rice can be modified by puroindoline genes. The mechanism, however, by which puroindolines affect the ultrastructure of rice endosperm cells remains to be investigated. In this study, we observed the ultrastructure of endosperm cells and the morphology of isolated starch granules of the transgenic rice expressing the puroindoline b gene. SEM and TEM observations indicated that compound starch granules were embedded within the matrix material in non-transgenic rice, Nipponbare, whereas they were surrounded by spaces in the transgenic rice. The morphology and size of each starch granule were not different between non-transgenic and the transgenic rice. However, the transgenic rice flour showed smaller particle size, higher starch damage, and lower viscosity during gelatinization than that of non-transgenic rice. These results confirm that puroindoline b reduces the grain hardness in rice. Moreover, the results also suggest that puroindoline b functions at the surface of compound starch granules, and not on polygonal starch granules in rice endosperm.
    Journal of Cereal Science - J CEREAL SCI. 01/2010; 51(2):182-188.
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    ABSTRACT: Onion, Allium cepa, is a model plant for experimental observation of somatic cell division, whose mitotic chromosome is extremely large, and contains the characteristic terminal heterochromatin. Epigenetic status of the onion chromosome is a matter of deep interest from a molecular cytogenetic point of view, because epigenetic marks regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Here we examined chromosomal distribution of DNA methylation and histone modification in A. cepa in order to reveal the chromatin structure in detail. Immunodetection of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and in situ nick-translation analysis showed that onion genomic DNA was highly methylated, and the methylated CG dinucleotides were distributed in entire chromosomes. In addition, distributions of histone methylation codes, which occur in close association with DNA methylation, were similar to those of other large genome species. From these results, a highly heterochromatic and less euchromatic state of large onion chromosomes were demonstrated at an epigenetic level.
    Genes & Genetic Systems 01/2010; 85(6):377-82. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transformation with large DNA molecules enables multiple genes to be introduced into plants simultaneously to produce transgenic plants with complex phenotypes. In this study, a large DNA fragment (ca. 100 kb) containing a set of Aegilops tauschii hardness genes was introduced into rice plants using a novel transformation method, called bioactive beads-mediated transformation. Nine transgenic rice plants were obtained and the presence of transgenes in the rice genome was confirmed by PCR and FISH analyses. The results suggested that multiple transgenes were successfully integrated in all transgenic plants. The expression of one of the transgenes, puroindoline b, was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels in the T(2) generation. Our study clearly demonstrates that the bioactive bead method is capable of producing transgenic rice plants carrying large DNA fragments. This method will facilitate the production of useful transgenic plants by introducing multiple genes simultaneously.
    Plant Cell Reports 03/2009; 28(5):759-68. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Haploid induction of wheat by crossing with Imperata cylindrica pollen is an efficient method for doubled haploid breeding. We investigated the process of wheat haploid formation after crossing with I. cylindrica. Our cytological observations of zygotes showed the successful fertilization of parental gametes. Wheat haploids were formed by complete elimination of I. cylindrica chromosomes. Missegregation of I. cylindrica chromosomes was observed in the first cell division of zygote. At metaphase I. cylindrica chromosomes did not congress onto the equatorial plate. The sister chromosomes did not move toward the poles during anaphase, though their cohesion was released normally. I. cylindrica chromosomes were still in the cytoplasm at telophase and eliminated from daughter nuclei. After two-celled stage, we could find no I. cylindrica chromosome in the nuclei but micronuclei containing I. cylindrica chromatin in the cytoplasm. These observations indicate that I. cylindrica chromosomes are completely eliminated from nuclei in the first cell division probably due to lack of functional kinetochores.
    Genes & Genetic Systems 07/2007; 82(3):241-8. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of maize starch branching enzyme mutants suggest that the amylose extender high amylose starch phenotype is a consequence of the lack of expression of the predominant starch branching enzyme II isoform expressed in the endosperm, SBEIIb. However, in wheat, the ratio of SBEIIb and SBEIIa expression are inversely related to the expression levels observed in maize and rice. Analysis of RNA at 15 days post anthesis suggests that there are about 4-fold more RNA for SBE IIa than for SBE IIb. The genes for SBE IIa and SBE IIb from wheat are distinguished in the size of the first three exons, allowing isoform-specific antibodies to be produced. These antibodies were used to demonstrate that in the soluble fraction, the amount of SBE IIa protein is two to three fold higher than SBIIb, whereas in the starch granule, there is two to three fold more SBE IIb protein amount than SBE IIa. In a further difference to maize and rice, the genes for SBE IIa and SBE IIb are both located on the long arm of chromosome 2 in wheat, in a position not expected from rice-maize-wheat synteny.
    Planta 12/2005; 222(5):899-909. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction of large-DNA fragments into cereals by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a useful technique for map-based cloning and molecular breeding. However, little is known about the organization and stability of large fragments of foreign DNA introduced into plant genomes. In this study, we produced transgenic rice plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with a large-insert T-DNA containing a 92-kb region of the wheat genome. The structures of the T-DNA in four independent transgenic lines were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization on extended DNA fibers (fiber FISH). By using this cytogenetic technique, we showed that rearrangements of the large-insert T-DNA, involving duplication, deletion and insertion, had occurred in all four lines. Deletion of long stretches of the large-insert DNA was also observed in Agrobacterium.
    Molecular and General Genetics 05/2005; 273(2):123-9. · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • M Yamamoto, Y Mukai
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    ABSTRACT: High-resolution mapping of secalin-1 (Sec-1) locus has been performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization to extended DNA fibers of rye (Secale cereale, 2n = 14), employing DNA probes of lambda phage clones containing the omega-secalin gene. The fluorescent signals to rye extended DNA fibers revealed continuous strings of 45 microm, corresponding to the size of 147 kb DNA. To determine the copy number of Sec-1 locus on DNA fibers, a 1.2-kb fragment including the entire coding region of the omega-secalin gene and a 1.0-kb fragment of the promoter region were amplified by PCR as probes for another fiber FISH. The physical position of these sequences was visualized as alternating fluorescent spots by multicolor in situ hybridization. Alternating signals of two DNA probes reflected the tandem repeated organization of the Sec-1 locus having 15 copies of the gene. The present findings based on fiber FISH analysis support the contention that the omega-secalin genes are arranged in a head-to-tail fashion separated by 8 kb of spacer sequences with a total length of 145 kb.
    Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2005; 109(1-3):79-82. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the role of isoamylase1 (ISA1) in amylopectin biosynthesis in plants, a genomic DNA fragment from Aegilops tauschii was introduced into the ISA1-deficient rice (Oryza sativa) sugary-1 mutant line EM914, in which endosperm starch is completely replaced by phytoglycogen. A. tauschii is the D genome donor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), and the introduced fragment effectively included the gene for ISA1 for wheat (TaISA1) that was encoded on the D genome. In TaISA1-expressing rice endosperm, phytoglycogen synthesis was substantially replaced by starch synthesis, leaving only residual levels of phytoglycogen. The levels of residual phytoglycogen present were inversely proportional to the expression level of the TaISA1 protein, although the level of pullulanase that had been reduced in EM914 was restored to the same level as that in the wild type. Small but significant differences were found in the amylopectin chain-length distribution, gelatinization temperatures, and A-type x-ray diffraction patterns of the starches from lines expressing TaISA1 when compared with wild-type rice starch, although in the first two parameters, the effect was proportional to the expression level of TaISA. The impact of expression levels of ISA1 on starch structure and properties provides support for the view that ISA1 is directly involved in the synthesis of amylopectin.
    Plant physiology 02/2005; 137(1):43-56. · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • Geum Sook Do, Go Suzuki, Yasuhiko Mukai
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    ABSTRACT: Alliinase operates in the biochemical pathway that produces the compounds responsible for the characteristic flavor of onion. We isolated and characterized the 86-kb BAC clone containing a novel onion alliinase gene, ALL1. Identity of deduced amino acid sequence of ALL1 with a bulb alliinase is 65.4% and with a root alliinase is 67.3%. The ALL1 gene is expressed specifically in onion roots and estimated pI value of mature ALL1 protein is similar to that of root alliinase isoform I, which is an uncharacterized protein having alliinase activity. The highly repetitive sequences around the ALL1 gene was observed from sequence and DNA gel blot analyses. The 33.2% G+C content of the 35-kb ALL1 region is similar to that of dicot plants and lower than that of monocot cereal plants, although onion is classified into monocots. The present study shows the first evidence of the onion genomic sequences around genes differed from the cereal genome.
    Gene 02/2004; 325:17-24. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-incompatibility (SI) in Ipomoea trifida is regulated by a single S locus with multiple alleles. Identification of SI genes in the S -locus region by positional cloning is one of the most important goals for understanding sexual reproduction in this species. Despite our intensive efforts to construct bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs covering the S -locus region, a gap was observed in the core region of the potential S locus. In order to confirm the physical linkage of two non-overlapping BAC contigs in the S -locus region and to determine the size of the gap between them, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on mitotic chromosomes and extended DNA fibres using previously isolated S -linked BAC clones as probes. The information obtained from this work would be useful for molecular cloning of the SI genes by a chromosome walking approach. In addition, we showed that strong suppression of recombination in the S locus was not related to the centromere because the S locus was mapped to one end of a chromosome.
    Chromosome Research 02/2004; 12(5):475-81. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diploid Ipomoea trifida is an ancestral wild species of the cultivated hexaploid sweet potato, and displays a sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) that is controlled by a single multiallelic S-locus. To characterize the genomic region of the S-locus using a map-based cloning method, a BAC library consisting of approximately 40,000 clones was constructed from genomic DNA of S_1-homozygote, and screened using S-linked DNA markers which were mapped in our previous study. We constructed a contig covering the S-locus region with additional screening of fosmid and λ phase libraries. RFLP analysis of recombinant plants using terminal end sequences of the BAC clones as probes indicated that the S-locus region was delimited within a map distance of 0.57 cM, spanning approximately 300 kb in physical distance. Remarkable suppression of genetic recombination was detected in the S-locus region. From sequence analysis of the 313-kp region, 43 ORFs, many repetitive sequences and 5 transposable elements were predicted. None of the ORFs, however, showed a high homology with the SI genes reported to date at the S-locus of other plant families, suggesting that a unique molecular mechanism is involved in the SI system of the Convolvulaceae family.
    01/2004;

Publication Stats

476 Citations
99.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2012
    • Osaka Kyoiku University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2005
    • Kansai University of Welfare Sciences
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2003
    • Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
      Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2001
    • Kyungpook National University
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 1997
    • Australian National University
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia